Omega-9 fatty acid
|Types of fats in food|
Omega-9 fatty acids (ω−9 fatty acids or n−9 fatty acids) are a family of unsaturated fatty acids which have in common a final carbon–carbon double bond in the omega−9 position; that is, the ninth bond from the methyl end of the fatty acid.
Some omega−9 fatty acids are common components of animal fat and vegetable oil. Avocado oil is 70% Omega-9 fatty acid by percentage, giving it the highest smoke point of all vegetable oils. Two omega−9 fatty acids important in industry are:
- Oleic acid (18:1, n−9), which is a main component of olive oil, macadamia oil and other monounsaturated fats
- Erucic acid (22:1, n−9), which is found in rapeseed, wallflower seed, and mustard seed. Rapeseed with high erucic acid content is grown for commercial use in paintings and coatings as a drying oil. Canola oil comes from a cultivar of the rapeseed plant that has been bred, or in some cases genetically modified, to contain very little erucic acid.
Unlike omega-3 fatty acids and omega-6 fatty acid, omega−9 fatty acids are not classed as essential fatty acids (EFA). This is both because they can be created by the human body from unsaturated fat, and are therefore not essential in the diet, and because the lack of an omega−6 double bond keeps them from participating in the reactions that form the eicosanoids.
Under severe conditions of EFA deprivation, mammals will elongate and desaturate oleic acid to make mead acid, (20:3, n−9). This has been documented to a lesser extent in one study following vegetarians and semi-vegetarians who followed diets without substantial sources of EFA.
|Common name||Lipid name||Chemical name|
|oleic acid||18:1 (n−9)||(Z)-octadec-9-enoic acid|
|elaidic acid||18:1 (n−9)||(E)-octadec-9-enoic acid|
|gondoic acid||20:1 (n−9)||(Z)-eicos-11-enoic acid|
|mead acid||20:3 (n−9)||(5Z,8Z,11Z)-eicosa-5,8,11-trienoic acid|
|erucic acid||22:1 (n−9)||(Z)-docos-13-enoic acid|
|nervonic acid||24:1 (n−9)||(Z)-tetracos-15-enoic acid|
|ximenic acid||26:1 (n−9)|
- Polyunsaturated fatty acid, lists of fatty acids including omega−3, omega−6, and omega−9 fatty acids
- Omega-3 fatty acid
- Omega-6 fatty acid
- Omega-7 fatty acid
- Lipomics. "Mead acid". Retrieved February 14, 2006.
- Phinney SD, Odin RS, Johnson SB, Holman RT (March 1990). "Reduced arachidonate in serum phospholipids and cholesteryl esters associated with vegetarian diets in humans". Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 51 (3): 385–92. PMID 2106775.
- Cyberlipid Center. "Polyenoic fatty acids". Retrieved February 11, 2006.