Omphalos

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For other uses, see Omphalos (disambiguation).

An omphalos (ὀμφαλός) is a religious stone artifact, or baetylus. In Greek, the word omphalos means "navel". In Greek lore, Zeus sent two eagles across the world to meet at its center, the "navel" of the world.[1] Omphalos stones marking the centre were erected in several places about the Mediterranean Sea; the most famous of those was at Delphi. Omphalos is also the name of the stone given to Cronus. In the ancient world of the Mediterranean, it was a powerful religious symbol.[2] Omphalos Syndrome refers to the misguided belief that a place of geopolitical power and currency is the most important place in the world.[3]

Symbolism[edit]

The omphalos was not only an object of pagan religious symbolism and world centrality but also one of power. Its symbolic references included the uterus, the phallus and a cup of red wine representing royal blood lines. it may also have connections to the Holy Grail and the Arthurian Sword in the Stone.[4]

Delphi[edit]

The omphalos in museum of Delphi.

Most accounts locate the Delphi omphalos in the adyton (sacred part of the temple) near the Pythia (oracle). The stone sculpture itself (which may be a copy), has a carving of a knotted net covering its surface, and a hollow center, widening towards the base. The omphalos represents the stone which Rhea wrapped in swaddling clothes, pretending it was Zeus, in order to deceive Cronus. (Cronus was the father who swallowed his children so as to prevent them usurping him as he had deposed his own father, Uranus).

Omphalos stones were believed to allow direct communication with the gods. Holland (1933) suggested that the stone was hollow to allow intoxicating vapours breathed by the Oracle to channel through it. Erwin Rohde wrote that the Python at Delphi was an earth spirit, who was conquered by Apollo, and buried under the Omphalos. However, understanding of the use of the omphalos is uncertain due to destruction of the site by Theodosius I and Arcadius in the 4th century CE.

Jerusalem[edit]

Foundation Stone of the Jewish Temple, found in the Dome of the Rock mosque on the Temple Mount, Jerusalem.

The omphalos at the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem, represents, in Jewish mediaeval tradition, the naval of the world (the spiritual and cosmological centre of the world).[5] Jewish tradition held that God revealed himself to His people through the Ark of the Covenant in the Temple in Jerusalem, which rested on the Foundation stone marking the centre of the world. This tradition may have stemmed from the similar one at Delphi.

Literature[edit]

Omphalos of Chiang Rai, Thailand.

In literature, the word, omphalos has held various meanings but usually refers to the stone at Delphi. Authors who have used the term include: Homer, Pausanias, D.H. Lawrence, James Joyce, and Jacques Derrida. For example, James Joyce uses the term in the novel, Ulysses,

""Billy Pitt had them built," Buck Mulligan said, "when the French were on the sea but our's is the omphalos."" (chapter 1),
"...to set up there a national fertilising farm to be named Omphalos with an obelisk hewn and erected after the fashion of Egypt and to offer his dutiful yeoman services for the fecundation of any female of what grade of life soever who should there direct to him with the desire of fulfilling the functions of her natural." (chapter 14),
"One of her sisterhood lugged me squealing into life. Creation from nothing. What has she in the bag? A misbirth with a trailing navelcord, hushed in ruddy wool. The cords of all link back, strandentwining cable of all flesh. That is why mystic monks. Will you be as gods? Gaze in your omphalos." (chapter 3)

Other examples include,

Art[edit]

Omphalos is a public art sculpture by Dimitri Hadzi formerly located in the Harvard Square, Cambridge, Massachusetts under the Arts on the Line program.[7] As of 2014, the sculpture has been deinstalled, and will be relocated to Rockport, Massachusetts.[8]

Geographical references[edit]

See also[edit]

Sources[edit]

  • Literary Identity in the Omphalos Periplus (2011) Joseph R. Shafer.
  • Greek Religion (1985) Walter Burkert.
  • The Cults of the Greek States (1896) Lewis R. Farnell.
  • Priestesses (1990) Norma L. Goodrich.
  • The Greeks and their Gods (1955) W. K. C. Guthrie
  • The Mantic Mechanism at Delphi Leicester B. Holland[9]
  • The Secret Teachings of All Ages (1928) Manly P. Hall[10]
  • Themis: A Study of the Social Origins of Greek Religion (1912) Jane E. Harrison[11]
  • Homeric Hymn to Pythian Apollo. [12]
  • Omphalos (1977) Pierre Jean Oswald, Paris. Dimitri Kitsikis
  • Psyche (1925) Erwin Rohde
  • Dishi (1925) Dehoqu.
  • The Black Stone - the Omphalos of the Goddess. (1993) Bob Trubshaw[13]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Voegelin E. "Order and History, Volume 2." University of Missouri Press, 2000 p31 ISBN 0826263933, 780826263933.
  2. ^ Ciholas P. "The omphalos and the cross." Mercer University Press, 2003 p6. ISBN 0865547831, 9780865547834.
  3. ^ Murphy C. "Are We Rome?: The Fall of an Empire and the Fate of America." Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2007 p44. ISBN 0618742220, 9780618742226.
  4. ^ Ellis R. "King Jesus: King of Judaea and Prince of Rome." Edfu Books, 2011 p505 ISBN 1905815263, 9781905815265
  5. ^ Midrash, Tanhuma to Ezekial 38,12, a homily on the phrase, the nations...that dwell in the middle of the earth.
  6. ^ Tubb E. C. "Pawn of the Omphalos." Hachette UK, 2011. ISBN 0575107669, 9780575107663
  7. ^ "Public art" Cambridge, Ma website. Accessed 15 July 2012.
  8. ^ Edgers, Geoff (November 11, 2013). "Hadzi sculpture in Harvard Square to get fixed, then moved". Boston Globe. Retrieved 28 December 2013. 
  9. ^ Holland L. B. "American Journal of Archaeology." 1933 37(14) p204 - 214.
  10. ^ "Greek Oracles" Sacred texts website.
  11. ^ [1] p396
  12. ^ Homeric Hymn to Pythian Apollo OMACL
  13. ^ Trubshaw B."The Black Stone - the Omphalos of the Goddess." Mercian Mysteries February 1993 (14)