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Olympic sports

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Archery competition held during the Athens 2004 Summer Olympics. Dropped from the Olympic program after the 1920 Antwerp games, it was reinstated in 1972.

Olympic sports are contested in the Summer Olympic Games and Winter Olympic Games. The 2020 Summer Olympics included 33 sports;[1] the 2022 Winter Olympics included seven sports.[2][3] Each Olympic sport is represented by an international governing body, namely an International Federation (IF).[4]

The International Olympic Committee (IOC) establishes a hierarchy of sports, disciplines, and events.[4] According to this hierarchy, each Olympic sport can be subdivided into multiple disciplines, which are often mistaken as distinct sports. Examples include swimming and water polo, which are in fact disciplines of the sport of "Aquatics" (represented by the International Swimming Federation),[5] and figure skating and speed skating, which are both disciplines of the sport of "Ice skating" (represented by the International Skating Union).[6] In turn, disciplines are subdivided into events, for which Olympic medals are awarded.[4] The number and types of events may change slightly from one Olympiad to another.

Previous Olympic Games included sports that are no longer included in the current program, such as polo and tug of war.[7] Known as "discontinued sports", these have been removed due to either a lack of interest or the absence of an appropriate governing body for the sport.[4] Some sports that were competed at the early Games and later dropped by the IOC, have managed to return to the Olympic program, for example archery, which made a comeback in 1972, and tennis, which was reintroduced in 1988. The Olympics have often included one or more demonstration sports, normally to promote a local sport from the host country or to gauge interest in an entirely new sport.[8] Some such sports, like baseball and curling, were added to the official Olympic program (in 1992 and 1998, respectively). Baseball was discontinued after the 2008 Olympics in Beijing, only to be revived again for the 2020 Olympics in Tokyo, which saw the introduction of new disciplines within a number of existing Summer Olympic sports as well as several new sports, such as karate and skateboarding, making their Olympic debuts. Breakdancing will make its debut at the 2024 Summer Olympics in Paris.

Olympic sports definitions

The term "sport" in Olympic terminology refers to all events sanctioned by an international sport federation, a definition that may differ from the common meaning of the word "sport". One sport, by Olympic definition, may comprise several disciplines, which would often be regarded as separate sports in common usage.

For example, aquatics is a summer Olympic sport that includes six disciplines: swimming, synchronized swimming, diving, water polo, open water swimming, and high diving (the last of which is a non-Olympic discipline), since all these disciplines are governed at international level by the International Swimming Federation.[3] Skating is a winter Olympic sport represented by the International Skating Union, and includes four disciplines: figure skating, speed skating (on a traditional long track), short track speed skating, and synchronized skating (the latter is a non-Olympic discipline).[3] The sport with the largest number of Olympic disciplines is skiing, with six: alpine skiing, cross-country skiing, ski jumping, Nordic combined, snowboarding, and freestyle skiing.

Other notable multi-discipline sports are gymnastics (artistic, rhythmic, and trampoline), cycling (road, track, mountain, and BMX), volleyball (indoors and beach), wrestling (freestyle and Greco-Roman), canoeing (flatwater and slalom), and bobsleigh (includes skeleton). The disciplines listed here are only those contested in the Olympics—gymnastics has two non-Olympic disciplines, while cycling and wrestling have three each.

The IOC definition of a "discipline" may differ from that used by an international federation. For example, the IOC considers artistic gymnastics a single discipline, but the International Federation of Gymnastics (FIG) classifies men's and women's artistic gymnastics as separate disciplines.[9] Similarly, the IOC considers freestyle wrestling to be a single discipline, but United World Wrestling uses "freestyle wrestling" strictly for the men's version, classifying women's freestyle wrestling as the separate discipline of "female wrestling".[10]

On some occasions, notably in the case of snowboarding, the IOC agreed to add a sport that previously had a separate international federation to the Olympics on condition that they dissolve their governing body and instead affiliate with an existing Olympic sport federation, therefore not increasing the number of Olympic sports.

An event, by IOC definition, is a competition that leads to the award of medals. Therefore, the sport of aquatics includes a total of 46 Olympic events, of which 32 are in the discipline of swimming, eight in diving, and two each in synchronized swimming, water polo, and open water swimming. The number of events per sport ranges from a minimum of two (until 2008, there were sports with only one event) to a maximum of 47 in athletics, which despite its large number of events and its diversity is not divided into disciplines except on an informal basis - the division between, for example, swimming and diving in aquatics is not replicated within athletics by divisions between track and field events, or stadium and road events.

Criteria for inclusion and thresholds

In the past there have been numeric criteria about widely practiced sports, disciplines or events. Nowadays such criteria have been abolished.[11]

The sports that are eligible for inclusion in the programme, beside the current Olympic International Federations, are only those “governed by other IFs recognised by the IOC”,  as per the Bye-law to Rule 45 of the Olympic Charter (§1.3.2). If this criterion is met, then the opportunity to propose additional sports to the programme is at the full discretion of the respective Organising Committee of the Olympic Games and subject to the final decision of the IOC Session.[12]

However, there are indicative thresholds which restrict the addition of new sports, disciplines and events. According to Bye-law 3.2 to Rule 45 of the Olympic Charter, in the edition of 2021: "Unless agreed otherwise with the relevant OCOG [Organising Committee for the Olympic Games], the following approximate numbers shall apply:

– with respect to the Games of the Olympiad, ten thousand five hundred (10,500) athletes, five thousand (5,000) accredited coaches and athletes’ support personnel and three hundred and ten (310) events.

– with respect to the Olympic Winter Games, two thousand nine hundred (2,900) athletes, two thousand (2,000) accredited coaches and athletes’ support personnel and one hundred (100) events."[13]

However, such thresholds have already been surpassed.

Changes in Olympic sports

Curling was promoted to an official Olympic sport at the 1998 Winter Olympics in Nagano.

The list of Olympic sports has changed considerably during the course of Olympic history, and has gradually increased over time.

The only summer sports that have never been absent from the Olympic program are athletics, aquatics (the discipline of swimming has been in every Olympics), cycling, fencing, and gymnastics (the discipline of artistic gymnastics has been in every Olympics).

The only winter sports that were included in all Winter Olympic Games are skiing (only nordic skiing), skating (figure skating and speed skating), and ice hockey. Figure skating and ice hockey were also included in the Summer Olympics before the Winter Olympics were introduced in 1924.

For most of the 20th century, demonstration sports were included in many Olympic Games, usually to promote a non-Olympic sport popular in the host country, or to gauge interest and support for the sport.[8] The competitions and ceremonies in these sports were identical to official Olympic sports, except that the medals were not counted in the official record. Some demonstration sports, like baseball and curling, were later added to the official Olympic program. This changed when the International Olympic Committee decided in 1989 to eliminate demonstration sports from Olympics Games after 1992.[14] An exception was made in 2008, when the Beijing Organizing Committee received permission to organize a wushu tournament.[15][16]

Women are still barred from several disciplines; but on the other hand, there are women-only disciplines, such as rhythmic gymnastics and synchronized swimming.

In previous years, sports that depend primarily on mechanical propulsion, such as motor sports, could not be considered for recognition as Olympic sports, though there were power-boating events in the early days of the Olympics before this rule was enacted by the IOC.[4][17] Part of the story of the founding of aviation sports' international governing body, the FAI, originated from an IOC meeting in Brussels, Belgium on 10 June 1905.[18]The relevant strict clause excluding motorsports, stating that "Sports, disciplines or events in which performance depends essentially on mechanical propulsion are not accepted"[19] has been removed from the Olympic Charter.[20][21] FIA[22] and FAI[23] are included in the International Federations recognised by the International Olympic Committee,[24] and therefore in theory could be eligible.

In the Winter Olympics the number of events and athletes continue to increase, but no sport has been added since 1998. The latest winter sports added to the Winter Olympics were snowboarding and curling in 1998.

Previous Olympic Games included sports which are no longer present on the current program, like polo and tug of war.[3] In the early days of the modern Olympics, the organizers were able to decide which sports or disciplines were included on the program, until the IOC took control of the program in 1924. As a result, a number of sports were on the Olympic program for relatively brief periods before 1924.[4] These sports, known as discontinued sports, were removed because of lack of interest or absence of an appropriate governing body, or because they became fully professional at the time that the Olympic Games were strictly for amateurs, as in the case of tennis.[4] Several discontinued sports, such as archery and tennis, were later readmitted to the Olympic program (in 1972 and 1984, respectively). Curling, which was an official sport in 1924 and then discontinued, was reinstated as Olympic sport in 1998.

The Olympic Charter decrees that Olympic sports for each edition of the Olympic Games should be decided at an IOC Session no later than seven years prior to the Games.

Changes since 2000

The only sports that have been dropped from the Olympics since 1936 are baseball and softball, which were both voted out by the IOC Session in Singapore on 11 July 2005,[25] a decision that was reaffirmed on 9 February 2006,[26] and reversed on 3 August 2016.[27] These sports were last included in 2008, although officially they remain recognized in the Olympic Charter as a single sport, since both are now governed internationally by the World Baseball Softball Confederation. Therefore, the number of sports in the 2012 Summer Olympics was dropped from 28 to 26.

Following the addition of women's boxing in 2012, and women's ski jumping in 2014, there are only Greco-Roman wrestling and nordic combined, respectively, that are only for men in those games.

Two previously discontinued sports, golf and rugby, returned for the 2016 Summer Olympics. On 13 August 2009, the IOC Executive Board proposed that golf and rugby sevens be added to the Olympic program for the 2016 Games.[28] On 9 October 2009, during the 121st IOC Session in Copenhagen, the IOC voted to admit both sports as official Olympic sports and to include them in the 2016 Summer Olympics.[29] The IOC voted 81–8 in favor of including rugby sevens and 63–27 in favor of reinstating golf, thus bringing the number of sports back to 28.[29]

In February 2013, the IOC considered dropping a sport from the 2020 Summer Olympics to make way for a new sport. Modern pentathlon and taekwondo were thought to be vulnerable, but instead the IOC recommended dismissing wrestling.[30] On 8 September 2013, the IOC added wrestling to the 2020 and 2024 Summer Games.[31]

On 3 August 2016, the IOC voted to add baseball/softball, karate, sport climbing, surfing, and skateboarding for the 2020 Summer Olympics.[27]

Summer Olympics

Volleyball has been part of the Summer Olympics since 1964.

At the first Olympic Games, nine sports were contested.[32] Since then, the number of sports contested at the Summer Olympic Games has gradually risen to twenty-eight on the program for 2000–2008. At the 2012 Summer Olympics, however, the number of sports fell back to twenty-six following an IOC decision in 2005 to remove baseball and softball from the Olympic program. These sports retain their status as Olympic sports with the possibility of a return to the Olympic program in future games.[25] At the 121st IOC Session in Copenhagen on 9 October 2009, the IOC voted to reinstate both golf and rugby to the Olympic program, meaning that the number of sports to be contested in 2016 was once again 28.[33]

In order for a sport or discipline to be considered for inclusion in the list of Summer Olympic sports, it must be widely practiced in at least 75 countries, spread over four continents.

Current and discontinued summer program

The following sports (or disciplines of a sport) make up the current and discontinued Summer Olympic Games official program and are listed alphabetically according to the name used by the IOC. The discontinued sports were previously part of the Summer Olympic Games program as official sports, but are no longer on the current program. The figures in each cell indicate the number of events for each sport contested at the respective Games; a bullet () denotes that the sport was contested as a demonstration sport.

Eight of the 32 sports at the 2024 Summer Olympics consist of multiple disciplines. Each discipline is marked with a unique 3-character identifier code.[34][35] Disciplines from the same sport are grouped under the same color:

  Aquatics  Basketball  Canoeing/Kayaking  Cycling  Gymnastics  Volleyball  Equestrian  Wrestling  Baseball and Softball  Karate

Sport (Discipline) Body 96 00 04 06 08 12 20 24 28 32 36 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 16 20 24
 
Current summer sports
 
Artistic Swimming SWA Synchronized swimming pictogram.svg FINA 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Diving DIV Diving pictogram.svg 2 1 2 4 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 8 8 8 8 8 8
Marathon Swimming OWS Open water swimming pictogram.svg 2 2 2 2 2
Swimming SWM Swimming pictogram.svg 4 7 9 4 6 9 10 11 11 11 11 11 11 13 15 18 29 29 26 26 29 31 31 32 32 32 32 32 32 35 35
Water Polo WPO Water polo pictogram.svg 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
 
3x3 Basketball BK3 3-on-3 basketball pictogram.svg FIBA 2 2
Basketball BKB Basketball pictogram.svg 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
 
Canoe Sprint CSP Canoeing (flatwater) pictogram.svg ICF 9 9 9 9 7 7 7 7 11 11 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 10
Canoe Slalom CSL Canoeing (slalom) pictogram.svg 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 6
 
Cycling BMX Freestyle BMF BMX freestyle pictogram.svg UCI 2 2
Cycling BMX Racing BMX Cycling (BMX) pictogram.svg 2 2 2 2 2
Cycling Mountain Bike MTB Cycling (mountain biking) pictogram.svg 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Cycling Road CRD Cycling (road) pictogram.svg 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
Cycling Track CTR Cycling (track) pictogram.svg 5 3 7 5 7 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 4 4 5 6 7 8 12 12 10 10 10 12 12
 
Artistic Gymnastics GAR Gymnastics (artistic) pictogram.svg FIG 8 1 11 4 2 4 4 9 8 11 9 9 15 15 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14
Rhythmic Gymnastics GRY Gymnastics (rhythmic) pictogram.svg 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Trampoline Gymnastics GTR Gymnastics (trampoline) pictogram.svg 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
 
Volleyball - Beach VBV Volleyball (beach) pictogram.svg FIVB 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Volleyball - Indoor VVO Volleyball (indoor) pictogram.svg 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
 
Equestrian - Dressage EDR Equestrian Dressage pictogram.svg FEI 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Equestrian - Eventing EVE Equestrian Eventing pictogram.svg 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Equestrian - Jumping EJP Equestrian Jumping pictogram.svg 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
 
Wrestling - Freestyle WRE Wrestling Freestyle pictogram.svg UWW 7 5 5 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 8 11 11 11 12 12 12
Wrestling - Greco-Roman WGR* Wrestling pictogram.svg 1 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 8 7 7 7 6 6 6
 
Archery ARC Archery pictogram.svg WArch 7 6 3 10 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5
Athletics ATH Athletics pictogram.svg WAthle 12 23 25 21 26 30 29 27 27 29 29 33 33 33 34 36 36 38 37 38 41 42 43 44 46 46 47 47 47 48 48
Badminton BDM Badminton pictogram.svg BWF 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
Boxing BOX Boxing pictogram.svg AIBA 7 5 8 8 8 8 8 8 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 12 12 11 11 13 13 13 13
Breaking BKG Breakdancing pictogram.svg WDSF 2
Fencing FEN Fencing pictogram.svg FIE 3 7 5 8 4 5 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 10 10 10 10 10 10 12 12
Field hockey HOC Field hockey pictogram.svg FIH 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Football FBL Football pictogram.svg FIFA 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Golf GLF Golf pictogram.svg IGF 2 2 2 2 2
Handball HBL Handball pictogram.svg IHF 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Judo JUD Judo pictogram.svg IJF 4 6 6 8 8 7 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 15 15
Modern Pentathlon MPN Modern pentathlon pictogram.svg UIPM 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Rowing ROW Rowing pictogram.svg FISA 5 5 6 4 4 5 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14
Rugby Sevens RU7 Rugby Sevens pictogram.svg WR 2 2 2
Sailing SAL Sailing pictogram.svg ISAF 13 4 4 14 3 3 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 7 8 10 10 11 11 11 10 10 10 10
Shooting SHO Shooting pictogram.svg ISSF 5 8 16 15 18 21 10 2 3 4 7 7 6 6 7 8 7 7 11 13 13 15 17 17 15 15 15 15 15
Skateboarding SKB Skateboarding pictogram.svg WS[s 1] 4 4
Sport Climbing CLB Climbing pictogram.svg IFSC 2 4
Surfing SRF Surfing pictogram.svg ISA 2 2
Table Tennis TTE Table tennis pictogram.svg ITTF 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5
Taekwondo TKW Taekwondo pictogram.svg WT 8 8 8 8 8 8 8
Tennis TEN Tennis pictogram.svg ITF 2 4 2 4 6 8 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5
Triathlon TRI Triathlon pictogram.svg ITU 2 2 2 2 2 3 3
Weightlifting WLF Weightlifting pictogram.svg IWF 2 2 2 5 5 5 5 5 6 7 7 7 7 7 9 9 10 10 10 10 10 15 15 15 15 15 14 10
 
Discontinued summer sports
 
Baseball BSB Baseball pictogram.svg WBSC[s 2] 1 1 1 1 1 1
Softball SBL Softball pictogram.svg 1 1 1 1 1
 
Equestrian - Vaulting EVL EQ Vaulting pictogram.svg FEI 2
Equestrian - Driving EDV Equestrian Driving pictogram.svg 2
 
Karate - Kata KAT* Karate icon.svg WKF 2
Karate - Kumite KTE Karate Kumite pictogram.svg 6
 
Handball - Field Handball HBL Handball Field Handball pictogram.svg IHF 1
Rugby - Rugby Union RUG Rugby union pictogram.svg WR 1 1 1 1
 
Basque Pelota PEL Basque pelota pictogram.svg FIPV 1
Cricket CKT Cricket pictogram.svg ICC 1
Croquet CQT Croquet pictogram.svg WCF 3
Lacrosse LAX Lacrosse pictogram.svg FIL 1 1
Jeu de Paume JDP* Jeu de paume pictogram.svg 1
Polo POL Polo pictogram.svg FIP 1 1 1 1 1
Rackets RQT Racquets pictogram.svg 2
Roque ROQ* Roque pictogram.svg 1
Tug of War TOW Tug of war pictogram.svg TWIF 1 1 1 1 1 1
Water Motorsports PBT Water motorsports pictogram.svg UIM 3
 
Figure Skating FSK Figure skating pictogram.svg ISU 4 3 Rescheduled during winter games
Ice Hockey IHO Ice hockey pictogram.svg IIHF 1
 
Total events 43 95 94 78 110 102 156 126 109 117 129 136 149 151 150 163 172 195 198 203 221 237 257 271 300 301 302 302 306 339 329
Total Sports 10 21 17 14 25 18 29 23 20 20 25 23 23 23 23 25 24 28 27 27 29 31 34 37 40 40 42 40 42 50 48
Sport (Discipline) Body 96 00 04 06 08 12 20 24 28 32 36 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 16 20 24
  1. ^ At the time skateboarding was announced as part of the 2020 Summer Games, the sport was governed by the International Skateboarding Federation. That body merged with Fédération Internationale de Roller Sports in September 2017 to form the current World Skate.
  2. ^ The World Baseball Softball Confederation, which currently governs both baseball and softball, was created by a 2013 merger of two former governing bodies—the International Baseball Federation and the International Softball Federation, thus at the Olympic games until 2012 baseball and softball were presented as two different sports.

* Unofficial IOC Discipline code used to disambiguate sports

Demonstration summer sports

The following sports or disciplines have been demonstrated at the Summer Olympic Games for the years shown, but have never been included on the official Olympic program. Organizers of the 1900 and 1904 Olympic Games, which were staged in conjunction with world's fairs, included numerous sporting events on an equal footing under their programmes. Historians generally regard many of these as not satisfying retrospective inclusion criteria to qualify as "official."[36] However, the IOC has never made a determination regarding which events were official and which were not.[37] Designation of official demonstration sports began with the 1912 Olympic Games.


Like all the 1900 Olympic events widely regarded today as official, there were other events conducted during the 1900 World's Fair.[37][38][39]

Gliding was promoted from demonstration sport to an official Olympic sport in 1936 in time for the 1940 Summer Olympics, but the Games were cancelled due to the outbreak of World War II.[41][42]

Tenpin bowling, demonstrated separately from the Olympics in 1936 in Germany (alongside forms of ninepin bowling), but part of the demonstration sports at Seoul in 1988, has been a regular medal sport of the World Games since 1981 and the Pan American Games since 1991.

Classification of Olympic sports for revenue share

Summer Olympic sports are divided into categories based on popularity, gauged by: television viewers (40%), internet popularity (20%), public surveys (15%), ticket requests (10%), press coverage (10%), and number of national federations (5%). The category determines the share the sport's International Federation receives of Olympic revenue.[43][44]

The current categories, as of 2013, are as follows, with the pre-2013 categorizations also being available.[45] Category A represents the most popular sports; category E lists either the sports that are the least popular or that are new to the Olympics (golf and rugby).

Category Sport
A athletics, aquatics, gymnastics
B cycling, tennis, basketball, football, volleyball
C archery, badminton, boxing, judo, rowing, shooting, table tennis, weightlifting
D canoe/kayaking, equestrian, fencing, field hockey, handball, sailing, taekwondo, triathlon, wrestling
E modern pentathlon, golf, rugby

Winter Olympics

Ice hockey was introduced at the 1920 Summer Olympics and then moved to the Winter Games in 1924.

Before 1924, ice sports like figure skating and ice hockey were held at the Summer Olympic Games.[46] These two sports made their debuts at the 1908 and the 1920 Summer Olympics respectively, but in 1924 they were moved to the first edition of the Winter Olympic Games and became permanent fixtures on the sports program for the Winter Olympics from then on.

The International Winter Sports Week, later dubbed the I Olympic Winter Games and retroactively recognized as such by the IOC, consisted of nine sports. The number of sports contested at the Winter Olympics has since been decreased to seven, comprising a total of fifteen disciplines.[47]

A sport or discipline must be widely practised in at least 25 countries, and on three different continents, to be eligible for inclusion on the Olympic program for the Winter Games.[4]

Current winter program

The following sports (or disciplines of a sport) make up the current Winter Olympic Games official program and are listed alphabetically, according to the name used by the IOC. The figures in each cell indicate the number of events for each sport that were contested at the respective Games (the red cells indicate that those sports were held at the Summer Games); a bullet () denotes that the sport was contested as a demonstration sport. On some occasions, both official medal events and demonstration events were contested in the same sport at the same Games.

Three out of the seven sports consist of multiple disciplines. Disciplines from the same sport are grouped under the same color:

  Skating  Skiing  Bobsleigh

Sport (Discipline) Body 08 20 24 28 32 36 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 94 98 02 06 10 14 18 22
 
Figure Skating FSK Figure skating pictogram.svg ISU 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5
Speed Skating SSK Speed skating pictogram.svg   5 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 10 12 12 12 14 14
Short Track Speed Skating STK Short track speed skating pictogram.svg   4 6 6 8 8 8 8 8 9
 
Ice Hockey IHO Ice hockey pictogram.svg IIHF   1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
 
Curling CUR Curling pictogram.svg WCF   1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3
 
Cross-Country Skiing CCS Cross country skiing pictogram.svg FIS   2 2 2 3 3 4 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 10 10 10 12 12 12 12 12 12
Alpine Skiing ALP Alpine skiing pictogram.svg   2 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 11 11
Ski Jumping SJP Ski jumping pictogram.svg   1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 5
Nordic Combined NCB Nordic combined pictogram.svg   1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3
Freestyle Skiing FRS Freestyle skiing pictogram.svg   2 4 4 4 4 6 10 10 13
Snowboarding SBD Snowboarding pictogram.svg   4 4 6 6 10 10 11
 
Biathlon BTH Biathlon pictogram.svg IBU   1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 6 6 6 8 10 10 11 11 11
 
Luge LUG Luge pictogram.svg FIL   3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4
 
Bobsleigh BOB Bobsleigh pictogram.svg IBSF   1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4
Skeleton SKN Skeleton pictogram.svg   1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2
 
Discontinued winter sports
 
Biathlon - Military Patrol BTH Military patrol pictogram.svg IBU   1
Total events 16 14 14 17 22 22 24 27 34 35 35 37 38 39 46 57 61 68 78 84 86 98 102 109
Total Sports 9 8 7 8 9 8 8 8 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 12 12 14 15 15 15 15 15 15

The official website of the Olympic Movement designates men's military patrol at the 1924 Games as an event within the sport of biathlon.[48][49] The Official Report of the 1924 Games regards it as an event within the sport of skiing.[50][51]

Demonstration winter sports

The following sports have been demonstrated at the Winter Olympic Games for the years shown, but have never been included on the official Olympic program:

Ice climbing was showcased at the Sochi Winter Olympics in 2014, was on the non-competition program at the 2016 Winter Youth Olympic Games, and aims to become an official competition sport.[52] Ski ballet was a demonstration event under the scope of freestyle skiing. Disabled sports are now part of the Winter Paralympic Games.

Recognized international federations

Tug of war was contested at the 1904 Summer Olympics. It was later dropped from the Olympic program but remains a recognized sport.

Many sports are not contested at the Olympics although their governing bodies are recognized by the IOC.[53] Such sports, if eligible under the terms of the Olympic Charter, may apply for inclusion in the program of future Games, through a recommendation by the IOC Olympic Programme Commission, followed by a decision of the IOC Executive Board and a vote of the IOC Session. When Olympic demonstration sports were allowed, a sport usually appeared as such before being officially admitted.[8] An International Sport Federation (IF) is responsible for ensuring that the sport's activities follow the Olympic Charter. When a sport is recognized by the IOC, the IF becomes an official Olympic sport federation and can assemble with other Olympic IFs in the Association of Summer Olympic International Federations (ASOIF, for summer sports contested in the Olympic Games), Association of International Olympic Winter Sports Federations (AIOWS, for winter sports contested in the Olympic Games), or Association of IOC Recognised International Sports Federations (ARISF, for sports not contested in the Olympic Games).[3] A number of recognized sports are included in the program of the World Games, a multi-sport event run by the International World Games Association, an organization that operates under the patronage of the IOC. Since the start of the World Games in 1981, a number of sports, including badminton, taekwondo, and triathlon have subsequently been incorporated into the Olympic program.

In 2020, the IOC altered the way it plans the Olympic sports program: rather than basing it on a maximum number of sports, the total number of events are now taken into account, opening the schedule up for the inclusion on a per-Games basis of additional sports to the 25 "core" sports. For the 2020 Summer Olympics, the local organizing committee was thus permitted to add five sports to the program in addition to the existing 28, taking the total to 33.[27][54] Baseball and softball have been treated by the IOC as a single sport since the governing bodies for baseball and softball merged into a single international federation in 2013 (with male athletes competing in baseball and female athletes competing in softball).

The governing bodies of the following sports, though not contested in the Olympic Games, are recognized by the IOC:[55]


1 Official sport at the World Games
2 Discontinued Olympic sport
3 The Olympic Charter no longer forbids motorized sports from being included in the Olympic program, but environmental impact is now considered when deciding whether to adopt new sports making the inclusion of motorized sports unlikely.[58]
4 Skateboarding, a discipline within roller sports, was included at the 2020 Summer Olympics. Inline and roller skating has never been contested.
5 Baseball and softball share the same governing body.
6 Waterski and wakeboard share the same governing body. Cable waterskiing and cable wakeboarding have been proposed as sports that do not rely on motorboats.

See also

Notes

References

  1. ^ Bruner, Raisa (24 March 2020). "Everything You Need to Know About the 2020 Summer Olympics". Time magazine. Retrieved 16 September 2021. The 2020 Summer Olympics will award medals across 339 events, representing 33 different sports.
  2. ^ Merrell, Chloe (17 August 2021). "Beijing 2022: Here's what you need to know about the next Winter Olympic Games". olympics.com. International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 16 September 2021. A total of 109 medal events across seven Olympic winter sports will be held...
  3. ^ a b c d e "Olympic Sports". olympic.org. International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 13 March 2010.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h "Olympic Sports, Disciplines & Events". HickokSports.com. 4 February 2005. Archived from the original on 18 April 2007. Retrieved 18 March 2007.
  5. ^ "Aquatics". olympic.org. International Olympic Committee. Archived from the original on 25 March 2007. Retrieved 6 April 2007.
  6. ^ "Skating". olympic.org. International Olympic Committee. Archived from the original on 19 February 2007. Retrieved 6 April 2007.
  7. ^ "Olympic Sports of the Past". olympic.org. International Olympic Committee. Archived from the original on 7 March 2007. Retrieved 6 April 2007.
  8. ^ a b c Wood, Robert (2010). "Demonstration, Exhibition and Unofficial Sports at the Olympics". TopendSports.com. Retrieved 15 September 2021.
  9. ^ "Disciplines". gymnastics.sport. International Gymnastics Federation. Retrieved 3 October 2015. Clicking on the "Disciplines" tab in the main menu bar brings up a list of FIG disciplines; men's and women's artistic gymnastics are listed separately.
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