Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigate
The frigates Oliver Hazard Perry, Antrim and Jack Williams in 1982
|Name:||Oliver Hazard Perry class|
|Preceded by:||Brooke class|
|In commission:||1977– present|
|Type:||Guided missile frigate|
|Displacement:||4,100 long tons (4,200 t) full load|
|Beam:||45 ft (14 m)|
|Draft:||22 ft (6.7 m)|
|Speed:||over 29 knots (54 km/h)|
|Range:||4,500 nmi (8,300 km; 5,200 mi) at 20 knots (37 km/h; 23 mph)|
|Sensors and |
|Electronic warfare |
|Aircraft carried:||Two LAMPS multi-purpose helicopters (the SH-2 Seasprite LAMPS I on the short-hulled ships or the SH-60 Seahawk LAMPS III on the long-hulled ships)|
The Oliver Hazard Perry class is a class of guided missile frigates named after the U.S. Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry, the hero of the naval Battle of Lake Erie. Also known as the Perry or FFG-7 (commonly "fig seven") class, the warships were designed in the United States in the mid-1970s as general-purpose escort vessels inexpensive enough to be bought in large quantities to replace World War II-era destroyers and complement 1960s-era Knox-class frigates. In Admiral Elmo Zumwalt's "high low fleet plan", the FFG-7s were the low capability ships with the Spruance-class destroyers serving as the high capability ships. Intended to protect amphibious landing forces, supply and replenishment groups, and merchant convoys from aircraft and submarines, they were also later part of battleship-centred surface action groups and aircraft carrier battle groups/strike groups. Fifty-five ships were built in the United States: 51 for the United States Navy and four for the Royal Australian Navy (RAN). In addition, eight were built in Taiwan, six in Spain, and two in Australia for their navies. Former U.S. Navy warships of this class have been sold or donated to the navies of Bahrain, Egypt, Poland, Pakistan, Taiwan and Turkey.
The first of the 51 U.S. Navy built Oliver Hazard Perry frigates entered into service in 1977, and the last remaining in active service, USS Simpson, was decommissioned on 29 September 2015. The retired vessels were either mothballed or transferred to other navies for continued service. Some of the U.S. Navy's frigates, such as USS Duncan (14.6 years in service) had fairly short careers, while a few lasted as long as 30+ years in active U.S. service, with some lasting even longer after being sold or donated to other navies.
- 1 Design and construction
- 2 Notable combat actions
- 3 Modifications
- 4 Operators
- 5 List of vessels
- 6 Related legislation
- 7 Considered for reactivation
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 Further reading
- 11 External links
Design and construction
The ships were designed by the Bath Iron Works shipyard in Maine in partnership with the New York-based naval architects Gibbs & Cox. The design process was notable as the initial design was accomplished with the help of computers in 18 hours by Raye Montague, a United States Naval Engineer; making it the first ship designed by computer.
The Oliver Hazard Perry-class ships were produced in 445-foot (136 m) long "short-hull" (Flight I) and 453-foot (138 m) long "long-hull" (Flight III) variants. The long-hull ships (FFG 8, 28, 29, 32, 33, and 36-61) carry the larger SH-60 Seahawk LAMPS III helicopters, while the short-hulled warships carry the smaller and less-capable SH-2 Seasprite LAMPS I. Aside from the lengths of their hulls, the principal difference between the versions is the location of the aft capstan: on long-hull ships, it sits a step below the level of the flight deck in order to provide clearance for the tail rotor of the longer Seahawk helicopters. The long-hull ships also carry the RAST (Recovery Assist Securing and Traversing) system (also known as a Beartrap (hauldown device)) for the Seahawk, a hook, cable, and winch system that can reel in a Seahawk from a hovering flight, expanding the ship's pitch-and-roll range in which flight operations are permitted. The FFG 8, 29, 32, and 33 were built as "short-hull" warships but were later modified into "long-hull" warships. Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigates were the second class of surface ship (after the Spruance-class destroyers) in the US Navy to be built with gas turbine propulsion. The gas turbine propulsion plant was more automated than other Navy propulsion plants at the time and could be centrally monitored and controlled from a remote engineering control center away from the engines. The gas turbine propulsion plants also allowed the ship's speed to be controlled directly from the bridge via a throttle control, a first for the US Navy.
American shipyards constructed Oliver Hazard Perry-class ships for the U.S. Navy and the Royal Australian Navy (RAN). Early American-built Australian ships were originally built as the "short-hull" version, but they were modified during the 1980s to the "long-hull" design. Shipyards in Australia, Spain, and Taiwan have produced several warships of the "long-hull" design for their navies.
Although the per-ship costs rose greatly over the period of production, all 51 ships planned for the U.S. Navy were built.
During the design phase of the Oliver Hazard Perry class, head of the Royal Corps of Naval Constructors, R.J. Daniels, was invited by an old friend, US Chief of the Bureau of Ships, Adm Robert C Gooding, to advise upon the use of variable-pitch propellers in the class. During the course of this conversation, Daniels warned Gooding against the use of aluminium in the superstructure of the FFG-7 class as he believed it would lead to structural weaknesses. A number of ships subsequently developed structural cracks, including a 40 ft (12 m) fissure in USS Duncan, before the problems were remedied.
The Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigates were designed primarily as anti-aircraft and anti-submarine warfare guided-missile warships intended to provide open-ocean escort of amphibious warfare ships and merchant ship convoys in moderate threat environments in a potential war with the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact countries. They could also provide air defense against 1970s- and 1980s-era aircraft and anti-ship missiles. These warships are equipped to escort and protect aircraft carrier battle groups, amphibious landing groups, underway replenishment groups, and merchant ship convoys. They can conduct independent operations to perform such tasks as surveillance of illegal drug smugglers, maritime interception operations, and exercises with other nations.
The addition of the Naval Tactical Data System, LAMPS helicopters, and the Tactical Towed Array System (TACTAS) gave these warships a combat capability far beyond the original expectations. They are well suited to operations in littoral regions, and for most war-at-sea scenarios.
Notable combat actions
Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigates made worldwide news during the 1980s. Despite being small, these frigates were shown to be extremely durable. During the Iran–Iraq War, on 17 May 1987, USS Stark was attacked by an Iraqi warplane. Struck by two Exocet anti-ship missiles, thirty-seven U.S. Navy sailors died in the deadly prelude to the American Operation Earnest Will, the reflagging and escorting of oil tankers through the Persian Gulf and the Straits of Hormuz.
Less than a year later, on 14 April 1988, USS Samuel B. Roberts was nearly sunk by an Iranian mine. No lives were lost, but 10 sailors were evacuated from the warship for medical treatment. The crew of Samuel B. Roberts battled fire and flooding for two days, ultimately managing to save the ship. The U.S. Navy retaliated four days later with Operation Praying Mantis, a one-day attack on Iranian oil platforms being used as bases for raids on merchant shipping. Those had included bases for the minelaying operations that damaged Samuel B. Roberts. Both frigates were repaired in American shipyards and returned to full service. Stark was decommissioned in 1999, and scrapped in 2006. Roberts was decommissioned at Mayport on 22 May 2015,
On April 18, 1988, USS Simpson was accompanying the cruiser USS Wainwright and frigate USS Bagley when they came under attack from the Iranian gunboat Joshan which fired a U.S. made Harpoon missile at the ships. With Simpson having the only clear shot, the frigate fired an SM-1 standard missile which struck Joshan. Simpson fired three more SM-1s, and with later naval fire from Wainwright, sank the Iranian vessel.
On July 14, 2016, the ex-USS Thach took over 12 hours to sink after being used in a live-fire, SINKEX during naval exercise RIMPAC 2016. During the exercise, the ship was directly or indirectly hit with the following ordnance: a Harpoon missile from a South Korean submarine, another Harpoon missile from the Australian frigate HMAS Ballarat, a Hellfire missile from an Australian MH-60R helicopter, another Harpoon missile and a Maverick missile from US maritime patrol aircraft, another Harpoon missile from the cruiser USS Princeton, additional Hellfire missiles from an American MH-60S Navy helicopter, a 900 kg (2,000 lb) Mark 84 bomb from a US Navy F/A-18 Hornet, a GBU-12 Paveway laser-guided 225 kg (500 lb) bomb from a US Air Force B-52 bomber, and a Mark 48 torpedo from an unnamed US Navy submarine.
The U.S. Navy and Royal Australian Navy modified their remaining Perrys to reduce their operating costs, replacing Detroit Diesel Company 16V149TI electrical generators with Caterpillar, Inc.- 3512B diesel engines.
The "zone-defense" anti-aircraft warfare (AAW) capability has vanished, and all that remains is a "point-defense" type of anti-air warfare armament. It would supposedly have been too costly to refit the Standard SM-1MR missiles, which had little ability to bring down sea-skimming missiles. Another reason is to allow more SM-1MRs to go to American allies that operate Perrys, such as Poland, Spain, Australia, Turkey, and Taiwan.
The removal of the launchers also stripped the frigates of their Harpoon anti-ship missiles. However, their Seahawk helicopters could still carry the much shorter-range Penguin and Hellfire anti-ship missiles. The last nine ships of the class had new remotely operated 25 mm Mk 38 Mod 2 Naval Gun Systems installed on platforms over the old MK 13 launcher magazine.
Up to 2002, the U.S. Navy updated the remaining active Oliver Hazard Perry-class warships' Phalanx CIWS to the "Block 1B" capability, which allowed the Mk 15 20 mm Phalanx gun to shoot at fast-moving surface craft and helicopters. They were also to have been fitted with the Mk 53 DLS "Nulka" missile decoy system, in place of the SRBOC (Super Rapid Blooming Offboard Chaff) and flares, which would have better protected the ship against anti-ship missiles. It had been planned to outfit the remaining ships with a 32-cell RIM-116 Rolling Airframe Missile launcher at the location of the former Mk-13, but this did not occur.
On May 11, 2009, the first International Frigate Working Group met in Mayport Naval Station to discuss maintenance, obsolescence and logistics issues regarding Oliver Hazard Perry-class ships of the U.S. and foreign navies.
On June 16, 2009, Vice Admiral Barry McCullough turned down the suggestion of then-U.S. Senator Mel Martinez (R-FL) to keep the Perrys in service, citing their worn-out and maxed-out condition. However, U.S. Representative Ander Crenshaw (R-FL) and former U.S. Representative Gene Taylor (D-MS) took up the cause to retain the vessels.
The Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigates were to have been eventually replaced by Littoral Combat Ships by 2019. However, the worn out frigates were being retired faster than the LCSs are being built, which may lead to a gap in United States Southern Command mission coverage. According to Navy deactivation plans, all Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigates would be retired by October 2015. Simpson was the last to be retired (on 29 September 2015), leaving the Navy devoid of frigates for the first time since 1943. The ships will either be made available for sale to foreign navies or dismantled. Perry-class frigate retirement was accelerated by budget pressures, which will lead to the remaining 11 ships being replaced by only eight LCS hulls. With the timeline LCS mission packages will come online unknown, there is uncertainty if they will be able to perform the frigates' counter-narcotics and anti-submarine roles when they are gone. The Navy is looking into Military Sealift Command to see if the Joint High Speed Vessel, Mobile Landing Platform, and other auxiliary ships could handle low-end missions that the frigates performed.
The U.S. Coast Guard harvested weapons systems components from decommissioned Navy Perry-class frigates to save money. Harvesting components from four decommissioned frigates resulted in more than $24 million in cost savings, which increases with parts from more decommissioned frigates. Equipment including Mk 75, 76 mm/62 caliber gun mounts, gun control panels, barrels, launchers, junction boxes, and other components were returned to service aboard Famous-class cutters to extend their service lives into the 2030s.
In June 2017, Chief of Naval Operations Admiral John Richardson revealed the Navy was "taking a hard look" at reactivating 7-8 out of 12 mothballed Perry-class frigates to increase fleet numbers. While the move is under consideration, there would be difficulties in returning them to service given the age of the ships and their equipment, likely requiring a significant modernization effort. Although bringing the frigates out of retirement would provide a short-term solution to fleet size, their limited combat capability would restrict them to acting as a theater security cooperation, maritime security asset. Their likely role would be serving as basic surface platforms that stay close to U.S. shores, performing missions such as assisting drug interdiction efforts or patrolling the Arctic so an extensive upgrade to the ships' combat systems wouldn't need to be undertaken. An October 2017 memo recommended against reactivating the frigates, claiming it would cost too much money that would take funding from other Navy priorities to get little effectiveness.
Australia spent A$1.46bn to upgrade the Royal Australian Navy's (RAN) Adelaide-class guided-missile frigates, including equipping them to fire the SM-2 version of the Standard missile, adding an eight-cell Mark 41 Vertical Launching System for Evolved Sea Sparrow missiles, and installing better air-search radars and long-range sonar.
The first of the upgraded frigates, HMAS Sydney, returned to the RAN fleet in 2005. Four frigates eventually upgraded the Garden Island shipyard in Sydney, Australia, with the modernizations lasting between 18 months and two years. The cost of the upgrades was partly offset, in the short run, by the decommissioning and disposal of the two older frigates. HMAS Canberra was decommissioned on 12 November 2005 at naval base HMAS Stirling in Western Australia, and HMAS Adelaide was decommissioned at that same naval base on 20 January 2008. HMAS Sydney was decommissioned at the Garden Island naval base in 2016. HMAS Darwin was also decommissioned at Garden Island in 2018.
The Turkish Navy had commenced the modernization of its G-class frigates with the GENESIS (Gemi Entegre Savaş İdare Sistemi) combat management system in 2007. The first GENESIS upgraded ship was delivered in 2007, and the last delivery is scheduled for 2011. The "short-hull" Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigates that are currently part of the Turkish Navy were modified with the ASIST landing platform system at the Gölcük Naval Shipyard, so that they can accommodate the S-70B Seahawk helicopters. Turkey is planning to add one eight-cell Mk 41 Vertical Launching System (VLS) for the Evolved Sea Sparrow missile, to be installed forward of the present Mk 13 missile launchers, similar to the case in the modernization program of the Australian Adelaide-class frigates. TCG Gediz was the first ship in the class to receive the Mk 41 VLS installation. There are also plans for new components to be installed that are being developed for the Milgem-class warships (Ada-class corvettes and F-100-class frigates) of the Turkish Navy. These include modern Three-dimensional and X-band radars developed by Aselsan and Turkish-made hull-mounted sonars. One of the G-class frigates will also be used as a test-bed for Turkey's 6,000+ ton TF2000-class AAW frigates that are currently being designed by the Turkish Naval Institute.
- Australia (Adelaide class): The Royal Australian Navy purchased six frigates. Four of them were built in the United States while the other two were built in Australia. Four of the ships were upgraded with the addition of an eight-cell Mk 41 VLS with 32 Evolved Sea Sparrow (ESSM) missiles, and the Standard Missile SM-2, plus upgraded radars and sonars while the other two ships were decommissioned. As of 2018, the ships of the class are being replaced in service by the by Hobart-class air-warfare destroyers. HMAS Sydney was retired in 2015, and HMAS Darwin in 2017.
- Bahrain: USS Jack Williams was purchased from the American government in 1996 and re-christened Sabha.
- Egypt: Four Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigates transferred from the U.S. Navy.
- Pakistan: Six to be transferred, The former USS McInerney transferred to Pakistani Navy in August 2010.
- Poland: Two frigates were transferred from the U.S. Navy in 2002 and 2003.
- Spain (Santa Maria class): Spanish-built: six frigates.
- Turkey (G class): Eight former U.S. Navy Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigates have been transferred to the Turkish Navy. All have undergone extensive advanced modernization programs, and they are now known as the G-class frigates. The Turkish Navy modernized G-class frigates have an additional Mk-41 Vertical Launch System capable of launching Evolved Sea Sparrow missiles for close-in, as well as their longer-range SM-1 missiles; advanced digital fire control systems and new Turkish-made sonars.
- Taiwan (Cheng Kung class): Taiwanese-built. Originally eight ships were equipped with eight Hsiung Feng II anti-ship missiles, now all but PFG-1103 are carrying four HF-2 and four HF-3 supersonic AShM. The PFG-1103 Cheng Ho will change the anti-ship mix upon their major overhaul. Seven out of eight ships added Bofors 40 mm/L70 guns for both surface and anti-air use. On November 5, 2012 Minister of Defense Kao announced the U.S. government will sell Taiwan two additional Perry-class frigates that are about to be retired from the U.S. Navy for a cost of US$240 million to be retrofitted and delivered in 2015. Two more frigates, the ex-USS Gary and the ex-USS Taylor are to be reactivated and transferred to Taiwan. In July 2016, the U.S. Naval Sea Systems Command awarded a $74 million contract to Virginia-based VSE Corporation to do the work. According to the contract, VSE has 16 months to complete the work. The U.S. State Department officially approved the sale of both ships for $190 million in March 2016.
- United States: The U.S. Navy commissioned 51 FFG-7 class frigates between 1977 and 1989. The last of these, Simpson, was decommissioned on 29 September 2015.
- Mexico: Two former U.S. Navy Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigates USS McClusky and USS Curts were to be sold to the Mexican Navy under the FMS, however USS McClusky was sunk as a target during RIMPAC 2018 on July 19, 2018. USS Curts remains on hold for FMS in Pearl Harbor.
- Thailand: Two former U.S. Navy Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigates were allocated by the US government to the Royal Thai Navy, subject to acceptance by the Thai government: the former USS Rentz and USS Vandegrift. Rentz however was sunk as a target in the 2016 SINKEX exercise Valiant shield. Vandegrift was stricken from the record in 2015 and was decommissioned, waiting to be disposed of.
- Ukraine: Two former US Navy Oliver Hazard Perry-class were offered to the Ukrainian Navy to increase its operational capacity in the Azov and Black sea, (this capacity was) significantly reduced following the annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation and the seizure of a large part of Ukrainian navy vessels stationed there.
List of vessels
|Ship name||Hull no.||Hull length||Builder||Commission–
|Oliver Hazard Perry||FFG-7||Short||Bath Iron Works||1977–1997||Disposed of by scrapping, dismantling, 21 April 2006|||
|McInerney||FFG-8||Long||Bath Iron Works||1979–2010||Transferred to Pakistan Navy as PNS Alamgir (F260), 31 August 2010|||
|Wadsworth||FFG-9||Short||Todd Pacific Shipyards, Los Angeles Division, (Todd, San Pedro)||1978–2002||Transferred to Polish Navy as ORP Gen. T. Kościuszko (273), 28 June 2002|||
|Duncan||FFG-10||Short||Todd Pacific Shipyards, Seattle Division||1980–1994||Transferred to Turkish Naval Forces as a parts hulk, 5 April 1999|||
|Clark||FFG-11||Short||Bath Iron Works||1980–2000||Transferred to Polish Navy as ORP Gen. K. Pułaski (272), 15 March 2000|||
|George Philip||FFG-12||Short||Todd, San Pedro||1980–2003||Decommissioned, to be disposed of by scrapping, dismantling, 15 March 2003|||
|Samuel Eliot Morison||FFG-13||Short||Bath Iron Works||1980–2002||Transferred to Turkish Naval Forces as TCG Gokova (F 496), 10 April 2002|||
|Sides||FFG-14||Short||Todd, San Pedro||1981–2003||Disposed of by scrapping, dismantling, 25 January 2016|||
|Estocin||FFG-15||Short||Bath Iron Works||1981–2003||Transferred to Turkish Naval Forces as TCG Goksu (F 497), 3 April 2003|||
|Clifton Sprague||FFG-16||Short||Bath Iron Works||1981–1995||Transferred to Turkish Naval Forces as TCG Gaziantep (F 490), 27 August 1997|||
|built for Royal Australian Navy as HMAS Adelaide||FFG-17||Short||Todd, Seattle||1980–2008||Disposed, sunk as diving & fishing reef, 13 April 2011|||
|built for Royal Australian Navy as HMAS Canberra||FFG-18||Short||Todd, Seattle||1981–2005||Disposed, sunk as diving & fishing reef, 4 October 2009|||
|John A. Moore||FFG-19||Short||Todd, San Pedro||1981–2000||Transferred to Turkish Naval Forces as TCG Gediz (F 495), 1 September 2000|||
|Antrim||FFG-20||Short||Todd, Seattle||1981–1996||Transferred to Turkish Naval Forces as TCG Giresun (F 491), 27 August 1997|||
|Flatley||FFG-21||Short||Bath Iron Works||1981–1996||Transferred to Turkish Naval Forces as TCG Gemlik (F 492), 10 October 2001|||
|Fahrion||FFG-22||Short||Todd, Seattle||1982–1998||Transferred to Egyptian Navy as Sharm El-Sheik (F 901), 15 March 1998|||
|Lewis B. Puller||FFG-23||Short||Todd, San Pedro||1982–1998||Transferred to Egyptian Navy as Toushka (F 906), 18 September 1998|||
|Jack Williams||FFG-24||Short||Bath Iron Works||1981–1996||Transferred to Royal Bahrain Naval Force as RBNS Sabha (FFG-90), 13 September 1996|||
|Copeland||FFG-25||Short||Todd, San Pedro||1982–1996||Transferred to Egyptian Navy as Mubarak (F 911), 18 September 1996, renamed Alexandria in 2011|||
|Gallery||FFG-26||Short||Bath Iron Works||1981–1996||Transferred to Egyptian Navy as Taba (F 916), 25 September 1996|||
|Mahlon S. Tisdale||FFG-27||Short||Todd, San Pedro||1982–1996||Transferred to Turkish Naval Forces as TCG Gokceada (F 494), 5 April 1999|||
|Boone||FFG-28||Long||Todd, Seattle||1982–2012||Decommissioned, to be disposed of by scrapping, dismantling, 23 February 2012|||
|Stephen W. Groves||FFG-29||Long||Bath Iron Works||1982–2012||Decommissioned, to be disposed of by scrapping, dismantling, 24 February 2012|||
|Reid||FFG-30||Short||Todd, San Pedro||1983–1998||Transferred to Turkish Naval Forces as TCG Gelibolu (F 493), 5 January 1999|||
|Stark||FFG-31||Short||Todd, Seattle||1982–1999||Disposed of by scrapping, dismantling, 21 June 2006|||
|John L. Hall||FFG-32||Long||Bath Iron Works||1982–2012||Decommissioned, to be disposed of by scrapping, dismantling, 9 March 2012|||
|Jarrett||FFG-33||Long||Todd, San Pedro||1983–2011||Disposed of by scrapping, dismantling, 1 August 2016|||
|Aubrey Fitch||FFG-34||Short||Bath Iron Works||1982–1997||Disposed of by scrapping, dismantling, 19 May 2005|||
|built for Royal Australian Navy as HMAS Sydney||FFG-35||Long||Todd, Seattle||1983–2015||Decommissioned 7 November 2015|||
|Underwood||FFG-36||Long||Bath Iron Works||1983–2013||Decommissioned, to be disposed of by scrapping, dismantling, 8 March 2013|||
|Crommelin||FFG-37||Long||Todd, Seattle||1983–2012||Disposed of as target during RIMPAC 2016 SINKEX, 19 July 2016|||
|Curts||FFG-38||Long||Todd, San Pedro||1983–2013||Decommissioned, to be disposed of by SINKEX, 25 January 2013|||
|Doyle||FFG-39||Long||Bath Iron Works||1983–2011||Decommissioned, to be disposed of by scrapping, dismantling, 29 July 2011|||
|Halyburton||FFG-40||Long||Todd, Seattle||1983–2014||Decommissioned, on hold for foreign military sale, 6 September 2014|||
|McClusky||FFG-41||Long||Todd, San Pedro||1983–2015||Sunk as a target on 19 July 2018|||
|Klakring||FFG-42||Long||Bath Iron Works||1983–2013||Decommissioned, on hold for foreign military sale, 22 March 2013|||
|Thach||FFG-43||Long||Todd, San Pedro||1984–2013||Disposed of as target during RIMPAC 2016 SINKEX, 14 July 2016|||
|built for Royal Australian Navy as HMAS Darwin||FFG-44||Long||Todd, Seattle||1984–2017||Decommissioned 9 December 2017|||
|De Wert||FFG-45||Long||Bath Iron Works||1983–2014||Decommissioned, on hold for foreign military sale, 4 April 2014|||
|Rentz||FFG-46||Long||Todd, San Pedro||1984–2014||Disposed of as target during Valiant Shield 2016 SINKEX, 13 September 2016|||
|Nicholas||FFG-47||Long||Bath Iron Works||1984–2014||Decommissioned, to be disposed of by scrapping, dismantling, 10 March 2014|||
|Vandegrift||FFG-48||Long||Todd, Seattle||1984–2015||Decommissioned, on hold for foreign military sale, 19 February 2015|||
|Robert G. Bradley||FFG-49||Long||Bath Iron Works||1984–2014||Decommissioned, on hold for foreign military sale, 28 March 2014|||
|Taylor||FFG-50||Long||Bath Iron Works||1984–2015||Decommissioned, to be transferred to Taiwan, 8 May 2015|||
|Gary||FFG-51||Long||Todd, San Pedro||1984–2015||Decommissioned, to be transferred to Taiwan, 23 July 2015|||
|Carr||FFG-52||Long||Todd, Seattle||1985–2013||Decommissioned, on hold for foreign military sale, 13 March 2013|||
|Hawes||FFG-53||Long||Bath Iron Works||1985–2010||Decommissioned, to be disposed of by scrapping, dismantling, 10 December 2010|||
|Ford||FFG-54||Long||Todd, San Pedro||1985–2013||Decommissioned, to be disposed of by SINKEX, 31 October 2013|||
|Elrod||FFG-55||Long||Bath Iron Works||1985–2015||Decommissioned, on hold for foreign military sale, 30 January 2015|||
|Simpson||FFG-56||Long||Bath Iron Works||1985–2015||Decommissioned, on hold for foreign military sale, 29 September 2015|||
|Reuben James||FFG-57||Long||Todd, San Pedro||1986–2013||Disposed of as target during live fire missile test, 19 January 2016|||
|Samuel B. Roberts||FFG-58||Long||Bath Iron Works||1986–2015||Decommissioned, to be disposed of by scrapping, dismantling, 22 May 2015|||
|Kauffman||FFG-59||Long||Bath Iron Works||1987–2015||Decommissioned, on hold for foreign military sale, 18 September 2015|||
|Rodney M. Davis||FFG-60||Long||Todd, San Pedro||1987–2015||Decommissioned, on hold for foreign military sale, 23 January 2015|||
|Ingraham||FFG-61||Long||Todd, San Pedro||1989–2014||Decommissioned, to be disposed of by SINKEX, 12 November 2014|||
|Ship Name||Hull No.||Builder||Commission–
|HMAS Melbourne||FFG 05||Australian Marine Engineering Consolidated (AMECON), Williamstown, Victoria||1992–||In active service|
|HMAS Newcastle||FFG 06||AMECON, Williamstown||1993–||In active service|
|Santa María||F81||Bazan, Ferrol||1986–||In active service|
|Victoria||F82||Bazan, Ferrol||1987–||In active service|
|Numancia||F83||Bazan, Ferrol||1989–||In active service|
|Reina Sofía||F84||Bazan, Ferrol||1990–||In active service|
|Navarra||F85||Bazan, Ferrol||1994–||In active service|
|Canarias||F86||Bazan, Ferrol||1994–||In active service|
|Taiwan-built (Republic of China)|
|ROCS Cheng Kung||PFG-1101||China Shipbuilding, Kaohsiung, Taiwan||1993–||In active service|
|ROCS Cheng Ho||PFG-1103||China Shipbuilding, Kaohsiung, Taiwan||1994–||In active service|
|ROCS Chi Kuang||PFG-1105||China Shipbuilding, Kaohsiung, Taiwan||1995–||In active service|
|ROCS Yueh Fei||PFG-1106||China Shipbuilding, Kaohsiung, Taiwan||1996–||In active service|
|ROCS Tzu I||PFG-1107||China Shipbuilding, Kaohsiung, Taiwan||1997–||In active service|
|ROCS Pan Chao||PFG-1108||China Shipbuilding, Kaohsiung, Taiwan||1997–||In active service|
|ROCS Chang Chien||PFG-1109||China Shipbuilding, Kaohsiung, Taiwan||1998–||In active service|
|ROCS Tian Dan||PFG-1110||China Shipbuilding, Kaohsiung, Taiwan||2004–||In active service|
On April 7, 2014, the United States House of Representatives voted to pass the Taiwan Relations Act Affirmation and Naval Vessel Transfer Act of 2014 (H.R. 3470; 113th Congress), a bill that would allow eight more Perry frigates to be transferred to foreign countries. The bill would authorize the President to transfer Curts and McClusky to Mexico, and Rentz and Vandegrift to Thailand. The bill would also authorize the President to sell four units (Taylor, Gary, Carr, and Elrod) to the Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office of the United States (which is the Taiwan agency designated pursuant to the Taiwan Relations Act) for about $10 million each.
Considered for reactivation
On June 13, 2017, the Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral John M. Richardson announced that U.S. Navy officials are currently looking into the possibility of recommissioning several Oliver Hazard Perry class frigates from its inactive fleet to help build up and support President Donald Trump's proposed 355 ship navy plan. On December 11, 2017, the Navy decided against reactivating the class citing that reactivating the ships would prove too costly.
- Wiggins, James F (August 2000). Defense Acquisitions: Comprehensive Strategy Needed to Improve Ship Cruise Missile Defence. United States General Accounting Office. ISBN 978-0-7567-0302-8. Retrieved 2010-02-16. pp.42
- "US Navy decommissions last Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigate USS Simpson". Baval-technology.com. 30 September 2015. Retrieved 16 February 2019.
- Vergakis, Brock (January 7, 2015). "Last deployment: All Navy frigates soon to be decommissioned". Associated Press. Retrieved January 7, 2015.
- Rogoway, Tyler (January 10, 2014). "End Of The 'Ghetto Navy' Is In Sight As Last USN Frigate Cruise Begins". Fox Trot Alpha. Retrieved January 10, 2014.
- "Raye Jean Jordan Montague (1935–2018) - Encyclopedia of Arkansas". Encyclopediaofarkansas.net. Retrieved 16 February 2019.
- Daniels, R.J, p.219, The End Of An Era: The Memoirs Of a Naval Constructor, Periscope Publishing Ltd, 2004, ISBN 1-904381-18-9, ISBN 978-1-904381-18-1
- Raleigh Clayton Muns, Oliver Hazard Perry Class Frigates: United States Navy (2010), p.3
- Peniston, Bradley (May 23, 2015). "The Once—and Future?—USS Samuel B. Roberts". Defense One. Retrieved May 30, 2015.
- Lendon, Brad. "Hours before decommissioning, USS Simpson crew recall historic naval battle". Cnn.com. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
- "Former Frigate USS Thach Hit in Live Fire Sinking Exercise". USNI News. USNI News. Retrieved 20 July 2016.
- "Watch the Navy Send a Retired Frigate Out With a Bang". Popular Mechanics. Retrieved 20 July 2016.
- Burgess, Richard R. (September 2003). "Guided Missiles Removed from Perry-class Frigates (Sea Services section: Northrop Grumman-Built DDG Mustin Commissioned in U.S. Pacific Fleet)". Sea Power. Washington, D.C.: Navy League of the United States. 46 (9): 34. ISSN 0199-1337. OCLC 3324011. Archived from the original on 2009-01-12. Retrieved 2008-09-22.
- The Naval Institute Guide to the Ships and Aircraft of the U.S. Fleet Norman Polmar. Naval Institute Press, 2005. page 161
- [permanent dead link]
- "Navy has few FFG options to fill LCS gap". Navytimes.com. Retrieved 16 February 2019.
- Mayport frigates may get reprieve
- Faram, Mark D. "Keeping frigates running no easy feat for crews." Navy Times, May 29, 2012.
- "Decommissioning plan pulls all frigates from fleet by end of FY '15". Militarytimes.com. 2 July 2014. Archived from the original on 3 July 2014. Retrieved 8 March 2016.
- Retiring frigates may leave some missions unfilled - Navytimes.com, 26 July 2014
- U.S. Navy harvests decommissioned Frigates weapon systems for U.S. Coast Guard use - Navyrecognition.com, 26 October 2014
- Navy 'Taking a Hard Look' At Pulling Frigates Out of Mothballs - Military.com, 13 June 2017
- CNO: Navy ‘Taking a Hard Look’ at Bringing Back Oliver Hazard Perry Frigates, DDG Life Extensions as Options to Build Out 355 Ship Fleet - News.USNI.org, 13 June 2017
- SECNAV Spencer: Oliver Hazard Perry Frigates Could be Low-Cost Drug Interdiction Platforms - News.USNI.org, 20 September 2017
- Don't reactivate the old frigates, internal US Navy memo recommends - Defensenews.com, 13 November 2017
- "Undersecretariat of Turkish Defence Industries: GENESIS modernization program". Archived from the original on 2009-08-15. Retrieved 2018-12-14.
- [permanent dead link]
- "MK 41 Vertical Launch Systems for Turkish Navy : Naval Forces : Defense News Air Force Army Navy News". Defencetalk.com. Retrieved 16 February 2019.
- googletag.display;, Defense Industry Daily staff. "Naval Swiss Army Knife: MK 41 Vertical Missile Launch Systems (VLS)". Defense Industry Daily. Retrieved 16 February 2019.
- "FMS: Turkey Requests MK 41 Vertical Launch Systems". Deagel.com. Retrieved 16 February 2019.
- ">First Turkish Perry With Mk-41 VLS On". Turkishnavy.net. 19 March 2011. Retrieved 16 February 2019.
- Official Website - Frigates Archived May 16, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
- Pakistan to get refurbished warship from US Times of India, October 19, 2008
- "Taiwan to buy Perry-class frigates from U.S." Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 16 February 2019.
- "Old US Navy frigates to be reactivated for delivery to Taiwan Navy". Naval Today. Retrieved 2016-07-27.
- "Frigates - FFG". US Navy. 29 September 2015. Retrieved 6 October 2015.
- "DEFENSE STUDIES: US Transfers Two OHP Class Frigates to Thailand". Defense-studies.blogspot.com. Retrieved 16 February 2019.
- Affairs, This story was written by Mass Communication Specialist 3rd Class Sara B. Sexton, Commander, Task Force 70 Public. "SINKEX Conducted During Valiant Shield 2016". Retrieved 2017-01-04.
- Sweeney, Heather. "USS Vandegrift Bids Farewell After 30 Years of Service". Military.com. Retrieved 2017-01-04.
- U.S. offers two decommissioned frigates to Ukrainian Navy - Voronchenko, Interfax-Ukraine (20 November 2018)
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2018-10-19. Retrieved 2018-10-18.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "US, Pakistan Navies Come Together for Ceremony", NNS100901-09, Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class (SW) Jacob Sippel, Navy Public Affairs Support Element East Detachment Southeast, 1 September 2010
- "Wadsworth Finds New Life in Polish Navy", NNS110613-05, Ensign Adam Demeter, Commander, U.S. Naval Forces Europe and Africa/U.S. 6th Fleet Public Affairs, 13 June 2011
- "USS George Philip Decommissioned", NNS030328-14, Ensign Russell Childress, Commander, Navy Surface Force, U.S. Pacific Fleet Public Affairs, 28 March 2003
- "Bremerton mothball fleet continues to diminish", Kitsap Sun Staff, Kitsap Sun, 30 April 2015
- "Decommissioned U.S. Navy Ship Lives On in Turkish Fleet", NNS020416-08, Naval Surface Force Atlantic Fleet Public Affairs, 16 April 2002
- "USS Estocin Decommissioned", NNS030406-02, Naval Station Mayport Public Affairs, 6 April 2003
- "HMAS Adelaide sunk off Avoca coast after dolphin delay", AAP, The Australian, 13 April 2011
- "HMAS Canberra scuttled off Victoria", ABC News, 4 October 2009
- "SEA 21 Navy Inactive Ships Office". Retrieved 22 November 2016.
- "Mayport Says Farewell To USS Boone", Staff, The Florida Times-Union, 29 February 2012
- "Crew Departs USS Stephen W. Groves", Staff, The Florida Times-Union, 29 February 2012
- "Always victorious, always ready, Mayport frigate Hall decommissioned", Jeff Brumley, The Florida Times-Union, 9 March 2012
- "HMAS Sydney decommissioned after 32 years of service", ABC News, 30 November 2015
- "Farewell USS Underwood", Lieutenant (junior grade) Kellye Quirk, USS Underwood Public Affairs, 13 March 2013
- "Second RIMPAC Sinking Exercise Concludes", NNS160721-02, Rim of the Pacific Public Affairs, 21 July 2016
- "USS Curts Decommissioned After 29 Years of Service", NNS130129-06, Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class Jason Behnke, Navy Public Affairs Support Element West, 29 January 2013
- "Fair Winds, USS Doyle", Ensign Benjamin Carroll, USS Doyle Public Affairs, 3 August 2011
- "Halyburton is Decommissioned", NNS140908-04, Lieutenant (junior grade) Stephanie Santarelli, USS Halyburton Public Affairs, 8 September 2014
- "USS Klakring Decommissioned at Naval Station Mayport", NNS130322-14, Mass Communication Specialist 1st Class Sean Allen, 4th Fleet Public Affairs, 22 March 2013
- "RIMPAC Units Participate in Sinking Exercise", Commander, U.S. 3rd Fleet, 14 July 2016
- "USS De Wert Decommissioned in Mayport", NNS140404-17, Ensign Kierstin King, USS De Wert Public Affairs, 4 April 2014
- "SINKEX Conducted During Valiant Shield 2016", NNS160914-03, Mass Communication Specialist 3rd Class Sara B. Sexton, Commander, Task Force 70 Public Affairs, 14 September 2016
- "USS Nicholas Decommissioned", NNS140312-13, Lieutenant (junior grade) Christina M. Gibson, USS Nicholas Public Affairs, 12 March 2014
- "USS Vandegrift Bids Farewell After 30 Years of Naval Service", Mass Communication Specialist 3rd Class Liam Kennedy, 20 February 2015
- "Robert G. Bradley is Decommissioned", NNS140328-14, Ensign Christopher M. Cate, USS Robert G. Bradley Public Affairs, 28 March 2014
- "Mayport warship decommissioned", WJXT News4Jax.com, 28 March 2014
- "USS Taylor (FFG 50) decommissions", Commander, Naval Surface Force Atlantic, 8 May 2015
- "Final West Coast Frigate, USS Gary, Decommissioned", NNS150724-01, Mass Communication Specialist 1st Class Trevor Welsh, Naval Surface Force, U.S. Pacific Fleet Public Affairs, 24 July 2015
- "Last West Coast Frigate USS Gary Decommissioned Before Sale to Taiwan", Sam LaGrone, USNI News, 24 July 2015
- "Decommissioning ceremony held for USS Carr (FFG 52)", Mass Communication Specialist 3rd Class Darien G. Kenney, The Flagship, Military Newspapers of Virginia, 20 March 2013
- "USS Carr is officially decommissioned in special ceremony in Norfolk", Gabriella DeLuca, WTKR, 13 March 2013
- "USS Ford Decommissioned After 28 Years of Service", NNS131031-43, Mass Communication Specialist 3rd Class Chris Brown, Navy Public Affairs Support Element West, Detachment Northwest, 31 October 2013
- "USS Elrod is Decommissioned", NNS150130-07, Ensign Mary C. Senoyuit, USS Elrod Public Affairs, 30 January 2015
- "Last Oliver Hazard Perry Frigate USS Simpson Leaves Service, Marked for Foreign Sale", Sam LaGrone, USNI News, 29 September 2015
- "End of era: Navy retires the USS Simpson, last modern ship to sink an enemy vessel", Andrew Pantazi, The Florida Times-Union, 29 September 2015
- "Navy Sinks Former Frigate USS Reuben James in Test of New Supersonic Anti-Surface Missile", Sam LaGrone, USNI News, 7 March 2016
- "The Once—and Future?—USS Samuel B. Roberts", Bradley Peniston, Defense One, 32 May 2015
- "USS Kauffman to be Decommissioned", NNS150917-15, USS Kauffman Public Affairs, 17 September 2015.
- "Frigate USS Kauffman Decommissions Today in Norfolk, Ship Set for Foreign Military Sale", Sam LaGrone, USNI News, 18 September 2015
- "USS Rodney M. Davis Decommissioned", NNS150126-01, Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class Justin Johndro, Navy Public Affairs Support Element Detachment Northwest, 27 January 2015.
- "USS Ingraham Decommissioned after 25 years of Service", NNS141113-01, Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class Jeffry Willadsen, Navy Public Affairs Support Element Detachment Northwest, 13 November 2013
- "H.R. 3470 - Summary". United States Congress. Retrieved 8 April 2014.
- "H.R. 3470 - CBO" (PDF). Congressional Budget Office. Retrieved 5 April 2014.
- "CNO Richardson: Perry Frigates Only Inactive Hulls Navy Considering Returning to Active Fleet; DDG Life Extension Study Underway". News.usni.org. 16 June 2017. Retrieved 16 February 2019.
- "Navy Won't Reactivate Perry Frigates for SOUTHCOM Mission". News.usni.org. 11 December 2017. Retrieved 16 February 2019.
- Bruhn, David D., Steven C. Saulnier, and James L. Whittington (1997). Ready to Answer All Bells: A Blueprint for Successful Naval Engineering. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-227-7.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) (Operating a Perry frigate)
- Friedman, Norman (1982). U.S. Destroyers: An Illustrated Design History. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-733-X. (Contains material on frigates and Perrys in particular)
- Levinson, Jeffrey L. & Randy L. Edwards (1997). Missile Inbound. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-517-9. (Attack on the USS Stark (FFG 31) )
- Peniston, Bradley (2006). No Higher Honor: Saving the USS Samuel B. Roberts in the Persian Gulf. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-59114-661-5. (Mining of the USS Samuel B. Roberts (FFG 58) )
- Snow, Ralph L. (1987). Bath Iron Works: The First Hundred Years. Bath, Maine: Maine Maritime Museum. ISBN 0-9619449-0-0. (The origin and construction of the Perrys, from the design shipyard's point of view.)
- Wise, Harold Lee (2007). Inside the Danger Zone: The U.S. Military in the Persian Gulf 1987-88. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-59114-970-3.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Oliver Hazard Perry class frigates.|
- Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigates at Destroyer History Foundation
- Oliver Hazard Perry class frigates: United States Navy Wikipedia book created 20 October 2009 at Internet Archive
- Oliver Hazard Perry class frigates 2015: United States Navy Wikipedia book created 22 January 2015 at Internet Archive
- Official U.S. Navy Fact File: Frigates
- FFG-7 OLIVER HAZARD PERRY-class: by the Federation of American Scientists
- MaritimeQuest Perry Class Overview
- Launch of FFG 58