|Full name||Olga Valentinovna Korbut|
|Nickname(s)||Sparrow from Minsk|
|Country represented||Soviet Union|
|Born||16 May 1955|
Hrodna, Byelorussian SSR, Soviet Union
|Height||4 ft 11 in (150 cm)|
|Weight||84 lb; 38 kg (6 st)|
|Discipline||Women's artistic gymnastics|
|Club||Soviet Army Grodno|
|Head coach(es)||Renald Knysh|
|Eponymous skills||Korbut flip|
Olga Valentinovna Korbut[nb 1] (born 16 May 1955) is a former gymnast who competed for the Soviet Union. Nicknamed the "Sparrow from Minsk", she won four gold medals and two silver medals at the Summer Olympic Games, in which she competed in 1972 and 1976 for the Soviet team, and was the inaugural inductee to the International Gymnastics Hall of Fame in 1988.
Korbut retired from gymnastics in 1977 at the age of 22, considered young for gymnasts of the period, but her influence and legacy in gymnastics was far reaching. Korbut's 1972 Olympic performances are widely credited as redefining gymnastics, changing the sport from emphasising ballet and elegance to acrobatics as well as changing gymnastics from a niche sport to one of the most popular sports in the world. She immigrated in 1991 to, and now lives in, the United States.
Korbut was born in Grodno to Valentin and Valentina Korbut. After World War II, the family moved to Grodno from Dubniaki (small town near Kalinkavichy). She started training at age 8, and entered a Belarusian sports school headed by coach Renald Knysh at age 9. There, Korbut's first trainer was Elena Volchetskaya, an Olympic gold medalist (1964), but she was moved to Knysh's group a year later. Initially he found her "lazy and capricious" but he also saw potential in her great talent, unusually supple spine, and charisma. With him, she learned a difficult backward somersault on the balance beam. She debuted this at a competition in the USSR in 1969. The same year, Korbut completed a backflip-to-catch on the uneven bars; this was the first backward release move ever performed by a woman on bars.
She finished fifth at her first competition in the 1969 USSR championships, where she was allowed to compete as a 14-year-old. The next year, she won a gold medal in the vault. Due to illness and injury, she was unable to compete in many of the competitions before the 1972 Summer Olympics.
At the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, Korbut's acrobatics and open high-level gymnastics brought her much fame. To this day, the back tuck and Korbut flip are still very popular (2003 world beam champion Fan Ye performed both in her routine).
During the Olympics, Korbut was one of the favorites for the all-around after her dynamic performance in the team competition, however she missed her mount on bars three times and the title went to teammate Ludmilla Tourischeva. That said, Korbut won three gold medals for the balance beam, floor exercise, and team competitions. In one of the most controversial finishes of all time, she took a silver medal in the uneven bars. Korbut's first attempt at her uneven bars routine was marred by several mistakes which all but ended her chances of winning a gold medal in the all-around. The next day, Korbut repeated the same routine in the event finals, although this time successfully. After the boards displayed a score of 9.8, the audience began to whistle and shout vulgar remarks at the judges in disapproval, believing her score to be too low. This carried on for several minutes but the judges refused to change their score.
"When Olga Korbut captured the world's imagination on her way to three gold medals at the 1972 Olympic Games in Munich, she pioneered the essence of modern gymnastics: enchanting artistry married seamlessly with breathtaking, daring acrobatics."
–The Herald, 2015
Korbut is most famous for her uneven bars and balance beam routines, as well as her charismatic performances that captivated audiences. In 1973, she won the Russian and World Student (i.e., University) Games, and a silver medal in the all-around at the European Championships.
At the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal, Soviet coaches and officials had designated Korbut as the woman who could beat the Romanian prodigy, Nadia Comăneci, but Korbut was injured and her performances in the games were sub-par. She was overshadowed not only by Comăneci, but also by her own teammate Nellie Kim. She did collect a team gold medal, and an individual silver medal for the balance beam.
Retirement and life after the Olympics
Korbut graduated from the Grodno Pedagogical Institute in 1977, became a teacher, and retired from gymnastic competition thereafter. She married Leonid Bortkevich, who was a member of Belarusian folk band Pesniary. The couple had a son, Richard, born in 1979. In 1988 Korbut became the first gymnast to be inducted into the International Gymnastics Hall of Fame.
In 1991, she and her family immigrated to the United States, because they were worried about the effects of fallout from the Chernobyl disaster on Belarus. They settled in New Jersey, where she taught gymnastics. They moved to Georgia, USA two years later where she continued to coach. Korbut and Bortkevich divorced in 2000; she became a naturalized U.S. citizen the same year. In 2002 Korbut moved to Scottsdale, Arizona, to become head coach at Scottsdale Gymnastics and Cheerleading. Korbut faced Darva Conger on an episode of Celebrity Boxing which aired on 22 May 2002. Conger won by unanimous decision. She now works with private gymnastics pupils and does motivational speaking.
Korbut travelled to London for the 2012 Summer Olympics. She watched the gymnastics competitions in the North Greenwich Arena, providing commentary by way of Twitter and Facebook. During the Olympics the Royal Opera House hosted an exhibit it created with the Olympic Museum in Lausanne, Switzerland, titled The Olympic Journey, The Story of the Games. As well as historical artifacts, the exhibit featured the personal stories of 16 Olympic medallists, including Korbut. Korbut celebrated the 40th anniversary of her Olympic victories with an appearance at the exhibition on 3 August. She said "I didn't even expect this. I am so honored to be here."
In 2017, Korbut sold her 1972 and 1976 Olympic medals amongst 32 lots (including two golds and a silver from the Munich Olympics) which fetched $333,500 at Heritage Auctions.
In 1999, she spoke out about alleged sexual assault and rape she suffered at the hands of her coach, Renald Knysh, which he denied. Korbut stated, "The truth was that many of the gymnasts were not just sport machines but sexual slaves to their trainer. We were not just potential gymnasts but future concubines for himself." Later in 2018, Korbut appeared in a TV show in which she again spoke out about several incidents in which she alleged that her coach sexually assaulted her. As a result of Korbut speaking out publicly, several other gymnasts who had also trained under Knysh spoke of similar incidents to Korbut's allegations.
Korbut, who has won four Olympic gold medals, is best known for her move, the Korbut flip, a backflip performed on the uneven parallel bars, starting from a standing position on the high bar and then catching the same bar from below on the under swing. She also achieved the flip on the 4" balance bar onto the straddle position and later the flip landing on her feet. Named after Korbut since she was the first to perform the skill at an international competition in 1972, the move has since been made illegal in the Olympic Code of Points.
After the 1972 Olympic competition, she also met United States President Richard Nixon at the White House. About the meeting, Korbut said: "He told me that my performance in Munich did more for reducing the political tension during the Cold War between our two countries than the embassies were able to do in five years." In addition to greatly publicizing gymnastics worldwide, she also contributed to a marked change in the tenor of the sport itself. Prior to 1972, the athletes were generally older and the focus was on elegance rather than acrobatics. In the decade after Korbut's Olympic debut, the emphasis was reversed. Korbut, in her 1972, gold-medal Olympics, at 4 ft 11 in (1.50 m) and 82 pounds (37 kg), exemplified the deliberate and purposeful trend toward smaller women in the sport.
Her 1972 Olympic achievement earned her the BBC Overseas Sports Personality of the Year and ABC's Wide World of Sports title of Athlete of the Year. In a UK poll conducted by Channel 4 in 2002 the public voted "Olga Korbut charms the world" No.46 in the list of the 100 Greatest Sporting Moments.
With her display of artistry and grace Korbut brought unprecedented popularity to the sport in the early to mid-1970s, attributes which are now seen as a lost art in gymnastics with athleticism taking precedence.
- Vault: Handspring forward with a full twist onto the table with a full twist off, no saltos (4.0); and Handspring forward with a full twist onto the table with no twists or saltos off (3.60).
- Uneven Bars: Arched layout backflip from standing on top of the high bar to regrasp the same bar; and Back Layout Dismount from standing on top of the high bar to past the low bar (both no longer in the Code of Points).
- Balance Beam: Back handspring to swing down to cross straddle sit (B); Back Tuck Salto (C- although not named after her, first to perform it); and Front Tuck Salto Dismount (A- not named after her, first to perform).
- Floor: Back Layout to Chest Position (A).
In popular culture
In a Peanuts comic strip published on 15 May 1973, the character Snoopy is seen doing balance beam positions with flawless precision on top of his doghouse for three panels until coming to a rest in the fourth one saying: "Olga Korbut has been bugging me for lessons!"
In X-Men #99 (June 1976), Nightcrawler makes a slight reference to Korbut's gymnastic skills in comparison to his own, to which Colossus, a fellow Soviet, admonishes him for it.
|1967||Junior USSR Championships|
|1969||Junior Friendship Tournament (Druzhba)||4|
|Junior Friendship Tournament (Druzhba)||4|
|GDR-USSR Dual Meet|
|JPN-USSR Dual Meet|
|USSR-TCH Dual Meet|
|Munich Olympic Games||7||5|
|London European Championships|
|Moscow Summer Universiade|
|Varna World Championships|
|1976||Cup of the White Russian Republic|
|Montreal Olympic Games||5||5|
- List of people from Belarus
- List of multiple Olympic gold medalists at a single Games
- List of top Olympic gymnastics medalists
- List of Olympic female gymnasts for the Soviet Union
- ^ Belarusian: Во́льга Валянці́наўна Ко́рбут, Volha Valancinaŭna Korbut; Russian: Ольга Валентиновна Корбут
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- ^ a b c d e f g h i Doyle, Paul (6 July 2012). "50 stunning Olympic moments No47: Olga Korbut redefines gymnastics". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 5 August 2017. Retrieved 17 December 2016.
- ^ a b c McCarthy, Brigid (24 July 2012). "40 Years Ago, Soviet Gymnast Olga Korbut Dazzled the World". PRI's The World (Radio broadcast). Archived from the original on 5 August 2017. Retrieved 23 January 2014.
- ^ a b c d "Lost art: Powerhouse physiques winning out over spellbinding grace". Herald Scotland. Archived from the original on 4 October 2022. Retrieved 8 January 2022.
Unlike Nadia Comaneci and Olga Korbut, modern gymnasts such as Simone Biles are rewarded for their athleticism more than their artistry... the spellbinding artistry that not only gave the sport its name, but brought it global fame.
- ^ "Варатын |". www.knews.by (in Russian). Archived from the original on 15 October 2017. Retrieved 15 October 2017.
- ^ Olga Korbut Uneven Bars with Korbut Flip slow motion replay (1972 Olympics), archived from the original on 28 February 2017, retrieved 25 January 2023
- ^ "Olga Korbut". International Gymnastics Hall of Fame. Archived from the original on 4 August 2012. Retrieved 14 May 2012.
- ^ Longman, Jere (24 April 1991). "Olga Korbut, Now A Fearful Mother, Is Enlisting Aid For Chernobyl Victims". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Archived from the original on 19 April 2016. Retrieved 23 July 2013.
- ^ a b c Tennent, Callum (6 August 2012). "Olga Korbut: 'The Sparrow from Minsk' who changed gymnastics". CNN. Archived from the original on 5 August 2017. Retrieved 22 July 2013.
- ^ Helene Elliot. "Taking a Tumble". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 18 April 2015. Retrieved 15 January 2015.
- ^ Ольга КОРБУТ: "Хотя я имею американское гражданство, душа у меня все равно осталась белорусской». novosti24.by (27 November 2012)
- ^ Olga Korbut Today Archived 19 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Olgakorbut.com (31 April 2012). Retrieved on 2020-07-18.
- ^ Davis, Kristina (15 November 2002). "A party for Olga's Kids. Korbut's program funds classes for children". Arizona Republic.
- ^ Sagert, Kelly Boyer; Overman, Steven J. (2006). Icons of Women's Sport. Greenwood. p. 320. ISBN 0313385483.
- ^ Smith, Christine (23 July 2012). "Olga Korbut: Golden girl of the 1972 Olympics looks back on her glory days". The Daily Express. Archived from the original on 18 January 2014. Retrieved 23 July 2013.
- ^ "The Olympic Journey – Discover". Royal Opera House. Archived from the original on 9 March 2014. Retrieved 31 July 2013.
- ^ Butler, Lottie (1 August 2012). "Legendary Olympic gymnast Olga Korbut at ROH: Olympic hero to meet visitors at The Olympic Journey". Royal Opera House. Archived from the original on 15 November 2020. Retrieved 31 July 2013.
- ^ Korbut, Olga (3 August 2012). "Olga Korbut's Olympic Journey" (Video) (Interview). Interviewed by Glen Levy. Time.com. Archived from the original on 26 July 2022. Retrieved 22 July 2013.
- ^ Archived at Ghostarchive and the Wayback Machine: Olga Korbut (8 December 2017), OLGA KORBUT Trans World Sport, retrieved 26 March 2018
- ^ Советская гимнастка Корбут продала олимпийские медали с аукциона на общую сумму $230 тыс. Archived 28 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine tass.ru (27 February 2017)
- ^ "Former Soviet gymnast Olga Korbut sells Olympic medals to 'save her from hunger'". Fox Sports. 28 February 2017. Archived from the original on 1 March 2017. Retrieved 28 February 2017.
- ^ Siemaszko, Corky. "Former Soviet Gymnast Olga Korbut Says Goodbye to Her Medals". nbcnews.com. NBC News. Archived from the original on 3 May 2021. Retrieved 2 April 2017.
- ^ "In the Flesh at the Heart of Empire: Life-Likeness in Wax Representations of the 1762 Cherokee Delegation in London | Issue 21 - November 2021 | Issues | British Art Studies". dx.doi.org. doi:10.17658/issn.2058-5462/issue-21/irecco/p2. Archived from the original on 16 March 2023. Retrieved 24 February 2023.
- ^ "#MeToo In Belarus: Ex-Teammates Bolster Korbut's Sexual-Assault Charges Against Coach". Radio Free Europe. 16 May 2018. Archived from the original on 28 March 2021. Retrieved 16 May 2018.
- ^ Cousineau, Phil (2003). The Olympic Odyssey: Rekindling the True Spirit of the Great Games. Quest Books. p. 159. ISBN 0835608336.
- ^ Howell, Colin D. (2001). Blood, Sweat, and Cheers: Sport and the Making of Modern Canada. University of Toronto Press, Scholarly Publishing Division. p. 122. ISBN 0802082483.
- ^ "Wide World of Sports Athletes of the Year". ESPN. Archived from the original on 26 November 2021. Retrieved 24 October 2021.
- ^ "100 Greatest Sporting Moments – Results". London: Channel 4. 2002. Archived from the original on 4 February 2002. Retrieved 8 August 2019.
- ^ "Head over heels". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 8 January 2023. Retrieved 8 January 2022.
In the early to mid-70s, with ambassadors like Korbut and Comaneci, gymnastics was at its popular peak.
- ^ Banned Skills: The Forbidden Club Archived 7 August 2020 at the Wayback Machine. YouTube (6 October 2018). Retrieved on 2020-07-18.
- ^ "GoComics.com Peanuts webpage – May 15, 1973 strip". Archived from the original on 15 August 2018. Retrieved 15 August 2018.
- ^ X-Men #99 (June 1976), Marvel Comics
- ^ "Olga Korbut (USSR)". Gymn Forum. 26 February 2020. Archived from the original on 3 February 2022. Retrieved 25 July 2022.
- Korbut, Olga; Ellen Emerson-White (1992). My Story: The Autobiography of Olga Korbut. Random House. ISBN 978-0-7126-5495-1.
- Olga Korbut- Biography.com
- Olga Korbut at Olympics.com
- Olga Korbut at Olympic.org (archived)
- Olga Korbut at Olympedia
- Incredible Performance From Olga Korbut 'Darling Of Munich' – Munich 1972 Olympics – The Olympic Channel
- Gymnast Olga Korbut charms the World – Faster, Higher, Stronger – BBC Two – BBC
- 1955 births
- Living people
- Sportspeople from Grodno
- Soviet female artistic gymnasts
- Belarusian female artistic gymnasts
- Olympic gold medalists for the Soviet Union
- Olympic silver medalists for the Soviet Union
- Olympic gymnasts for the Soviet Union
- Olympic medalists in gymnastics
- Gymnasts at the 1972 Summer Olympics
- Gymnasts at the 1976 Summer Olympics
- Medalists at the 1972 Summer Olympics
- Medalists at the 1976 Summer Olympics
- Medalists at the World Artistic Gymnastics Championships
- Originators of elements in artistic gymnastics
- Belarusian emigrants to the United States
- Universiade medalists in gymnastics
- Naturalized citizens of the United States
- BBC Sports Personality World Sport Star of the Year winners
- FISU World University Games gold medalists for the Soviet Union
- Universiade bronze medalists for the Soviet Union
- Medalists at the 1973 Summer Universiade