Sacks at the 2009 Brooklyn Book Festival
|Born||Oliver Wolf Sacks
9 July 1933
Cricklewood, London, England
|Died||30 August 2015
Manhattan, New York City, US
|Education||The Queen's College, Oxford|
|Profession||Physician, professor, author, neurologist|
|Institutions||New York University
Albert Einstein College of Medicine
University of Warwick
Little Sisters of the Poor
Oliver Wolf Sacks, CBE, FRCP (9 July 1933 – 30 August 2015) was a British neurologist, naturalist and author who spent his professional life in the United States. He believed that the brain is the "most incredible thing in the universe." He became widely known for writing best-selling case histories about his patients' disorders, with some of his books adapted for stage and film.
After Sacks received his medical degree from the Queen's College, Oxford in 1960, he interned at Middlesex Hospital (part of University College, London) before moving to the U.S. He then interned at Mount Zion Hospital in San Francisco and completed his residency in neurology and neuropathology at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). He relocated to New York in 1965, where he first worked under a paid fellowship in neurochemistry and neuropathology at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine. Upon realising that the neuro-research career he envisioned for himself would be a poor fit, in 1966 he began serving as neurologist at Beth Abraham Hospital's chronic-care facility in the Bronx. While there, he worked with a group of survivors of the 1920s sleeping sickness encephalitis lethargica, who had been unable to move on their own for decades. His treatment of those patients became the basis of his book Awakenings. In the period from 1966 to 1991 he was a neurological consultant to various New York City nursing homes, hospitals, and at the Bronx Psychiatric Center.
Sacks was the author of numerous best-selling books, mostly collections of case studies of people with neurological disorders. His writings have been featured in a wide range of media; the New York Times called him a "poet laureate of contemporary medicine", and "one of the great clinical writers of the 20th century". His books include a wealth of narrative detail about his experiences with patients, and how they coped with their conditions, often illuminating how the normal brain deals with perception, memory and individuality.
Awakenings (1973) was adapted into an Academy Award-nominated film in 1990, starring Robin Williams and Robert De Niro. He and his book Musicophilia: Tales of Music and the Brain were the subject of "Musical Minds", an episode of the PBS series Nova. Sacks was awarded a CBE for services to medicine in the 2008 Birthday Honours.
Sacks was born in Cricklewood, London, England, the youngest of four children born to Jewish parents: Samuel Sacks, a Lithuanian Jewish physician (died June 1990), and Muriel Elsie Landau, one of the first female surgeons in England (died 1972). Sacks had an extremely large extended family of scientists, physicians and other highly gifted individuals, including the director and writer Jonathan Lynn and first cousins, the Israeli statesman Abba Eban and the Nobel Laureate Robert Aumann.
When Sacks was six years old, he and his brother Michael were evacuated from London to escape the Blitz, and sent to a boarding school in the Midlands where he remained until 1943. Unknown to his family, at the school, he and his brother Michael "... subsisted on meagre rations of turnips and beetroot and suffered cruel punishments at the hands of a sadistic headmaster". This is detailed in his first autobiography, Uncle Tungsten: Memories of a Chemical Boyhood. Later, he attended St Paul's School in London. Beginning at his return home at the age of 10 from the cruel boarding school experience, under his Uncle Dave's tutelage he became an intensely focused amateur chemist, as recalled in Uncle Tungsten. During adolescence he became intensely interested in biology and learned to share his parents' enthusiasm for medicine. He entered the Queen's College, Oxford in 1951, obtaining a BA degree in physiology and biology in 1956.
Although not required, Sacks chose to stay on for an additional year to undertake research, after he had taken a course by Hugh Macdonald Sinclair. Sacks recalls, "I had been seduced by a series of vivid lectures on the history of medicine" and nutrition, given by Sinclair. Sacks adds, "And now, in Sinclair's lectures, it was the history of physiology, the ideas and personalities of physiologists, which came to life." Sacks then became involved with the school's Laboratory of Human Nutrition under Sinclair. Sacks focused his research on Jamaica ginger, a toxic and commonly abused drug known to cause irreversible nerve damage. After devoting months to research, he was disappointed by the lack of help and guidance he received from Sinclair. Sacks wrote up an account of his research findings but stopped working on the subject. As a result he became depressed: "I felt myself sinking into a state of quiet but in some ways agitated despair." His tutor at Queen's and his parents, seeing his lowered emotional state, suggested he extricate himself from academic studies for a period. His parents then suggested he spend the summer of 1955 living on Israeli kibbutz Ein HaShofet, where the physical labour would help him.
Sacks would later describe his experience on the kibbutz as an "anodyne to the lonely, torturing months in Sinclair's lab". He said he lost 60 pounds (27 kg) from his previously overweight body, as a result of the healthy, hard physical labour he performed there. He spent time travelling around the country, with time scuba diving at the Red Sea port city of Eilat, and began to reconsider his future: "I wondered again, as I had wondered when I first went to Oxford, whether I really wanted to become a doctor. I had become very interested in neurophysiology, but I also loved marine biology ... But I was 'cured' now; it was time to return to medicine, to start clinical work, seeing patients in London."
Sacks began medical school at Oxford University in 1956 and for the next two and half years, he took courses in medicine, surgery, orthopaedics, paediatrics, neurology, psychiatry, dermatology, infectious diseases, obstetrics, and various other disciplines. During his years as a student, he helped home deliver a number of babies. He received an MA degree and BM BCh degree in 1958. He qualified for his internship that December, which would begin at Middlesex Hospital the following month. "My eldest brother, Marcus, had trained at the Middlesex," he said, "and now I was following his footsteps."
Before beginning his internship, he said he first wanted some actual hospital experience to gain more confidence and he took a job at a hospital in St Albans, where his mother had worked as an emergency surgeon during the war. He then did his six-month internship at Middlesex Hospital's medical unit, followed by another six months in its neurological unit. He completed his internship in June 1960, but was uncertain about his future.
Sacks left Britain and flew to Montreal, Canada on 9 July 1960, his 27th birthday. He visited the Montreal Neurological Institute and the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF), telling them that he wanted to be a pilot. After some interviews and checking his background, they told him he would be best in medical research. Dr. Taylor, the head medical officer, told him, "You are clearly talented and we would love to have you, but I am not sure about your motives for joining." He was told to travel for a few months and reconsider. He used the next three months to travel across Canada and deep into the Canadian Rockies, which he described in his personal journal, later published as Canada: Pause, 1960.
He then made his way to the United States, completing a residency in Neurology at Mt. Zion Hospital in San Francisco, and fellowships in Neurology and Psychiatry at UCLA. While there, Sacks became a lifelong close friend of poet Thom Gunn, saying he loved his wild imagination, his strict control, and perfect poetic form. During much of his time at UCLA, he lived in a rented house in Topanga Canyon and experimented with various recreational drugs. He described some of his experiences in a 2012 New Yorker article, and in his book Hallucinations. After moving to New York City, he said that an amphetamine-facilitated epiphany that came as he read a book by the 19th century migraine physician Edward Liveing inspired him to chronicle his observations on neurological diseases and oddities; to become the "Liveing of our Time".
Sacks served as an instructor and later clinical professor of neurology at Yeshiva University's Albert Einstein College of Medicine from 1966 to 2007, and also held an appointment at the New York University School of Medicine from 1992 to 2007. In July 2007, he joined the faculty of Columbia University Medical Center as a professor of neurology and psychiatry. At the same time, he was appointed Columbia University's first "Columbia University Artist" at the university's Morningside Heights campus, recognising the role of his work in bridging the arts and sciences. He was also a visiting professor at the University of Warwick in the UK. He returned to New York University School of Medicine in 2012, serving as a professor of neurology and consulting neurologist in the school's epilepsy centre.
Sacks's work at Beth Abraham Hospital helped provide the foundation on which the Institute for Music and Neurologic Function (IMNF) is built; Sacks was an honorary medical advisor. The Institute honoured Sacks in 2000 with its first Music Has Power Award. The IMNF again bestowed a Music Has Power Award on him in 2006 to commemorate "his 40 years at Beth Abraham and honour his outstanding contributions in support of music therapy and the effect of music on the human brain and mind".
Sacks maintained a busy hospital-based practice in New York City. He accepted a very limited number of private patients, in spite of being in great demand for such consultations. He served on the boards of the Neurosciences Institute and the New York Botanical Garden.
In 1967, Sacks first began to write of his experiences with some of his neurological patients. His first such book, Ward 23, was burned by Sacks during an episode of self-doubt. His books have been translated into over 25 languages. In addition, Sacks was a regular contributor to The New Yorker, the New York Review of Books, the London Review of Books and numerous other medical, scientific and general publications. He was awarded the Lewis Thomas Prize for Writing about Science in 2001.
Sacks's work is featured in a "broader range of media than those of any other contemporary medical author" and in 1990, the New York Times wrote he "has become a kind of poet laureate of contemporary medicine".
Sacks considered his literary style to have grown out of the tradition of 19th century "clinical anecdotes", a literary style that included detailed narrative case histories. He also counted among his inspirations the case histories of the Russian neuropsychologist A. R. Luria, who became a close friend through correspondence between 1973 and 1977, until Dr. Luria died. After the publication of his first book Migraine in 1970, a review by his close friend W. H. Auden encouraged Sacks to adapt his writing style to "be metaphorical, be mythical, be whatever you need".
Sacks described his cases with a wealth of narrative detail, concentrating on the experiences of the patient (in the case of his A Leg to Stand On, the patient was himself). The patients he described were often able to adapt to their situation in different ways despite the fact that their neurological conditions were usually considered incurable. His book Awakenings, upon which the 1990 feature film of the same name is based, describes his experiences using the new drug levodopa on Beth Abraham Hospital post-encephalitic patients. Awakenings was also the subject of the first documentary made (in 1974) for the British television series Discovery.
In his book A Leg to Stand On he wrote about the consequences of a near-fatal accident he had at age 41 in 1974, a year after the publication of Awakenings, when he fell off a cliff and severely injured his left leg while mountaineering alone above Hardangerfjord, Norway.
In some of his other books, he describes cases of Tourette syndrome and various effects of Parkinson's disease. The title article of The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat is about a man with visual agnosia and was the subject of a 1986 opera by Michael Nyman. The title article of his book, An Anthropologist on Mars, which won a Polk Award for magazine reporting, is about Temple Grandin, an autistic professor. He writes in the book's preface that neurological conditions such as autism "can play a paradoxical role, by bringing out latent powers, developments, evolutions, forms of life that might never be seen, or even be imaginable, in their absence." Seeing Voices, Sacks's 1989 book, covers a variety of topics in deaf studies.
In his book The Island of the Colorblind Sacks wrote about an island where many people have achromatopsia (total colourblindness, very low visual acuity and high photophobia). The second section of this book, entitled Cycad Island, describes the Chamorro people of Guam, who have a high incidence of a neurodegenerative disease locally known as Lytico-Bodig disease (a devastating combination of ALS, dementia and parkinsonism). Later, along with Paul Alan Cox, Sacks published papers suggesting a possible environmental cause for the disease, namely the toxin beta-methylamino L-alanine (BMAA) from the cycad nut accumulating by biomagnification in the flying fox bat.
In November 2012 Sacks's book Hallucinations was published. In it he examined why ordinary people can sometimes experience hallucinations and challenges the stigma associated with the word. He explained: "Hallucinations don't belong wholly to the insane. Much more commonly, they are linked to sensory deprivation, intoxication, illness or injury." He also considers the less well known Charles Bonnet syndrome, sometimes found in people who have lost their eyesight. The book was described by Entertainment Weekly as: "Elegant... An absorbing plunge into a mystery of the mind."
Sacks sometimes faced criticism in the medical and disability studies communities. Arthur K. Shapiro for instance, an expert on Tourette syndrome, said Sacks's work was "idiosyncratic" and relied too much on anecdotal evidence in his writings. Researcher Makoto Yamaguchi thought Sacks's mathematical explanations, in his study of the numerically gifted savant twins (in The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat), are irrelevant. Although Sacks has been characterised as a "compassionate" writer and doctor, others have felt that he exploited his subjects. Sacks was called "the man who mistook his patients for a literary career" by British academic and disability rights activist Tom Shakespeare, and one critic called his work "a high-brow freak show". Sacks responded, "I would hope that a reading of what I write shows respect and appreciation, not any wish to expose or exhibit for the thrill ... but it's a delicate business."
He is also the author of The Mind's Eye, Oaxaca Journal, On the Move (his second autobiography), and many articles in The New Yorker and The New York Review of Books.
In 1996, Sacks became a member of the American Academy of Arts and Letters (Literature). He was named a Fellow of the New York Academy of Sciences in 1999. Also in 1999, he became an Honorary Fellow at the Queen's College, Oxford. In 2002 he became Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (Class IV—Humanities and Arts, Section 4—Literature) and he was awarded the 2001 Lewis Thomas Prize by Rockefeller University. Sacks was also a Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians (FRCP).
Sacks was awarded honorary doctorates from Georgetown University (1990), College of Staten Island (1991), Tufts University (1991), New York Medical College (1991), Medical College of Pennsylvania (1992), Bard College (1992), Queen's University (Ontario) (2001), Gallaudet University (2005), University of Oxford (2005), Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú (2006) and Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (2008).
Sacks received the position "Columbia Artist" from Columbia University in 2007, a post that was created specifically for him and that gave him unconstrained access to the university, regardless of department or discipline.
Sacks never married and lived alone for most of his life. He declined to share interpersonal details until late in his life. He addressed his homosexuality for the first time in his 2015 autobiography On the Move: A Life. During his early career he indulged in:
"staggering bouts of pharmacological experimentation, underwent a fierce regimen of bodybuilding at Muscle Beach (for a time he held a California record, after he performed a full squat with 600 pounds across his shoulders), and racked up more than 100,000 leather-clad miles on his motorcycle. And then one day he gave it all up—the drugs, the sex, the motorcycles, the bodybuilding."
Celibate for about 35 years since his forties, in 2008 he began a friendship with writer and New York Times contributor Bill Hayes, that evolved into a committed long-term partnership in a shared home. He noted in a 2001 interview that severe shyness—which he described as "a disease"—had been a lifelong impediment to his personal interactions.
Sacks swam almost every day for nearly his entire life, beginning when his swimming-champion father started him swimming as a neonate. He especially became well-known for swimming when he lived in the City Island section of the Bronx, as he would routinely swim around the entire island.
Sacks had prosopagnosia, known popularly as "face blindness", which he discussed at length in a 2010 New Yorker piece. This disability, which prevented him from recognising even his own reflection, contributed to his shyness. His eldest brother Markus also had the condition.
Illness and death
Sacks underwent radiation therapy in 2006 for a uveal melanoma in his right eye. He discussed his loss of stereoscopic vision caused by the treatment, which eventually resulted in right-eye blindness, in an article and later in his book The Mind's Eye.
In December 2014 metastases from the ocular tumour were discovered in his liver and brain. Sacks announced this development in a February New York Times op-ed piece and estimated his remaining time in "months". He expressed his intent to "live in the richest, deepest, most productive way I can". He added: "I want and hope in the time that remains to deepen my friendships, to say farewell to those I love, to write more, to travel if I have the strength, to achieve new levels of understanding and insight."
- Migraine (1970) ISBN 978-0-375-70406-2
- Awakenings (1973) ISBN 0-375-70405-1
- A Leg to Stand On (1984) (Sacks's own experience, after his accident in Norway, of losing all awareness of his left leg.) ISBN 978-0-684-85395-6
- The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat (1985) ISBN 0-671-55471-9
- Seeing Voices: A Journey Into the World of the Deaf (1989) ISBN 0-520-06083-0
- An Anthropologist on Mars (1995) ISBN 0-679-43785-1 (First ed.)
- The Island of the Colorblind (1997) (First section about total congenital colour blindness in an island society; second section about Guam disease on Guam.) ISBN 978-0-676-97035-7
- Uncle Tungsten: Memories of a Chemical Boyhood (2001) (first autobiography) ISBN 0-375-40448-1
- Oaxaca Journal (2002) ISBN 978-0-307-94744-4 (travelogue of Sacks's ten-day trip with The Fern Society to Oaxaca, Mexico, 2000)
- Musicophilia: Tales of Music and the Brain (2007) ISBN 978-1-4000-4081-0
- The Mind's Eye (2010) ISBN 978-0-307-27208-9
- Hallucinations (2012) ISBN 978-0-307-95724-5
- On the Move: A Life (2015) (second autobiography) ISBN 978-0-385-35254-3
- Gratitude (2015) (published posthumously) ISBN 978-0451492937
- NeuroTribes: The Legacy of Autism and the Future of Neurodiversity by Steve Silberman (2015) (Sacks wrote the foreword) ISBN 978-1-583-33467-6
- "Remembering Oliver Sacks" Archived 7 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine., Charlie Rose interview from 1995
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- In the Region of Lost Minds. New York Times archive Archived 17 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine., retrieved 18 September 2015.
- "Meals and Memories". The New Yorker. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
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- An Anthropologist on Mars (Knopf, 1995), p. 70
- "Herzog family tree".
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- Nadine Epstein, (2008), Uncle Xenon: The Element of Oliver Sacks Archived 4 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Moment Magazine
- Sacks, Oliver (2001). Uncle Tungsten: Memories of a Chemical Boyhood. Vintage Books. ISBN 0-375-40448-1.
- Sacks, O. On the Move: A Life. Knopf (2015). ISBN 0385352549
- Brent, Frances (1 September 2015). "Book Review// On the Move". Moment. Retrieved 9 February 2016.
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- "Columbia University website, section of Psychiatry". Asp.cumc.columbia.edu. Archived from the original on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 29 December 2013.
- "Oliver Sacks: Tripping in Topanga, 1963 – The Los Angeles Review of Books". Lareviewofbooks.org. 12 December 2012. Retrieved 4 May 2015.
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- Sacks, O. Hallucinations. Knopf (2012). ISBN 0307957241
- "NYU Langone Medical Center Welcomes Neurologist and Author Oliver Sacks, MD" Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine.. Newswise.com. 13 September 2012.
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- "About the Institute". Institute for Music and Neurologic Function. Archived from the original on 14 May 2008. Retrieved 9 August 2008.
- "Henry Z. Steinway honored with 'Music Has Power' award: Beth Abraham Hospital honors piano maker for a lifetime of 'affirming the value of music'". Music Trades Magazine. 1 January 2006. Retrieved 9 August 2008.[dead link]
- "2006 Music Has Power Awards featuring performance by Rob Thomas, honouring acclaimed neurologist & author Dr. Oliver Sacks" (Press release). Beth Abraham Family of Health Services. 13 October 2006. Retrieved 9 August 2008.
- Sacks, O. Oliver Sacks Curriculum Vitae. Retrieved 2017-01-07 from http://www.oliversacks.com/os/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/Oliver-Sacks-cv-2014.pdf
- Steve Silberman. "NeuroTribes: The Legacy of Autism and the Future of Neurodiversity". Retrieved 3 May 2016.
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- [dead link] "Lewis Thomas Prize". The Rockefeller University. 18 March 2002. Retrieved 9 August 2008.
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- "The Inner Life of the Broken Brain: Narrative and Neurology". Radio National. All in the Mind. 2 April 2005. Archived from the original on 22 February 2008. Retrieved 10 August 2008.
- Sacks, O. (2014). Luria and "Romantic Science". In A. Yasnitsky, R. Van der Veer & M. Ferrari (Eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of cultural-historical psychology (517–528). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
- Wallace-Wells, David. "A Brain With a Heart". New York. Retrieved 30 August 2015.
- Sacks, Oliver (1996) . "Preface". An Anthropologist on Mars (New ed.). London: Picador. xiii–xviii. ISBN 0-330-34347-5.
The sense of the brain's remarkable plasticity, its capacity for the most striking adaptations, not least in the special (and often desperate) circumstances of neural or sensory mishap, has come to dominate my own perception of my patients and their lives.
- Sacks, Oliver (6 July 2013). "The Joy of Old Age. (No Kidding.)". The New York Times.
- Video: The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat (1987). The Open Mind. 1987. Retrieved 21 February 2012.
- Murch SJ, Cox PA, Banack SA, Steele JC, Sacks OW (October 2004). "Occurrence of beta-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) in ALS/PDC patients from Guam". Acta Neurol. Scand. 110 (4): 267–9. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0404.2004.00320.x. PMID 15355492.
- Cox PA, Sacks OW (March 2002). "Cycad neurotoxins, consumption of flying foxes, and ALS-PDC disease in Guam". Neurology. 58 (6): 956–9. doi:10.1212/wnl.58.6.956. PMID 11914415.(registration required)
- "Hallucinations: Oliver Sacks, M.D. On The Move, Hallucinations, Musicophilia, Awakenings, The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat". Oliversacks.com. Retrieved 24 August 2015.
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- Kushner (2000), p. 204
- Makoto Yamaguchi. "Savant syndrome and prime numbers". Polish Psychological Bulletin. pp. 69–73. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 July 2010. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
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- Sacks, Oliver (March 2002). Oaxaca Journal. National Geographic. ISBN 0792265211.
|Library resources about
- Official website
- Oliver Sacks's channel on YouTube
- "Oliver Sacks interviewed on Web of Stories". Web of Stories.
- Oliver Sacks at the Internet Movie Database
- Oliver Sacks at TED
- Oliver Sacks on Charlie Rose
- Appearances on C-SPAN
- "Appearances". Science Friday. Archived from the original on 5 September 2015.
- "Appearances". Radiolab.
- "Appearances". NPR.
- Wells, Katherine; Lichtman, Flora (2 December 2010). "Oliver Sacks" (video). Science Friday. Desktop Diaries. National Public Radio.
Writer and neurologist Oliver Sacks explains what his desk means to him
- Simon, Joanna (1989). "Watch this Oliver Sacks interview" (video). MacNeil/Lehrer News Hour. PBS (published 1 September 2015).
- Interview with Dempsey Rice, documentary filmmaker, about Oliver Sacks film