Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigate
The frigates Oliver Hazard Perry, Antrim and Jack Williams in 1982
|Name:||Oliver Hazard Perry class|
|Preceded by:||Brooke class|
|Type:||Guided missile frigate|
|Displacement:||4,100 long tons (4,200 t) full load|
|Beam:||45 ft (14 m)|
|Draft:||22 ft (6.7 m)|
|Speed:||over 29 knots (54 km/h)|
|Range:||4,500 nmi (8,300 km; 5,200 mi) at 20 knots (37 km/h; 23 mph)|
|Aircraft carried:||Two LAMPS multi-purpose helicopters (the SH-2 Seasprite LAMPS I on the short-hulled ships or the SH-60 Seahawk LAMPS III on the long-hulled ships)|
The Oliver Hazard Perry class is a class of guided missile frigates named after the American Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry, the hero of the naval Battle of Lake Erie. Also known as the Perry or FFG-7 class, the warships were designed in the United States in the mid-1970s as general-purpose escort vessels inexpensive enough to be bought in large quantities to replace World War II-era destroyers and complement 1960s-era Knox-class frigates. In Admiral Zumwalt's "high low fleet plan", the FFG-7s were the low capability ships with the Spruance destroyers serving as the high capability ships. Intended to protect amphibious landing forces, supply and replenishment groups, and merchant convoys from aircraft and submarines, they also later were part of battleship-centric surface action groups and aircraft carrier battle groups/strike groups. Fifty-five ships were built in the United States: 51 for the United States Navy and four for the Royal Australian Navy (RAN). In addition, eight were built in Taiwan, six in Spain, and two in Australia for their navies. Former U.S. Navy warships of this class have been sold or donated to the navies of Bahrain, Egypt, Poland, Pakistan, and Turkey.
The U.S. Navy built 51 of the Oliver Hazard Perry frigates, with the first going into service in 1977. The last, the USS Simpson (FFG-56) was decommissioned on Sept. 29, 2015. The retired vessels were either mothballed or transferred to other navies for continued service. Some of the U.S. Navy's frigates, such as USS Duncan (14.6 years in service) had fairly short careers, while a few lasted as long as 30+ years in active U.S. service, and some lasting even longer after being sold or donated to other navies.
Design and construction
The Oliver Hazard Perry-class ships were produced in 445-foot (136 m) long "short-hull" (Flight I) and 453-foot (138 m) long "long-hull" (Flight III) variants. The long-hull ships (FFG 8, 28, 29, 32, 33, and 36-61) carry the larger SH-60 Seahawk LAMPS III helicopters, while the short-hulled warships carry the smaller and less-capable SH-2 Seasprite LAMPS I. Aside from the lengths of their hulls, the principal difference between the versions is the location of the aft capstan: on long-hull ships, it sits a step below the level of the flight deck in order to provide clearance for the tail rotor of the longer Seahawk helicopters. The long-hull ships also carry the RAST (Recovery Assist Securing and Traversing) system for the Seahawk, a hook, cable, and winch system that can reel in a Seahawk from a hovering flight, expanding the ship's pitch-and-roll range in which flight operations are permitted. The FFG 8, 29, 32, and 33 were built as "short-hull" warships but were later modified into "long-hull" warships. Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigates were the second class of surface ship (after the Spruance-class destroyers) in the US Navy to be built with gas turbine propulsion. The gas turbine propulsion plant was more automated than other Navy propulsion plants at the time and could be centrally monitored and controlled from a remote engineering control center away from the engines. The gas turbine propulsion plants also allowed the ship's speed to be controlled directly from the bridge via a throttle control, a first for the US Navy.
American shipyards constructed Oliver Hazard Perry-class ships for the U.S. Navy and the Royal Australian Navy (RAN). Early American-built Australian ships were originally built as the "short-hull" version, but they were modified during the 1980s to the "long-hull" design. Shipyards in Australia, Spain, and Taiwan have produced several warships of the "long-hull" design for their navies.
Although the per-ship costs rose greatly over the period of production, all 51 ships planned for the U.S. Navy were built. Some Oliver Hazard Perry-class warships are planned to remain in American service for years, but some of the older ships have been decommissioned and some scrapped. Others of these decommissioned ships have been transferred to the navies of other countries, including Bahrain, Egypt, Poland, Pakistan, and Turkey. Several of these have replaced old Second World War-built American destroyers that had been given to those countries.
During the design phase of the Oliver Hazard Perry class, head of the Royal Corps of Naval Constructors, R.J. Daniels, was invited by an old friend, US Chief of the Bureau of Ships, Adm Robert C Gooding, to advise upon the use of variable-pitch propellers in the class. During the course of this conversation, Daniels warned Gooding against the use of aluminium in the superstructure of the FFG-7 class as he believed it would lead to structural weaknesses. A number of ships subsequently developed structural cracks, including a 40 ft (12 m) fissure in USS Duncan, before the problems were remedied.
The Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigates were designed primarily as anti-aircraft and anti-submarine warfare guided-missile warships intended to provide open-ocean escort of amphibious warfare ships and merchant ship convoys in moderate threat environments in a potential war with the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact countries. They could also provide air defense against 1970s- and 1980s-era aircraft and anti-ship missiles. These warships are equipped to escort and protect aircraft carrier battle groups, amphibious landing groups, underway replenishment groups, and merchant ship convoys. They can conduct independent operations to perform such tasks as surveillance of illegal drug smugglers, maritime interception operations, and exercises with other nations.
The addition of the Naval Tactical Data System, LAMPS helicopters, and the Tactical Towed Array System (TACTAS) gave these warships a combat capability far beyond the original expectations. They are well-suited for the littoral regions and most war-at-sea scenarios.
Notable combat actions
Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigates made worldwide news during the 1980s. Despite being small, these frigates were shown to be extremely durable. During the Iran–Iraq War, on 17 May 1987, USS Stark was attacked by an Iraqi warplane. Struck by two Exocet anti-ship missiles, thirty-seven U.S. Navy sailors died in the deadly prelude to the American Operation Earnest Will, the reflagging and escorting of oil tankers through the Persian Gulf and the Straits of Hormuz.
Less than a year later, on 14 April 1988, USS Samuel B. Roberts was nearly sunk by an Iranian mine. No lives were lost, but 10 sailors were evacuated from the warship for medical treatment. The crew of Samuel B. Roberts battled fire and flooding for two days, ultimately managing to save the ship. The U.S. Navy retaliated four days later with Operation Praying Mantis, a one-day attack on Iranian oil platforms being used as bases for raids on merchant shipping. Those had included bases for the minelaying operations that damaged Samuel B. Roberts. Both frigates were repaired in American shipyards and returned to full service. Stark was decommissioned in 1999, and scrapped in 2006.
On April 18, 1988, USS Simpson was accompanying the cruiser USS Wainwright and frigate USS Bagley when they came under attack from the Iranian gunboat Joshan which fired a U.S. made Harpoon missile at the ships. With Simpson having the only clear shot, the frigate fired an SM-1 standard missile which struck Joshan. Simpson fired three more SM-1s, and with later naval fire from Wainwright, sunk the Iranian vessel.
The U.S. Navy and Royal Australian Navy have modified their remaining Perrys to reduce their operating costs, replacing Detroit Diesel Company 16V149TI electrical generators with Caterpillar, Inc.- 3512B diesel engines.
The "zone-defense" anti-aircraft warfare (AAW) capability has vanished, and all that remains is a "point-defense" type of anti-air warfare (AAW) armament. It would supposedly have been too costly to refit the Standard Missile SM-1MR missiles, which had little ability to bring down sea-skimming missiles. Another reason is to allow more SM-1MRs to go to American allies that operate Perrys, such as Poland, Spain, Australia, Turkey, and Taiwan.
The last nine ships of the class have new remotely operated 25 mm Mk 38 Mod 2 Naval Gun Systems installed on platforms over the old MK 13 launcher magazine.
As of 2002, the U.S. Navy updated the remaining active Oliver Hazard Perry-class warships' Phalanx CIWS to the "Block 1B" capability, which allowed the Mk 15 20 mm Phalanx gun to shoot at fast-moving surface craft and helicopters. They were also to be fitted with the Mk 53 DLS "Nulka" missile decoy system, which will be better than the presently-equipped chaff (SRBOC, Super Rapid Blooming Offboard Chaff) and flares at guarding against anti-ship missiles. It had been planned to outfit the remaining ships with one 32-cell RIM-116 Rolling Airframe Missile launcher at the location of the former Mk-13, but this did not occur.
On May 11, 2009, the first International Frigate Working Group met in Mayport Naval Station to discuss maintenance, obsolescence and logistics issues regarding Oliver Hazard Perry-class ships of the U.S. and foreign navies.
On June 16, 2009, Vice Admiral Barry McCullough turned down the suggestion of then-U.S. Senator Mel Martinez (R-FL) to keep the Perrys in service, citing their worn-out and maxed-out condition. However, U.S. Representative Ander Crenshaw (R-FL) and former U.S. Representative Gene Taylor (D-MS) took up the cause to retain the vessels.
The Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigates were to eventually be replaced by Littoral Combat Ships by 2019. However, the worn out frigates were being retired faster than the LCSs are being built, which may lead to a gap in United States Southern Command mission coverage. According to Navy deactivation plans, all Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigates will be retired by October 2015. Simpson was the last to be retired, on 29 September 2015, leaving the Navy devoid of frigates for the first time since 1943. The ships will either be made available for sale to foreign navies or dismantled. Perry-class frigate retirement was accelerated by budget pressures, which will lead to the remaining 11 ships being replaced by only eight LCS hulls. With the timeline LCS mission packages will come online unknown, there is uncertainty if they will be able to perform the frigates' counter-narcotics and anti-submarine roles when they are gone. The Navy is looking into Military Sealift Command to see if the Joint High Speed Vessel, Mobile Landing Platform, and other auxiliary ships could handle low-end missions that the frigates performed.
The U.S. Coast Guard is harvesting weapons systems components from decommissioned Navy Perry-class frigates to save money. Harvesting components from four decommissioned frigates results in more than $24 million in cost savings, which increases with parts from more decommissioned frigates. Equipment including Mk 75, 76 mm/62 caliber gun mounts, gun control panels, barrels, launchers, junction boxes, and other components will be returned to service aboard Famous-class cutters to extend their service lives into the 2030s.
Australia is spending A$1.46bn to upgrade Royal Australian Navy (RAN) Adelaide-class guided-missile frigates, including equipping them to fire the SM-2 version of the Standard missile, adding an eight-cell Mk-41 vertical launch system for Evolved Sea Sparrow missiles, and installing better air-search radars and long-range sonar.
The first of the upgraded frigates, HMAS Sydney, returned to the RAN fleet in 2005. Each of the four frigates to be upgraded have the work at the Garden Island shipyard in Sydney, Australia, with the modernizations lasting between 18 months and two years. These frigates are planned to be replaced starting in 2013 by three new Hobart-class air warfare destroyers equipped with the AEGIS combat system. However, the third of those destroyers will not be commissioned until 2017, at the earliest.
The cost will be partly offset, in the short run, by the decommissioning and disposal of the two older frigates. HMAS Canberra was decommissioned on 12 November 2005 at naval base HMAS Stirling in Western Australia and HMAS Adelaide was decommissioned at that same naval base on 20 January 2008.
The Turkish Navy had commenced the modernization of its G-class frigates with the GENESIS (Gemi Entegre Savaş İdare Sistemi) combat management system in 2007. The first GENESIS upgraded ship was delivered in 2007, and the last delivery is scheduled for 2011. The "short-hull" Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigates that are currently part of the Turkish Navy were modified with the ASIST landing platform system at the Gölcük Naval Shipyard, so that they can accommodate the S-70B Seahawk helicopters. Turkey is planning to add one eight-cell Mk 41 Vertical Launching System (VLS) for the Evolved Sea Sparrow missile, to be installed forward of the present Mk 13 missile launchers, similar to the case in the modernization program of the Australian Adelaide-class frigates. TCG Gediz was the first ship in the class to receive the Mk 41 VLS installation. There are also plans for new components to be installed that are being developed for the Milgem-class warships (Ada-class corvettes and F-100-class frigates) of the Turkish Navy. These include modern Three-dimensional and X-band radars developed by Aselsan and Turkish-made hull-mounted sonars. One of the G-class frigates will also be used as a test-bed for Turkey's 6,000+ ton TF2000-class AAW frigates that are currently being designed by the Turkish Naval Institute.
- United States: The U.S. Navy commissioned 51 FFG-7 class frigates between 1977 and 1989. The last of these, Simpson, was decommissioned in 29 September 2015.
- Australia (Adelaide class): The Royal Australian Navy purchased six frigates. Four of them were built in the United States while the other two were built in Australia. Four of the ships were upgraded with the addition of an eight-cell Mk 41 VLS with 32 Evolved Sea Sparrow (ESSM) missiles, and the Standard Missile SM-2, plus upgraded radars and sonars while the other two ships were decommissioned.
- Bahrain: USS Jack Williams was purchased from the American government in 1996 and re-christened Sabha.
- Egypt: Four Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigates transferred from the U.S. Navy.
- Pakistan: Six to be transferred, The former USS McInerney transferred to Pakistani Navy in August 2010.
- Poland: Two frigates were transferred from the U.S. Navy in 2002 and 2003.
- Taiwan (Cheng Kung class): Taiwanese-built. Originally eight ships were equipped with eight Hsiung Feng II anti-ship missiles, now all but PFG-1103 are carrying four HF-2 and four HF-3 supersonic AShM. The PFG-1103 Cheng Ho will change the anti-ship mix upon their major overhaul. Seven out of eight ships added Bofors 40 mm/L70 guns for both surface and anti-air use. On November 5, 2012 Minister of Defense Kao announced the U.S. government will sell Taiwan two additional Perry-class frigates that are about to be retired from the U.S. Navy for a cost of US$240 million to be retrofitted and delivered in 2015.
- Spain (Santa Maria class): Spanish-built: six frigates.
- Turkey (G class): Eight former U.S. Navy Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigates have been transferred to the Turkish Navy. All have undergone extensive advanced modernization programs, and they are now known as the G-class frigates. The Turkish Navy modernized G-class frigates have an additional Mk-41 Vertical Launch System capable of launching Evolved Sea Sparrow missiles for close-in, as well as their longer-range SM-1 missiles; advanced digital fire control systems and new Turkish-made sonars.
- Thailand: Two former U.S. Navy Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigates are allocated by the US government to the Royal Thai Navy, subject to acceptance by the Thai government: the former USS Rentz and USS Vandegrift.
List of vessels
|Ship Name||Hull No.||Hull Length||Builder||Commission–
|Oliver Hazard Perry||FFG-7||Short||Bath Iron Works||1977–1997||Disposed of by scrapping, dismantling, 21 April 2006|||
|McInerney||FFG-8||Long||Bath Iron Works||1979–2010||Transferred to Pakistan as PNS Alamgir (F-260)|||
|Wadsworth||FFG-9||Short||Todd Pacific Shipyards, Los Angeles Division,
(Todd, San Pedro)
|1978–2002||Transferred to Poland as ORP Gen. T. Kościuszko (273)|||
|Duncan||FFG-10||Short||Todd Pacific Shipyards, Seattle Division||1980–1994||Transferred to Turkey as a parts hulk|||
|Clark||FFG-11||Short||Bath Iron Works||1980–2000||Transferred to Poland as ORP Gen. K. Pułaski (272)|||
|George Philip||FFG-12||Short||Todd, San Pedro||1980–2003||Decommissioned, to be disposed of, 24 May 2004|||
|Samuel Eliot Morison||FFG-13||Short||Bath Iron Works||1980–2002||Transferred to Turkey as TCG Gokova (F 496)|||
|Sides||FFG-14||Short||Todd, San Pedro||1981–2003||Decommissioned, to be disposed of, 24 May 2004|||
|Estocin||FFG-15||Short||Bath Iron Works||1981–2003||Transferred to Turkey as TCG Goksu (F 497)|||
|Clifton Sprague||FFG-16||Short||Bath Iron Works||1981–1995||Transferred to Turkey as TCG Gaziantep (F 490)|||
|built for Australia as HMAS Adelaide||FFG-17||Short||Todd, Seattle||1980–2008||Disposed, sunk as diving & fishing reef, 13 April 2011|||
|built for Australia as HMAS Canberra||FFG-18||Short||Todd, Seattle||1981–2005||Disposed, sunk as diving & fishing reef, 4 October 2009|||
|John A. Moore||FFG-19||Short||Todd, San Pedro||1981–2000||Transferred to Turkey as TCG Gediz (F 495)|||
|Antrim||FFG-20||Short||Todd, Seattle||1981–1996||Transferred to Turkey as TCG Giresun (F 491)|||
|Flatley||FFG-21||Short||Bath Iron Works||1981–1996||Transferred to Turkey as TCG Gemlik (F 492))|||
|Fahrion||FFG-22||Short||Todd, Seattle||1982–1998||Transferred to Egypt as Sharm El-Sheik (F 901)|||
|Lewis B. Puller||FFG-23||Short||Todd, San Pedro||1982–1998||Transferred to Egypt as Toushka (F 906)|||
|Jack Williams||FFG-24||Short||Bath Iron Works||1981–1996||Transferred to Bahrain as RBNS Sabha (FFG-90)|||
|Copeland||FFG-25||Short||Todd, San Pedro||1982–1996||Transferred to Egypt as Mubarak (F 911), renamed Alexandria in 2011|||
|Gallery||FFG-26||Short||Bath Iron Works||1981–1996||Transferred to Egypt as Taba (F 916)|||
|Mahlon S. Tisdale||FFG-27||Short||Todd, San Pedro||1982–1996||Transferred to Turkey as TCG Gokceada (F 494)|||
|Boone||FFG-28||Long||Todd, Seattle||1982–2012||Decommissioned, to be disposed of, 23 February 2012|||
|Stephen W. Groves||FFG-29||Long||Bath Iron Works||1982–2012||Decommissioned, to be disposed of, 24 February 2012|||
|Reid||FFG-30||Short||Todd, San Pedro||1983–1998||Transferred to Turkey as TCG Gelibolu (F 493)|||
|Stark||FFG-31||Short||Todd, Seattle||1982–1999||Disposed of by scrapping, dismantling, 21 June 2006|||
|John L. Hall||FFG-32||Long||Bath Iron Works||1982–2012||Decommissioned, to be disposed of, 9 March 2012|||
|Jarrett||FFG-33||Long||Todd, San Pedro||1983–2011||Decommissioned, to be disposed of, 26 May 2011|||
|Aubrey Fitch||FFG-34||Short||Bath Iron Works||1982–1997||Disposed of by scrapping, dismantling, 19 May 2005|||
|built for Australia as HMAS Sydney||FFG-35||Long||Todd, Seattle||1983-||In active service (Royal Australian Navy)|||
|Underwood||FFG-36||Long||Bath Iron Works||1983–2013||Decommissioned, to be disposed of, 8 March 2013|||
|Crommelin||FFG-37||Long||Todd, Seattle||1983–2012||Decommissioned, to be disposed of by SINKEX, 26 October 2012|||
|Curts||FFG-38||Long||Todd, San Pedro||1983–2013||Decommissioned, to be disposed of by SINKEX, 25 January 2013|||
|Doyle||FFG-39||Long||Bath Iron Works||1983–2011||Decommissioned, to be disposed of, 29 July 2011|||
|Halyburton||FFG-40||Long||Todd, Seattle||1983–2014||Decommissioned, on hold for foreign military sale, 6 September 2014|||
|McClusky||FFG-41||Long||Todd, San Pedro||1983–2015||Decommissioned, to be disposed of by SINKEX, 9 January 2015|||
|Klakring||FFG-42||Long||Bath Iron Works||1983–2013||Decommissioned, on hold for foreign military sale, 22 March 2013|||
|Thach||FFG-43||Long||Todd, San Pedro||1984–2013||Decommissioned, to be disposed of by SINKEX, 1 November 2013|||
|built for Australia as HMAS Darwin||FFG-44||Long||Todd, Seattle||1984-||In active service (Royal Australian Navy)|||
|De Wert||FFG-45||Long||Bath Iron Works||1983–2014||Decommissioned, on hold for foreign military sale, 4 April 2014|||
|Rentz||FFG-46||Long||Todd, San Pedro||1984–2014||Decommissioned, to be disposed of by SINKEX, 9 May 2014|||
|Nicholas||FFG-47||Long||Bath Iron Works||1984–2014||Decommissioned, to be disposed of, 17 March 2014|||
|Vandegrift||FFG-48||Long||Todd, Seattle||1984–2015||Decommissioned, on hold for foreign military sale, 19 February 2015|||
|Robert G. Bradley||FFG-49||Long||Bath Iron Works||1984–2014||Decommissioned, on hold for foreign military sale, 28 March 2014|||
|Taylor||FFG-50||Long||Bath Iron Works||1984–2015||Decommissioned, to be transferred to Taiwan|||
|Gary||FFG-51||Long||Todd, San Pedro||1984-2015||Decommissioned 23 July 2015 |||
|Carr||FFG-52||Long||Todd, Seattle||1985–2013||Decommissioned, on hold for foreign military sale, 13 March 2013|||
|Hawes||FFG-53||Long||Bath Iron Works||1985–2010||Decommissioned, to be disposed of, 10 December 2010|||
|Ford||FFG-54||Long||Todd, San Pedro||1985–2013||Decommissioned, to be disposed of by SINKEX, 31 October 2013|||
|Elrod||FFG-55||Long||Bath Iron Works||1985–2015||Decommissioned, on hold for foreign military sale, 30 January 2015|||
|Simpson||FFG-56||Long||Bath Iron Works||1985-2015||Decommissioned, on hold for foreign military sale, 29 September 2015|||
|Reuben James||FFG-57||Long||Todd, San Pedro||1986–2013||Decommissioned, to be disposed of by SINKEX, 30 August 2013|||
|Samuel B. Roberts||FFG-58||Long||Bath Iron Works||1986–2015||Decommissioned, to be disposed of, 22 May 2015|||
|Kauffman||FFG-59||Long||Bath Iron Works||1987-2015||Decommissioned 18 September 2015|||
|Rodney M. Davis||FFG-60||Long||Todd, San Pedro||1987–2015||Decommissioned, on hold for foreign military sale, 23 January 2015|||
|Ingraham||FFG-61||Long||Todd, San Pedro||1989–2014||Decommissioned, to be disposed of, 12 November 2014|||
|Ship Name||Hull No.||Builder||Commission–
|HMAS Melbourne||FFG 05||Australian Marine Engineering Consolidated (AMECON), Williamstown, Victoria||1992-||In active service|
|HMAS Newcastle||FFG 06||AMECON, Williamstown||1993-||In active service|
|Santa María||F81||Bazan, Ferrol||1986-||In active service|
|Victoria||F82||Bazan, Ferrol||1987-||In active service|
|Numancia||F83||Bazan, Ferrol||1989-||In active service|
|Reina Sofía||F84||Bazan, Ferrol||1990-||In active service|
|Navarra||F85||Bazan, Ferrol||1994-||In active service|
|Canarias||F86||Bazan, Ferrol||1994-||In active service|
|Taiwan-built (Republic of China)|
|ROCS Cheng Kung||PFG-1101||China Shipbuilding, Kaohsiung, Taiwan||1993-||In active service|
|ROCS Cheng Ho||PFG-1103||China Shipbuilding, Kaohsiung, Taiwan||1994-||In active service|
|ROCS Chi Kuang||PFG-1105||China Shipbuilding, Kaohsiung, Taiwan||1995-||In active service|
|ROCS Yueh Fei||PFG-1106||China Shipbuilding, Kaohsiung, Taiwan||1996-||In active service|
|ROCS Tzu I||PFG-1107||China Shipbuilding, Kaohsiung, Taiwan||1997-||In active service|
|ROCS Pan Chao||PFG-1108||China Shipbuilding, Kaohsiung, Taiwan||1997-||In active service|
|ROCS Chang Chien||PFG-1109||China Shipbuilding, Kaohsiung, Taiwan||1998-||In active service|
|ROCS Tian Dan||PFG-1110||China Shipbuilding, Kaohsiung, Taiwan||2004-||In active service|
On April 7, 2014, the United States House of Representatives voted to pass the Taiwan Relations Act Affirmation and Naval Vessel Transfer Act of 2014 (H.R. 3470; 113th Congress), a bill that would allow eight more Perry frigates to be transferred to foreign countries. The bill would authorize the President to transfer Curts and McClusky to Mexico, and Rentz and Vandegrift to Thailand. The bill would also authorize the President to sell four units (Taylor, Gary, Carr, and Elrod) to the Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office of the United States (which is the Taiwan agency designated pursuant to the Taiwan Relations Act) for about $10 million each.
- Wiggins, James F (August 2000). Defense Acquisitions: Comprehensive Strategy Needed to Improve Ship Cruise Missile Defence. United States General Accounting Office. ISBN 978-0-7567-0302-8. Retrieved 2010-02-16. pp.42
- Vergakis, Brock (January 7, 2015). "Last deployment: All Navy frigates soon to be decommissioned". Associated Press. Retrieved January 7, 2015.
- Rogoway, Tyler (January 10, 2014). "End Of The 'Ghetto Navy' Is In Sight As Last USN Frigate Cruise Begins". Fox Trot Alpha. Retrieved January 10, 2014.
- Daniels, R.J, p.219, The End Of An Era: The Memoirs Of a Naval Constructor, Periscope Publishing Ltd, 2004, ISBN 1-904381-18-9, ISBN 978-1-904381-18-1
- Raleigh Clayton Muns, Oliver Hazard Perry Class Frigates: United States Navy (2010), p.3
- Lendon, Brad. "Hours before decommissioning, USS Simpson crew recall historic naval battle". CNN. CNN. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
- Burgess, Richard R. (September 2003). "Guided Missiles Removed from Perry-class Frigates (Sea Services section: Northrop Grumman-Built DDG Mustin Commissioned in U.S. Pacific Fleet)". Sea Power (Washington, D.C.: Navy League of the United States) 46 (9): 34. ISSN 0199-1337. OCLC 3324011. Retrieved 2008-09-22.
- The Naval Institute Guide to the Ships and Aircraft of the U.S. Fleet Norman Polmar. Naval Institute Press, 2005. page 161
- Mayport hosts frigate working group
- Navy has few FFG options to fill LCS gap
- Mayport frigates may get reprieve
- Faram, Mark D. "Keeping frigates running no easy feat for crews." Navy Times, May 29, 2012.
- Decommissioning plan pulls all frigates from fleet by end of FY '15 - Militarytimes.com, 2 July 2014
- Retiring frigates may leave some missions unfilled - Navytimes.com, 26 July 2014
- U.S. Navy harvests decommissioned Frigates weapon systems for U.S. Coast Guard use - Navyrecognition.com, 26 October 2014
- Undersecretariat of Turkish Defence Industries: GENESIS modernization program
- Turkish Navy official website: GENESIS modernization program
- MK 41 Vertical Launch Systems for Turkish Navy : Naval Forces : Defense News Air Force Army Navy News
- MK 41 Naval Vertical Missile Launch Systems Delivered, Supported (updated)
- FMS: Turkey Requests MK 41 Vertical Launch Systems
- Turkishnavy.net: First Turkish Perry With Mk-41 VLS
- "Frigates - FFG". US Navy. 29 September 2015. Retrieved 6 October 2015.
- Official Website - Frigates Archived October 23, 2014 at the Wayback Machine
- Pakistan to get refurbished warship from US Times of India, October 19, 2008
- "Taiwan to buy Perry-class frigates from U.S."
- "SEA 21 Navy Inactive Ships Office". Retrieved 2 Oct 2015.
- Final West Coast Frigate, USS Gary, Decommissioned: by Mass Communication Specialist 1st Class Trevor Welsh, Naval Surface Force, U.S. Pacific Fleet Public Affairs. Story Number: NNS150724-01, release date: 24 July 2015.
- USS Kauffman to be Decommissioned, Story Number: NNS150917-15 from USS Kauffman Public Affairs, 17 September 2015.
- "H.R. 3470 - Summary". United States Congress. Retrieved 8 April 2014.
- "H.R. 3470 - CBO" (PDF). Congressional Budget Office. Retrieved 5 April 2014.
- Bruhn, David D., Steven C. Saulnier, and James L. Whittington (1997). Ready to Answer All Bells: A Blueprint for Successful Naval Engineering. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-227-7. (Operating a Perry frigate)
- Friedman, Norman (1982). U.S. Destroyers: An Illustrated Design History. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-733-X. (Contains material on frigates and Perrys in particular)
- Levinson, Jeffrey L. and Randy L. Edwards (1997). Missile Inbound. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-517-9. (Attack on the USS Stark (FFG 31) )
- Peniston, Bradley (2006). No Higher Honor: Saving the USS Samuel B. Roberts in the Persian Gulf. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-59114-661-5. (Mining of the USS Samuel B. Roberts (FFG 58) )
- Snow, Ralph L. (1987). Bath Iron Works: The First Hundred Years. Bath, Maine: Maine Maritime Museum. ISBN 0-9619449-0-0. (The origin and construction of the Perrys, from the design shipyard's point of view.)
- Wise, Harold Lee (2007). Inside the Danger Zone: The U.S. Military in the Persian Gulf 1987-88. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-59114-970-3.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Oliver Hazard Perry class frigates.|
- Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigates at Destroyer History Foundation
- Oliver Hazard Perry class frigates: United States Navy Wikipedia book created 20 October 2009 at Internet Archive
- Official U.S. Navy Fact File: Frigates
- FFG-7 OLIVER HAZARD PERRY-class: by the Federation of American Scientists
- MaritimeQuest Perry Class Overview
- Launch of FFG 58