An omphalos is a religious stone artifact, or baetylus. In Ancient Greek, the word ὀμφᾰλός (omphalós) means "navel". Among the Ancient Greeks, it was a widespread belief that Delphi was the center of the world. According to the myths regarding the founding of the Delphic Oracle, Zeus, in his attempt to locate the center of the earth, launched two eagles from the two ends of the world, and the eagles, starting simultaneously and flying at equal speed, crossed their paths above the area of Delphi, and so was the place where Zeus placed the stone.
Most accounts locate the Delphi omphalos in the adyton (sacred part of the temple) near the Pythia (oracle). The stone sculpture itself (which may be a copy), has a carving of a knotted net covering its surface, and a hollow center, widening towards the base. The omphalos represents the stone which Rhea wrapped in swaddling clothes, pretending it was Zeus, in order to deceive Cronus. (Cronus was the father who swallowed his children so as to prevent them from usurping him as he had deposed his own father, Uranus).
Omphalos stones were believed to allow direct communication with the gods. Holland (1933) suggested that the stone was hollow to allow intoxicating vapours breathed by the Oracle to channel through it. Erwin Rohde wrote that the Python at Delphi was an earth spirit, who was conquered by Apollo and buried under the Omphalos. However, understanding of the use of the omphalos is uncertain due to destruction of the site by Theodosius I and Arcadius in the 4th century CE.
The Foundation Stone at the peak of the Temple Mount is considered in traditional Jewish sources to be the place from which the creation of the world began, with several further major biblical events connected to it. Jewish tradition holds that God revealed himself to His people through the Ark of the Covenant in the Temple in Jerusalem, which rested on the Foundation Stone marking the centre of the world. This tradition may have stemmed from the similar one at Delphi.
The Jewish tradition of God's revelation and presence (shekhina) at the Foundation Stone in the Temple was apparently symbolically translated by Christians to the site of the New Covenant, the Tomb of Jesus.
The omphalos at the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem, represents, in medieval Christian tradition, the navel of the world (the spiritual and cosmological centre of the world). The omphalos stone has a collection box chained next to it (see picture).
Omphalos is a public art sculpture by Dimitri Hadzi formerly located in the Harvard Square, Cambridge, Massachusetts under the Arts on the Line program. As of 2014[update], the sculpture has been deinstalled; it will be relocated to Rockport, Massachusetts.
Omfalos is a concrete and rock sculpture by the conceptual artist Lars Vilks, previously standing in the Kullaberg natural reserve, Skåne County, Sweden. As of 2001, the sculpture belongs to the collections of Moderna Museet in Stockholm, Sweden.
In literature, the word omphalos has held various meanings but usually refers to the stone at Delphi. Authors who have used the term include: Homer, Pausanias, D.H. Lawrence, James Joyce, Jacques Derrida, Ted Chiang and Sandy Hingston. For example, Joyce uses the term in the novel, Ulysses:
"Billy Pitt had them built," Buck Mulligan said, "when the French were on the sea but our's is the omphalos." [Chapter 1]
One of her sisterhood lugged me squealing into life. Creation from nothing. What has she in the bag? A misbirth with a trailing navelcord, hushed in ruddy wool. The cords of all link back, strandentwining cable of all flesh. That is why mystic monks. Will you be as gods? Gaze in your omphalos. [Chapter 3]
[...] to set up there a national fertilising farm to be named Omphalos with an obelisk hewn and erected after the fashion of Egypt and to offer his dutiful yeoman services for the fecundation of any female of what grade of life soever who should there direct to him with the desire of fulfilling the functions of her natural. [Chapter 14]
In Ted Chiang's short story "Omphalos" (2019), the protagonist is forced to question her belief about where the center of the world is located.
The following are all known as the navel of their various countries or cities:
- Hill of Uisneach
- Nishiwaki, Hyōgo
- Wat Phra That Doi Chom Thong , Thailand
- Yanggu County, Gangwon
- Axis mundi
- Benben stone
- Black Stone
- Lapis Niger
- Mexico, "the navel of the moon" in Nahuatl
- Lia Fáil
- Stone of Scone
- Umbilicus urbis Romae
- Burkert, Walter (1985). Greek Religion.
- Dehoqu (1925). Dishi.
- Farnell, Lewis R. (1896). The Cults of the Greek States.
- Goodrich, Norma L. (1990). Priestesses. ISBN 9780531151136.
- Guthrie, W.K.C. (1955). The Greeks and their Gods. ISBN 9780807057933.
- Hall, Manly P. (1928). "The Secret Teachings of All Ages: Greek Oracles". Sacred texts.
- Harrison, Jane Ellen (1912). "Themis: A Study of the Social Origins of Greek Religion". p. 396.
- Holland, Leicester B. (1933). "The Mantic Mechanism at Delphi". American Journal of Archaeology. 37 (14): 204–214. doi:10.2307/498438. JSTOR 498438.
- "Homeric Hymn to Pythian Apollo". The Medieval and Classical Literature Library.
- Oswald, Pierre Jean & Kitsikis, Dimitri (1977). Omphalos. Paris.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Rohde, Erwin (1925). Psyche.
- Shafer, Joseph R. (2011). Literary Identity in the Omphalos Periplus.
- Trubshaw, Bob (February 1993). "The Black Stone - the Omphalos of the Goddess". Mercian Mysteries. 14.
- Voegelin E. (2000). Order and History, Volume 2. University of Missouri Press. p. 31. ISBN 9780826263933.
- Ciholas P. (2003). The omphalos and the cross. Mercer University Press. p. 6. ISBN 9780865547834.
- Murphy C. (2007). Are We Rome?: The Fall of an Empire and the Fate of America. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 44. ISBN 9780618742226.
- Winther, Rasmus Grønfeldt (2014) World Navels. Cartouche 89: 15-21 http://philpapers.org/archive/WINWN.pdf
- Tanhuma Buber, Kedoshim paragraph 10.
- Ezekial 38,12, a homily on the phrase, the nations...that dwell in the middle of the earth.
- "Public art". Cambridge, Ma website. Archived from the original on 29 July 2012. Retrieved 15 July 2012.
- Edgers, Geoff (November 11, 2013). "Hadzi sculpture in Harvard Square to get fixed, then moved". Boston Globe. Retrieved 28 December 2013.
- Edwards, Catherine (2 December 2019). "#AdventCalendar: The micronation in a southern Swedish national park". www.thelocal.se. Retrieved 2020-09-16.
- "Den 1:a på Moderna: Lars Vilks". Moderna Museet i Stockholm (in Swedish). Retrieved 2020-09-16.
- "Homer, Odyssey, Book 1, line 50". www.perseus.tufts.edu. Retrieved 2017-03-04.
- "Homer, Odyssey, Book 1, line 50 ("navel")". www.perseus.tufts.edu. Retrieved 2017-03-04.