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The Olubadan (Olubadan means Lord of Ibadan) is the royal title of the king of Ibadan land in Nigeria, now a largely symbolic role. Ibadan was founded in the 16th century, but the present Yoruba people only took control around 1820. By 1850 they had established their unusual succession principle, which is quite different compared with other traditional Yoruba rulers in that it alternates between two lines. It usually takes decades to groom an Olubadan for the stool through stages of chieftaincy promotion, thus meaning that just about any male born title-holder of the metropolitan center is a potential king.
According to the outline history of Ibadan by Oba Isaac Akinyele, Ibadan was founded in the 16th century. Around 1820, an army of Egba, Ijebu, Ife and Oyo people won the town during their wars with the Fulanis. After a struggle between the victors, the Oyo gained control in 1829. A system where the Baale line (civic) and Balogun Isoriki line (military) shared power was established by 1851, subject to a traditional council representing both lines.
In 1885 C.E. the Royal Niger Company became effective rulers of the area, signing treaties with local powers such as the Olubadan, and in 1900 the British government formally assumed authority over Nigeria as a "Protectorate". The British created the Ibadan Town Council in 1897, using the traditionally powerful local chiefs to administer their town. In 1901 the Governor Sir William MacGregor introduced an ordinance whereby the Baale became the president of the Council while the Resident was only to advise when necessary (Rulers of Ibadan were generally referred to as Baale until 1936, when the title of Olubadan was resuscitated). 
On 1 October 1960, Nigeria gained its independence from the United Kingdom. Various juntas then ruled for almost forty years. In 1999, a democratically elected government came into power.
There are two ruling lines to the throne of Olubadan, Egbe Agba (civil) and Balogun (military), from where Olubadans are appointed on rotational basis to occupy the stool on the death of a monarch. The next to Olubadan and most senior on both lines are the Otun Olubadan and Balogun, who under the Western Nigeria Law are recognised as second class traditional rulers and who are included on the Nigerian equivalent of a civil list as a result. Others are the Osi Olubadan, Asipa Olubadan, Ekerin and Ekarun, as well as Otun Balogun, Osi Balogun, Asipa Balogun, Ekerin and Ekarun Balogun, while the Seriki and Iyalode, ("mother of the town", female chief) are also members of the Olubadan's privy council.
The 11 high chiefs that formed the Olubadan-in-council, apart from the Seriki and Iyalode, are recognised as the traditional head of each of the 11 LGs in Ibadanland. It was learnt that the progenitors of Ibadan frowned on the involvement of the senior chiefs in partisan politics because of the salient neutral roles they were expected to play in their domains. For instance, they are appointed as presidents of customary courts, who are expected to adjudicate on matrimonial, land, boundary and other communal disputes.
The Olubadan has the sweeping powers to depose or peg a chief, irrespective of the person's position on the chieftaincy line. By implication, high chiefs on the lower cadre could be promoted above a high chief whose position was pegged. Even when forgiven, in the event that he was penitent, the promotion would not be reversed while the offending high chief served his punishment. For instance, during the reign of Oba Fijabi II, between 1948 and 1952, a wealthy Balogun, who was next to Olubadan, was said to have had his chieftaincy pegged. About the same time, a holder of the title of Osi-Olubadan was also hammered for acts of disloyalty to the cause of Ibadanland, an offence regarded as treasonable felony. Spirited efforts made by a former Minister in the old Western Region to seek redress from the government and the courts when his chieftaincy title was also pegged, was reported to have failed. Although he was said to have been forgiven after seeking help outside the courts, his juniors who had been promoted above him were said to have remained his seniors thereafter.
In 1983, the late Olubadan, Oba Yesufu Asanike, withdrew the honorary title of Are Alasa from the then Governor of the old Oyo State, the late Chief Bola Ige, for an act considered as being disrespectful to Ibadanland.
Oba Ogundipe, the 39th Olubadan, ascended the throne on 7 May 1999 and died in 2007 at the age of 87. He was succeeded by Oba Samuel Odulana, Odugade I who died on Tuesday 19th January 2016 aged 101. Although the role is now largely symbolic, the Olubadan is still an influential figure and is not hesitant to attack local political leaders on issues such as violence, corruption and lack of true democracy in the region.
List of Olubadan
- Oluyole 1850
- Oba Isaac Babalola Akinyele 1955–1964
- Oba Samuel Odulana Odungade I (2007–2016)
- Oba Saliu Adetunji (March 4, 2016–present)