Olivetti typewriters

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The Olivetti company, an Italian manufacturer of computers, tablets, smartphones, printers and other such business products as calculators and fax machines, was founded as a typewriters manufacturer by Camillo Olivetti in 1908 in the Turin commune of Ivrea, Italy.

By 1994, Olivetti stopped production of typewriters, as more and more users were transitioning to personal computers.

The mechanical models[edit]

M1 (1911)[edit]

The M1, the first Olivetti typewriter.

Until the mid-1960s, the Olivetti typewriters were fully mechanical. Introduced at the Word Fair in Turin in 1911, the first Olivetti typewriter, the M1, was made of about 3000 hand made parts and weighed 17 kg.[1] It was the first Italian typewriter and had a keyboard of 42 keys corresponding to 84 signs,[2] 33-cm paper roll allowing for 110 characters and featured two-colored ribbon, automatic reverse direction, and return key.[3] Heavy and massive, it was intended for professional use in offices.

M20 (1920)[edit]

In 1920 the M1 was replaced by a new model, the M20. It featured several innovations, including the trolley running on a fixed guideway. Unlike the M1, which was essentially sold in Italy, it was exported to many European and non-European markets.

M40 (1930)[edit]

To update the M20, Olivetti worked on a new model which came out in 1930 and remained in production until 1948, the M40. A second version came out in 1937 and another one in the 1940s. Customers particularly appreciated the fixed-guide carriage, the lightness of touch of the keyboard and the speed of writing.

MP1 (1932)[edit]

In 1932, Olivetti presented a portable typewriter shortly after the launch of the M40: the MP1. Conceived by Gino Martinoli and Adriano Olivetti, developed by Riccardo Levi and designed by Aldo Magnelli, it weighed "only" 5.2 kilos compared to the 17 kilos of the M1, measured 11.7 centimetres high (half the height of the M1), and was intended for the office world and private users.

The mechanics was partly masked by the body and the monumental vertical structure of the M1 had been flattened and lightened. In addition to the black color of the M1 and M20, red, blue, light blue, brown, green, gray and ivory were added.

Studio 42 (1935)[edit]

Also known as the M2, it was designed in 1935 by Figini and Pollini, Ottavio Luzzati and Xanti Schawinsky. It is characterized by the various colors available: in addition to the classic black, it was also available in red, gray, brown and light blue.

The keyboard is the QZERTY type, as is usual for Italian machines (apart from modern computer keyboards). In addition to the writing keys, the keyboard includes a space bar, two shift keys, a shift lock, a return key, and a tab key.

The set of writing keys has an obvious lack: there is no key with the number 1, which is obtained by using the lowercase letter l (L) or the capital I (i); likewise, there is no zero, which is obtained by typing the capital O (o). Although this may seem strange today, it was quite common in the old typewriters.

There is also a portable version, with the machine fixed on a wooden base with black imitation leather and a removable protection also covered in wood, a black leather carrying handle and a chrome lock.[4]

Lexikon 80 (1948)[edit]

Studio 42 (1950)[edit]

Lettera 22 (1950)[edit]

A Lettera 22, first model

The Olivetti Lettera 22 [oliˈvetti ˈlɛttera ˌventiˈduːe] is a portable mechanical typewriter designed by Marcello Nizzoli in 1949 or, according to the company's current owner Telecom Italia, 1950.[5] This typewriter was very popular in Italy, and it still has many fans. It was awarded the Compasso d'oro prize in 1954. In 1959 the Illinois Institute of Technology chose the Lettera 22 as the best design product of the previous 100 years.

The typewriter is sized about 27x37x8 cm (with the carriage return lever adding about 1–2 more centimeters in height), making it quite portable at least for the time's standards, even though its 3.7 kg (8.2 lb) weight may limit portability somewhat.

A side view of the Lettera 22
A front view of the Lettera 22
The Lettera 22: "Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera"
The Lettera 22

The model was eventually succeeded by the Olivetti Lettera 32.

Mechanics[edit]

The Lettera 22 is an oblique frontstroke typebar typewriter. The typebars strike a red/black inked ribbon, which is positioned between the typebar and the paper by a lever whenever a key is pressed; a small switch located near the upper right side of the keyboard can be used to control the strike position of the ribbon, in order to print with black, red, or no ink (for mimeograph stencils).

Ribbon movement, which also occurs at every keypress, automatically reverses direction when there is no ribbon left on the feed reel; two mechanical sensors, situated next to each wheel, move when the ribbon is put under tension (indicating ribbon end), attaching the appropriate wheel to the ribbon transport mechanism and detaching the other.

The Lettera 22 uses a basket shift or segment shift (that is, the unit including the typebars moves up and down when shifting, as opposed to the carriage shift system). The Lettera 22 is quite compact compared to other 1950s portable typewriters using a basket shift, such as the Smith Corona Sterling or Remington-Rand Quiet-Riter.

The Lettera 22 also features a tabulator setting and clearing system that is controlled from the keyboard, and an innovative margin release that does double duty as a paragraph indentation key (it indents a paragraph when it is held down as the carriage is returned).

Keyboard[edit]

For the Italian market the keyboard is in the QZERTY layout, as with most Italian machines (excluding modern computer keyboards). Aside from the typing keys, the keyboard includes a space bar, two shift keys, one caps lock key, a backspace key and a margin release key. Of these, only the backspace key bears a mark on it (an arrow pointing right), while the other five mentioned are left anonymous.

The character set conspicuously lacks the numbers 0 and 1, which are supposed to be substituted by uppercase "O" and lowercase "l". Although this may seem like a strange absence today, this was actually common on older typewriters.[6]

Also lacking are the keys for uppercase accented vowels, some of which are present in Italian; however, these characters aren't typically found on modern keyboards, either.

The keyboard for the American variant is in the QWERTY layout. Although the character set lacks the number "1", presumably to be replaced by the lowercase "l", the "0" is present. One key has the fractions ½ and (shifted) ¼, while another has ¢ (cents) and (shifted) @. A British version is slightly different.[7]

Layout[edit]

  • Normal
é " ' ( _ è ^ ç à ) -
q z e r t y u i o p ì
a s d f g h j k l m ù
w x c v b n , ; : ò
  • Shifted
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 & ° +
Q Z E R T Y U I O P =
A S D F G H J K L M %
W X C V B N ? . / !

In popular culture[edit]

The Olivetti Lettera 22 is mentioned on pg. 15 of Thomas Pynchon's 2009 novel Inherent Vice.

The Olivetti Lettera 22 typewriter was featured in the film The Talented Mr. Ripley.

The novelist Will Self,[8] poet and singer Leonard Cohen[9] and actor Tom Hanks[10] have expressed use and ownership of this typewriter.

Indro Montanelli, the famous Italian journalist and newspaper director, used his Lettera 22 almost everywhere. A monument in Milan's public gardens Giardini Pubblici Indro Montanelli, inspired from a famous photo of Montanelli from the 1950s, is dedicated to him and his Lettera 22.

German writer Günter Grass had three Olivetti Letteras, which he used exclusively at his homes in Portugal, Germany (Schleswig-Holstein) and Denmark.

American writer Joan Didion mentions her Olivetti Lettera 22 in her book Where I Was From, recalling that she typed her 1963 novel Run, River on it.

William S. Burroughs replaced his Remington typewriter with a Lettera 22 in 1964.[11]

Travel writer Jan Morris reported using an Olivetti Valentine, a bright red model of the Lettera, from the 1960s until she "entered the computer age.".[12]

In chapter 99 of Hopscotch, Argentinian novelist Julio Cortázar writes (translation follows) "En aquel tiempo había sido como si lo que escribía estuviese ya tendido delante de él, escribir era pasar una Lettera 22 sobre palabras invisibles pero presentes, como el diamante por el surco del disco." This translates to "In those times it had been as though what he wrote were already stretched out ahead of him, writing was passing a Lettera 22 over invisible but present words, like the needle on the groove of the record."[13]

Studio 44 (1952)[edit]

Diaspron 82 (1959)[edit]

Lettera 10 (1979)[edit]

Lettera 32 (1963)[edit]

A Lettera 32 with Arabic keyboard

The Olivetti Lettera 32 is a portable mechanical typewriter designed by Marcello Nizzoli for Olivetti in 1963 as the successor of the popular Olivetti Lettera 22. The Lettera 32 was also very popular amongst writers, journalists and students.

The typewriter is sized about 34x35x10 cm (with the carriage return lever adding about 1–2 centimeters in height), making it portable at least for the time's standards, even though its 5.9 kg weight may limit portability somewhat.

The Lettera 32 did not come with a manual but with an instruction card.[14]

Mechanics[edit]

The Lettera 32 is a downstrike typebars typewriter. The typebars strike a red/black inked ribbon, which is positioned between the typebar and the paper by a lever whenever a key is pressed; a small switch located near the upper right side of the keyboard can be used to control the strike position of the ribbon, in order to print with black, red, or no ink (for mimeograph stencils).

Ribbon movement, which also occurs at every keypress, automatically reverses direction when there is no ribbon left on the feed reel; two mechanical sensors, situated next to each wheel, move when the ribbon is put under tension (indicating ribbon end), attaching the appropriate wheel to the ribbon transport mechanism and detaching the other.

Keyboard[edit]

The keyboard uses QWERTY, AZERTY and various other layouts. Apart from the typing keys, the keyboard includes a space bar, two shift keys, a caps lock, a backspace key, margin release key, paragraph indentation key and a tab-stop set/unset key.

As was common in older typewriters, it lacks the number 1, which is supposed to be substituted by the lowercase l.

Popular culture[edit]

Cormac McCarthy used an Olivetti Lettera 32 to write nearly all of his fiction, screenplays, and correspondence, totalling by his estimate more than 5 million words. The Lettera 32 that he purchased in 1963 was auctioned at Christie's on December 4, 2009, to an unidentified American collector for $254,500, more than 10 times its high estimate of $20,000.[15] McCarthy paid $11 for a replacement typewriter of the same model, but in newer condition.[16]

Francis Ford Coppola used an Olivetti Lettera 32 to write the screenplay for the 1972 motion picture The Godfather, which he also directed.[17]

Subsequent models[edit]

From then on, the technology of the hand-held portables tends to stabilize. The mechanics of the Lettera 32 is therefore maintained at the base of the subsequent models: the Olivetti Dora and Lettera De Luxe (1965), Lettera 25 and 35 (1974), Lettera 10 and 12 (1979) and 40/41/42 and 50/51/52 (1980) differ mainly in design.

Dora (1965)[edit]

Lettera DL (1965)[edit]

Studio 45 (1967)[edit]

Lettera 25 (1972)[edit]

Lettera 35 (1972)[edit]

Lettera 35 model

The Olivetti Lettera 35 is a portable mechanical typewriter created in 1972 by Mario Bellini and released to the public in 1974.

More than 10 years after the Lettera 32, Olivetti felt the need to renew the design of its portable typewriters. Thus, the Lettera 35 was launched. Unlike the Lettera 22 and 32 , which maintain a simple and essential style, the Lettera 35 features a robust design to create the image of a professional machine that recalls the future Lettera 36, an electric typewriter released in 1970.[18]

Mechanics[edit]

With the same mechanics as the Lettera 32, the Olivetti Lettera 35 is a typewriter with pressure writing levers. Each time a key is pressed, the corresponding hammer, through the kinematic mechanism, goes to beat on the tape with red or black ink, behind which is the sheet of paper on which is thus imprinted the corresponding symbol.

A lever located at the top right of the keyboard can be used to control the position of the ribbon and select printing in black, red or without ink (in case of copies with carbon paper or for the preparation of ink matrices for the mimeograph). The ribbon winds with each key press and automatically changes winding direction when it is finished in one of the two spools in which it is wound. Two mechanical sensors located near each spool move when the ribbon stretches (this indicates that it is finishing) and reverse its winding direction.[19]

Keyboard[edit]

The original Italian version used the QZERTY keyboard, although versions with different key arrangements were produced which corresponded with other languages.

The alphanumeric keys totaled 43 of the 86 total keys. Other than this, the keyboard had a space bar, two keys to set uppercase letters, a caps lock key, a lever to for the ability to go beyond the set margins, a key for backspacing, a lever to switch tabs, and a (red) key to switch between tabs. [20]

The set of characters available has obvious shortcomings: there is no key with the number 1, which is obtained by using the lowercase letter l (L) or the capital I (i); there are no keys for the accented uppercase vowels used in the Italian language, which were replaced by normal letters followed by the apostrophe. This type of solution was quite common in the typewriters of the time.

Valentine (1969)[edit]

The Olivetti Valentine designed by Ettore Sottsass.

The Valentine's transgressive design of Ettore Sottsass, defined by the poet Giovanni Giudici as "a Lettera 32 disguised as a sixties girl", quickly became a cult product. It is the first example of a surprising, non-conformist office product that anticipates the evolution of the working world towards a more informal style.

Studio 46 (1973)[edit]

The electromechanical models[edit]

The Editor series was used for speed typing championship competition. The Editor 5 from 1969 was the top model of that series, with proportional spacing and the ability to support justified text borders. In 1972 the electromechanical typeball machines of the Lexicon 90 to 94C series were introduced, as competitors to the IBM Selectric typewriters, the top model 94c supported proportional spacing and justified text borders like the Editor 5, as well as lift-off correction.

Lexikon 80e[edit]

Praxis 48 (1964)[edit]

Based on Tekne 1 but radically changed design from Ettore Sottsass.

Tekne 1 (1962)[edit]

The Tekne and later Editor series introduced Olivett's own solution to drive the type lever. While other manufactures based their drive on a rotating roller, rubber coated or with teeth, Olivetti designed an up and down swinging flag drive which pulls the type lever towards the paper roller. So the movement of the type lever was under full control and made possible to implement a double strike protection based on inertia of the type lever and the force driven by the swinging flag to protect the types from damage when the typist unintentionally hits two or more keys at once. Tekne 1 was the base model of the series.

Tekne 2[edit]

Tekne 3[edit]

Editor 2[edit]

Renamed model from Tekne 2.

Editor 3[edit]

Initially renamed version of Tekne 3, later production derives from simplified Editor 4. Both versions, old flat and later higher version of Editor 3 were used as alphanumeric printer in Olivetti's computer P203.

Editor 4[edit]

The Editor 4 alternatively was available with textile or carbon ribbon. A special version of it was the Editor 4ST which was used by Olivetti as a alphanumeric printer for some of their first personal computers like P506 and P652. The typewriter was controlled by the computer by additional electromechanical components at the keyboard levers at the bottom of the machine.

Editor 5 (1969)[edit]

The E5 was the top model of the Editor series. Based on the E4 it has carbon ribbonb, proportional spacing and block aligned text support. The combination of proportional spacing and block aligned text is a challenge for the typist as he/she has to write every line two times, first time without printing, while that a mechanical display counts the words in the line, and in the second pass it displays to the typist how many spaces with 2 or 3 elementary steps he still has to fill in the line to get a perfect result. To type spaces with 2 or 3 elementary steps the space bar is dived into to halfes.

Lexikon 90 (1972)[edit]

The Lexikon 9x series was Olivetti's quite successfull attempt to follow IBM' Selectrix series to have exchangeable fonts on typeball. To avoid IBM's patents Olivetti made everything different, so the typeball does not rotate horizontally, but vertically, it has no moving print head, but instead the paper wagon was moving what also made possible to take over some mechanics of the Editor series. The mechanics to control the typeball was not controlled by wire ropes which made the Selectrix hard to adjust to work reliable but on turnable axles which made the Lexikon series very reliable and robust. The national keyboard layouts and typeballs were customizeable over a mechanical 'ROM' based on metal flags inside the keyboards where in production or maintanance single teeth could be broken out to change the layout according to tables in the service manual. The degrees to rotate the typeball was depending on this coding, using levers with moving turnpoint when pressing a key. The Lexikon 90 was the base model of the series.

Lexikon 92 (1972)[edit]

This is upgraded version of Lexikon 90 providing to choose different pitches.

Lexikon 93c (1972)[edit]

Upgraded version of Lexikon 92 having additional correction ribbon, so with this model already written text could be deleted half manually by press a delete key which backspaces the paper wagon and then the typist has to press the character he wants to delete. The machine instead of lifting the black ribbon it lifts the correction tape to cover up or lift off the character on the paper.

Lexikon 94c (1972)[edit]

This was the top model of the series providing proportional spacing and block aligned text similar to the Editor 5.

Lettera 36 (1974)[edit]

Portable compact electric type lever machine, produced in GDR for Olivetti. The Lettera 36 had a bat reputation as her mechanics was quite unreliable, anyhow because of her low price she was quite successfull. There were two different keyboard designs.

Lexikon 82 (1976)[edit]

Portable compact electrical printball machine, successor of Lettera 36.

The electronic models - the office machines[edit]

In 1978 Olivetti was one of the first manufacturers to introduce electronic daisywheel printer-based word processing machines, called TES 401 and TES 501. Later the ET series typewriters without (or with) LCD and different levels of text editing capabilities were popular in offices. Models in that line were ET 121, ET 201, ET 221, ET 225, ET 231, ET 351, ET 109, ET 110, ET 111, ET 112, ET 115, ET 116, ET 2000, ET 2100, ET 2200, ET 2250, ET 2300, Et 2400 and ET 2500.

TES 501 (1976)[edit]

TES 401 (1978)[edit]

ET 101 (1978)[edit]

ET 201 (1979)[edit]

ET 221 (1979[edit]

ET 231 (1980)[edit]

ET 121 (1982)[edit]

ET 225 (1982)[edit]

ET 351 (1980)[edit]

ET 110 (1983)[edit]

ET 111 (1984)[edit]

ET 115 (1984)[edit]

ET 112 (1986)[edit]

ET 116 (1986)[edit]

ET 2100 (1988)[edit]

ET 2300 (1988)[edit]

ET 2400 (1988)[edit]

ET 2500 (1988)[edit]

ET 2250 (1990)[edit]

ET 2250MD (1990)[edit]

ET 2450 (1990)[edit]

ET 2450MD (1990)[edit]

ET 1250 (1991)[edit]

ET 1250MD (1991)[edit]

The electronic models - the portables[edit]

For home users in 1982 the Praxis 35, Praxis 40 and 45D were some of the first portable electronic typewriters. Later, Olivetti added the Praxis 20, ET Compact 50, ET Compact 60, ET Compact 70, ET Compact 65/66, the ET Personal series and Linea 101. The top models were 8 lines LCD based portables like Top 100 and Studio 801, with the possibility to save the text to a 3.5-inch floppy disk.

Praxis 30 (1980)[edit]

Praxis 35 (1980)[edit]

Praxis 40 (1981)[edit]

Praxis 41 (1981)[edit]

Praxis 45D (1982)[edit]

Praxis 20 (1983)[edit]

ET Personal 50 (1985)[edit]

ET Compact 60 (1985)[edit]

ET Compact 70 (1986)[edit]

ET Personal 55 (1987)[edit]

ET Personal 56 (1987)[edit]

ET Compact 65 (1987)[edit]

ET Compact 66 (1987)[edit]

Praxis 100 (1987)[edit]

Praxis 200 (1987)[edit]

Linea 101 ()[edit]

Lettera 92 (1988)[edit]

PTP 505 ()[edit]

PTP 506 ()[edit]

PTP 605 ()[edit]

TOP 100 ()[edit]

Studio 801 ()[edit]

PTP 820 ()[edit]

ET Personal 540 (1991)[edit]

ET Personal 540 II (1992)[edit]

Jetwriter 900 (1992)[edit]

The video typewriters[edit]

The professional line was upgraded with the ETV series video typewriters based on CP/M operating system, ETV 240, ETV 250, ETV 300, ETV 350 and later MS-DOS operating system based ETV 260, ETV 500, ETV 2700, ETV 2900, ETV 4000s word processing systems having floppy drives or hard disks. Some of them (ETV 300, 350, 500, 2900) were external boxes that could be connected through an optional serial interface to many of the ET series office typewriters, the others were fully integrated with an external monitor which could be installed on a holder over the desk. Most of the ET/ETV/Praxis series electronic typewriters were designed by Marion Bellini.

ETV 300 (1982)[edit]

The ETV 300 wordprocessor is a Zilog Z80 based box running on CP/M operating system. It was connected over serial interface to an ET 121 or ET 225 office typewriter which was used as the keyboard and daisywheel printer. The 5,25 inch single sided boot diskette starts directly in the MWP called wordprocessing software. Optionally it was available with a second floppy drive to store documents over there. Both floppy drives are 40 tracks 160 kB capacity. A rare version is the diskless ETV 300 which used to have the operating system and MWP in a ROM and storing the documents in battery buffered SRAM. The 80x25 characters green monochrome monitor with a diameter of 12 inch can stand on the ETV 300 box.

ETS 1010 (1982)[edit]

ETV 350 (1984)[edit]

The ETV 350 is the successor of ETV 300. The box was a bit more compact and instead of one or two 5.25 inch drives it was using the more modern 3,5 inc single sided diskettes with 320 kB. Usually the ETV 350 was delivered with ET 111 or ET 115 as keyboard and printer.

ETS 2010 (1984)[edit]

ETV 240 (1984)[edit]

The ETV 240 is a typewriter integrated design. On the base board it has two computers, a simpler one, based on NEC 7801 CPU to control the keyboaerd and the ET 115 office typewriter based daisywheel printer and a Z80 CPU based running CP/M 2.2 and the MWP wordprocessor software from ROM. The base configuration is diskless, storing all saved documents in battery buffered 32 kB RAM. This configuration can be enhanced by adding one 360 kB single sided 3.5 inch floppy drive supporting the same disk and document format as ETV 350. The 80x25 characters CRT 12 inch green monitor optionally can be mounted on a pivotable arm. Like ET 111 to 116 the print head has also optical sensor to detect type / pich and nationality of the daiswheel.

ETV 250 (1984)[edit]

This is enhanced version of ETV 240. Instead of ROM based design the ETV 250 boots CP/M 2.2 and MWP wordprocessor from 3.5 floppy. Optionally the ETV 250 can have two floppy drives. For ETV 240 and 250 sprockets and automatic sheet feeder could be added. The ETV 250 could be enhanced with serial interface cardridges to support serial interface, external 5,25 floppy drive for data exchange with some ET series typewriters and ETV 300. There was a special serial interface to run the ETV 250 on the Teletex network as a sender and receiver of messages, similar to teletype, this was the so called ETV 250TTX. Like on ETV 300 the wordprocessor was exitable to run standard CP/M software on this video typewriter.

ETV 260 (1986)[edit]

This video typewriter is based on Olivetti M19 mainbaord and ET 116 office typewriter daisywheel printer. As it has Intel 8088 CPU at 8 MHz (M19 is only 4.77 Mhz), 640 kB RAM and CGA graphics it runs MS-DOS and it's applications. The wordprocessing software SWS (secretary's work-station) is based on Olivetti branded MS-DOS 3.20. SWS supports to include tables which also could be used to print simple line based graphics in a document. Computer and printer are integrated in one box, like on ETV 240/250 the monitor can be installed on an arm and the keyboard is similar to IBM's XT layout. As mass storage it is uses two 3.5 inch 720 kB floppy drives or one floppy drive plus 20 MB harddisk. The daisywhell printer is fully software driven by a config.sys driver running on the 8088 CPU and behaves like an external printer on LPT1:. Thr printer driver also contains a hotkey function which is running under any MS-DOS software to write directly on the printer like a normal typewriter, inclusive correction function. The print head has optical paper sensor to automatically detect the left margin of the paper and align printing on the paper, it is printing bidirectional at 35 cps which is quite fast for a daiswheel printer. Like ET 111 to 116 the print head has also optical sensor to detect type / pich and nationality of the daiswheel. Optionally there was sprocket and automatic sheetfeeder available. The SWP wordprocessor software is able to read MWP documents of ETV 350, 240, 250 and 210s from their proprietary CP/M based disk format. Optionally there was an external DU 260 called 360 kB 5.25 inch floppy drive to support diskettes of ETV 300 for document import.

ETV 500 (1986)[edit]

This was basically a rebaged M19 personal computer. The difference is that the 8088 CPU runs at 8 instead of 4.77 MHz and instead of 5.25 inch floppy drives it uses 720 kB 3.5 inch. The client had the choice to use the same XT layout based keyboard as on ETV 260 or the keyboard of a serial connected ET 112 or ET 116 typewriter. Typically the connected typewriter was also used as the printer, or some of Olivetti's own dotmatrix or daisywheel printers coould be used.

ETV 210s (1987)[edit]

With it's thermo transfer print head, based on IBM's quietwriter patents combined with the printer chassis of ET 116 the ETV 210s was announced as the future of the typewriter. The ETV 210s runns with a Zilog Z80 compatible CPU from Hitachi, running CP/M and wordprocessor in ROM. The PC style external keyboard is quite special as it contains 80x5 characters alphanumeric LC display to write the documents. Otherwise its functionally is similar to ETV 240 supporting the same file format in battery buffered SRAM or optionally on one 3.5 inch 720 kb Floppy disks which are also able to read disks from ETV 240, 250 and 350.

ETV 2700 (1988)[edit]

The ETV 2700 is the low cost successor of ETV 260, based on the ET 2000 series printer mechanics. The machine is fully integrated, NEC V40 based PC with electronics to control the printer is on one small footprint mainboard. Even the keyboard is directly attached to the machine. The system runs MS-DOS and the SWP word processor software which is document compatible to ETV 260 / 3000 SWP. The external black and white CGA compatible can be installed on a pivotable arm. As mass storage there could be one 720 kB MS-DOS compatibl3 floppy drive, or two of them, or one of them plus 20 MB XTA interface based harddisk.

ETV 2900 (1988)[edit]

VM 2000 (1989)[edit]

This is same like ETV 2900, the only difference is modified BIOS to prevent user to boot from standard MS-DOS diskettes. So always the VM 2000 own diskettes have to be used. This prevented the user to run other MS-DOS based applications on VM 2000. This is explained by employment laws in the difference of a typewriter- and a PC worker.

ETV 3000 (1988)[edit]

This is mostly a renamed ETV 260, the only difference is that it has different video connector to support the CRT black & white monitor of ETV 2700.

ETV 4000s (1989)[edit]

ETV 400 is similar to ETV 500, but the base is not M19 PC, but M290. So with Intel 80286 CPU this wordprocessing system was running Windows 2.0 with the wordprocessing software of ETV 4000s. The standard printer was TH700 which is more or less a keyboard/floppydrive-less version of the ETV 210s.

ETV 5000 (1988)[edit]

CWP 1 (1988)[edit]

Editor 100 (1990)[edit]

Jetwriter 910 (1992)[edit]

By 1994, Olivetti stopped production of typewriters, as more and more users were transitioning to personal computers.

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Olivetti M1 and M20, The Typewriter Museum (2017)
  2. ^ Olivetti M1, Berthold Kerschbaumer, The Classic Typewriter Page (2021)
  3. ^ Dante's endorsement for the Olivetti M1, Italianways.com (March 2015)
  4. ^ Istruzioni per l'uso della macchina Olivetti Studio 42, Olivetti, 1935.
  5. ^ Olivetti design at Telecom Italia
  6. ^ On a computer keyboard, the numbers are compulsory because computers cannot interpret a letter for a number like humans can.
  7. ^ "Lettera 22 Instuctions: Cover". Flickr.com. 26 July 2009. Retrieved 8 December 2018.
  8. ^ Clark, Alex (17 March 2018). "Will Self: 'The novel is absolutely doomed'". the Guardian. Retrieved 19 March 2018.
  9. ^ Cohen, Scott (August 1985). "The Portable Leonard Cohen". Spin. p. 25.
  10. ^ Warner, Kara (17 July 2012), Tom Hanks' Online Series 'Electric City' A 'Different Brand Of Noir', MTV.com, retrieved 26 November 2012
  11. ^ Miles, Barry (2013). Call Me Burroughs. New York: Twelve. p. 426. ISBN 978-1-4789-8181-7.
  12. ^ Morris, Jan (1997). Fifty Years of Europe. New York: Villard. p. 198. ISBN 0-679-41610-2.
  13. ^ Cortázar, Julio (1984). Rayuela. Madrid: Cátedra. p. 612. ISBN 978-84-376-2474-7.
  14. ^ "Typewriter User's Manual - Olivetti-Underwood Lettera 32 (circa 1964)". www.munk.org. Retrieved 2021-09-03.
  15. ^ Kennedy, Randy (2009-12-04). "NY Times: Cormac McCarthy's Typewriter Brings $254,500 at Auction". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-12-04.
  16. ^ Cohen, Patricia (2009-12-01). "NY Times: No Country for Old Typewriters: A Well-Used One Heads to Auction". NY Times. Retrieved 2009-11-30.
  17. ^ Kilgannon, Corey (2013-12-27). "NY Times: Finessing Typewriters for Nearly 40 Years, and Now Turning Over the Keys". The New York Times. Retrieved 2021-03-20.
  18. ^ Macchina per scrivere portatile Lettera 35, Storiaolivetti.it (2021)
  19. ^ Il design dei prodotti Olivetti, Storiaolivetti.it (2008)
  20. ^ Dalla MP1 alla Valentine, passando per la Lettera 22 e 32, Storiaolivetti.it (2008)