Omsk

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For the steamships named Omsk, see SS Omsk.
Omsk (English)
Омск (Russian)
-  City[1]  -
Omsk Tarskaya street.jpg
Tarskaya Street in Omsk
Map of Russia - Omsk Oblast (2008-03).svg
Location of Omsk Oblast in Russia
Omsk is located in Omsk Oblast
Omsk
Omsk
Location of Omsk in Omsk Oblast
Coordinates: 54°59′N 73°22′E / 54.983°N 73.367°E / 54.983; 73.367Coordinates: 54°59′N 73°22′E / 54.983°N 73.367°E / 54.983; 73.367
Omsk coat of arms 2014.png
Flag of Omsk.svg
Coat of arms
Flag
City Day First Saturday of August[citation needed]
Administrative status (as of December 2009)
Country Russia
Federal subject Omsk Oblast[1]
Administratively subordinated to city of oblast significance of Omsk[1]
Administrative center of Omsk Oblast,[1] city of oblast significance of Omsk[1]
Municipal status (as of July 2011)
Urban okrug Omsk Urban Okrug[2]
Administrative center of Omsk Urban Okrug[2]
Mayor[citation needed] Vyacheslav Dvorakovsky[citation needed]
Representative body City Council[citation needed]
Statistics
Area 572.9 km2 (221.2 sq mi)[3]
Population (2010 Census) 1,154,116 inhabitants[4]
Rank in 2010 7th
Density 2,015 /km2 (5,220 /sq mi)[5]
Time zone OMST (UTC+07:00)[6]
Founded August 2, 1716[citation needed]
City status since 1782[citation needed]
Postal code(s)[7] 644xxx
Dialing code(s) +7 3812[citation needed]
Official website
Omsk on WikiCommons

Omsk (Russian: Омск, IPA: [omsk]) is a city and the administrative center of Omsk Oblast, Russia, located in southwestern Siberia 2,236 kilometers (1,389 mi)[8] from Moscow. With a population of 1,154,116, it is Russia's second-largest city east of the Ural Mountains after Novosibirsk, and seventh by size nationally.[4]

During the Imperial era, Omsk was the seat of the Governor General of Western Siberia, and later of the Governor General of the Steppes. For a brief period during the Russian Civil War in 1918–1920, it served as the capital of the anti-Bolshevik Russian State and held the imperial gold reserves.

Omsk is the administrative center of the Siberian Cossack Host. It also serves as the see of the bishop of Omsk and Tara, as well as the administrative seat of the Imam of Siberia.

Geography[edit]

Omsk stretches along the banks of the north-flowing Irtysh at its confluence with the smaller Om River. The city has an elevation of 87 meters (285 ft) above mean sea level at its highest point.

Omsk is an important railroad hub, and is the junction point for the northern and southern branches of the Trans-Siberian Railway. The city also serves as a major hub for the regional highway network. River-port facilities handle both passengers and freight, giving the city access to navigating the extensive waterways of the Irtysh and Ob River;. The waterways connect Omsk with the coal and mineral-mining towns further up the river in Kazakhstan, as well as with the oil, natural gas and lumber operations of northern Siberia. Omsk is served by the Tsentralny Airport, which offers access to domestic and international (primarily, German and Kazakh) destinations, making the city an important aviation hub for Siberia and the Russian Far East.

History[edit]

The wooden fort of Omsk was built in 1716 by a cossack unit led by Ivan Buchholz to protect the expanding Russian frontier along the Ishim and the Irtysh rivers against the Kyrgyz and Dzungar nomads of the Steppes.[9] In 1768 Om fortress was relocated. The original Tobolsk and the restored Tara gates, along with the original German Lutheran Church and several public buildings are left from that time. Omsk was granted with the town status in 1782.[citation needed]

In 1822 Omsk became an administrative capital of Western Siberia and later in 1882 the center of the vast Steppes region (today the northern part of Kazakhstan) and Aqmola Oblast in particular acquiring several churches and cathedrals of various denominations, mosques, a synagogue, the governor-general's mansion, and a military academy.[citation needed] But as the frontier receded and its military importance diminished, the town fell into lethargy. For that time Omsk became a major center of the Siberian exile. During the 1850s Fyodor Dostoyevsky served his sentence in an Omsk katorga prison.

Development of the city was catalyzed with the construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway in the 1890s that affected significance of Omsk as a logistic hub. Many trade companies established stores and offices in Omsk defining the character of the city center. British, Dutch, and German consulates were established roughly at the same time in order to represent their commercial interests. The pinnacle of development for pre-revolutionary Omsk was the Siberian Exposition of Agriculture and Industry in 1910. Popularity of the World Fairs contributed to the image of Omsk as "Chicago of Siberia".[citation needed]

Soon after the October Revolution, anti-Bolshevik White forces seized control of Omsk. The "Provisional All-Russian Government" was established here in 1918, headed by the Arctic explorer and decorated war hero Admiral Kolchak. Omsk was proclaimed the capital of Russia, and its central bank was tasked with safekeeping the former empire's gold reserves. These were guarded by a garrison of former Czechoslovakian POWs trapped in Siberia by the chaos of World War I and the subsequent Revolution.[citation needed] Omsk became a prime target for the Red Army leadership viewed it as a major target of their Siberian campaign and eventually forced Kolchak and his government to abandon the city and retreat along the Trans-Siberian eastward to Irkutsk. Bolshevik forces entered the city in 1919.

Soviet period[edit]

Pushkin State Library

The Soviet government preferred the young Novonikolayevsk (later known as Novosibirsk) as the administrative center of Western Siberia, prompting the mass transfer of administrative, cultural, and educational functions from Omsk. This somewhat stunted Omsk's growth and sparked a continuing rivalry between the two cities.[citation needed] Omsk received new life as a result of World War II. Because it was both far from the fighting and had a well-developed infrastructure, Omsk provided a perfect haven for much of the industry evacuated away from the frontlines in 1941. Additionally, contingency plans were made to transfer the provisional Soviet capital to Omsk in the event of a German victory during the Battle of Moscow (October 1941 to January 1942).[citation needed] At the end of the war Omsk remained a major industrial center, and became a leader in Soviet military production.

Leningrad bridge over the Irtysh

Military industries which moved to Omsk included part of the OKMO tank-design bureau in 1941, and S.M. Kirov Factory no. 185 from Chelyabinsk, in 1962. The Kirov Factory and Omsk Transmash design bureau (KBTM) produced T-80 tanks from the 1970s, and were responsible for the BTR-T, TOS-1, and the prototype Black Eagle tank. Omsk Transmash declared bankruptcy in 2002.

In the 1950s, following the development of the oil and natural-gas field in Siberia, an oil-refining complex was built, along with an entire "town of oil workers", expanding Omsk northward along the Irtysh. It is currently the largest such complex in Russia. Gazprom Neft, the parent company, is the largest employer in the city, wielding its tax address[clarification needed] as leverage in negotiations with municipal and regional authorities.

Post-Soviet period[edit]

Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Omsk experienced a period of economic instability and political stagnation. Most of the city's large businesses, which had previously been state owned, were fought over by members of the former party elite, the emerging nouveau riche, and fast growing criminal syndicates. The most notorious cases involved the privatization of Sibneft, a major oil company, which dragged on for several years. Until the end of the 1990s, political life in Omsk was defined by an ongoing feud between the oblast and city authorities. The resulting conflict made at least two points of view available to the public and served as the impetus for some improvements to the city's infrastructure and cultural life. These included the construction of new leisure parks and the renovation of the city's historic center, the establishment of the annual Siberian International Marathon, and of the annual City Days Festival. Despite this, internal political competition drained the Omsk's resources and served as a major obstacle for smooth government operations and city development.

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as the city of oblast significance of Omsk—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, the city of oblast significance of Omsk is incorporated as Omsk Urban Okrug.[2]

Demographics[edit]

Population in Omsk rose from 31,000 in 1881 to 53,050 in 1900 and to 1,148,418 in 1989 Census.[10] The 2002 Census recorded that the population declined to 1,134,016,[11] but it rebounded somewhat by the 2010 Census, which showed the population of 1,154,116.[4]

Climate[edit]

The climate is dry and continental, characterized by dramatic swings of weather. Average daily temperatures, taken over the past three decades, are +20 °C (68 °F) for July and −17 °C (1 °F) for January, although temperatures can reach +40 °C (104 °F) in the summer and drop to −45 °C (−49 °F) in the winter. On average, Omsk sees over 300 sunny days a year. The average annual precipitation is 415 millimeters (16.3 in).

Climate data for Omsk
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 4.2
(39.6)
3.6
(38.5)
14.1
(57.4)
31.3
(88.3)
35.5
(95.9)
40.1
(104.2)
40.4
(104.7)
38.0
(100.4)
32.9
(91.2)
27.4
(81.3)
16.1
(61)
4.5
(40.1)
40.4
(104.7)
Average high °C (°F) −12
(10)
−10.3
(13.5)
−2.5
(27.5)
9.1
(48.4)
19.0
(66.2)
23.9
(75)
25.3
(77.5)
22.7
(72.9)
15.9
(60.6)
8.1
(46.6)
−3.7
(25.3)
−9.8
(14.4)
7.1
(44.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) −16.3
(2.7)
−15.0
(5)
−7.3
(18.9)
3.7
(38.7)
12.5
(54.5)
18.0
(64.4)
19.6
(67.3)
16.9
(62.4)
10.4
(50.7)
3.5
(38.3)
−7.3
(18.9)
−13.8
(7.2)
2.1
(35.8)
Average low °C (°F) −20.5
(−4.9)
−19.4
(−2.9)
−12
(10)
−1.0
(30.2)
6.3
(43.3)
12.0
(53.6)
14.2
(57.6)
11.6
(52.9)
5.7
(42.3)
−0.3
(31.5)
−10.5
(13.1)
−17.9
(−0.2)
−2.7
(27.1)
Record low °C (°F) −45.1
(−49.2)
−45.5
(−49.9)
−41.1
(−42)
−25.5
(−13.9)
−12.9
(8.8)
−3.1
(26.4)
2.1
(35.8)
−1.7
(28.9)
−7.6
(18.3)
−28.1
(−18.6)
−41.2
(−42.2)
−44.7
(−48.5)
−45.5
(−49.9)
Precipitation mm (inches) 23
(0.91)
18
(0.71)
17
(0.67)
21
(0.83)
35
(1.38)
51
(2.01)
66
(2.6)
54
(2.13)
37
(1.46)
30
(1.18)
34
(1.34)
29
(1.14)
415
(16.34)
Avg. rainy days 1 1 3 9 15 16 17 18 17 12 5 1 115
Avg. snowy days 27 24 17 8 2 0.2 0 0 1 10 21 27 137
 % humidity 80 77 76 65 54 60 67 69 70 74 81 81 71
Mean monthly sunshine hours 68.2 126.0 182.9 234.0 285.2 318.0 322.4 248.0 180.0 105.4 72.0 62.0 2,204.1
Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net[12]
Source #2: Hong Kong Observatory (sun only)[13]

Cityscape[edit]

Mikhail Vrubel Museum of Fine Arts

The architectural centerpiece of the city is an ensemble of buildings along Lyubinsky Avenue/Lenina Street, anchored by the former Gostiny Dvor, and flanked by two chapels. The area is an eclectic mix of architectural styles, dominated by Art-Nouveau, Neoclassical and Second Empire.

Closer to the confluence of the Om and the Irtysh are the few surviving sombre buildings of the 18th-century fortress. The largest and most opulent church in the city is the Dormition Cathedral, a five-domed edifice in the Russian Revival style, consecrated in 1896, demolished by the Soviets, and restored in the early first decade of the 21st century.[citation needed]

Another area of interest is Nikolsky Avenue-Krasnykh Zor Street, where a line of merchants' wooden houses still stands. The street leads to the Neoclassical cathedral of St. Nicholas, which was commissioned by the Cossacks, designed by Vasily Stasov and consecrated in 1840. It contains various relics of the Siberian Cossacks.[citation needed]

Life and culture[edit]

Omsk plumber monument

As a prominent educational center, Omsk has a number of museums, theaters, music venues, and educational institutions.

Among Omsk's museums, the most notable are:

  • The State Museum of Regional History
  • The Dostoyevsky Museum of Literature
  • The Vrubel Museum of Fine Arts
  • The Military Museum Complex
  • The Kondraty Belov Art Museum
  • The Liberov Center for Art

Theaters include the Omsk Opera, The Omsk Theater of Drama, The Omsk Circus, and a number of smaller venues.

Education[edit]

Omsk is home to many institutions of higher learning and several universities:

Sports[edit]

Arena Omsk

Omsk is represented nationally by professional association football and hockey clubs.

Club Sport Founded Current league League
rank
Stadium
Avangard Omsk Ice Hockey 1950 Kontinental Hockey League 1st Omsk Arena
Omskie Yastreby Ice Hockey 2009 Minor Hockey League Jr. 1st Omsk Arena
Yastreby Omsk Ice Hockey 2012 Minor Hockey League Division B Jr. 2nd Omsk Arena
Omichka Omsk Volleyball 1965 Woman's Volleyball Super League 1st Blinov SCC
Omichka-2 Volleyball 2009 Woman's Supreme League 2nd SC Ermak
Irtysh Omsk Football 1946 Russian Second Division 2nd Red Star Stadium
Neftyanik Omsk Basketball 1965 Basketball Superleague B 3rd Sports Complex Sibirskiy Neftyanik

Transportation[edit]

Main article: Omsk Metro

Omsk is a major rail, road, and air hub. The city is served by a station on the Trans-Siberian Railroad, and by the Tsentralny Airport. Additionally, Omsk possesses a river port on the Irtysh, offering service to domestic destinations and to cities within Kazakhstan.

Municipal Transport consists of a large bus and trolley, and tram networks, although the latter of these has deteriorated severely since the collapse of the USSR. marshrutkas (shared taxis) supplement municipal transit networks.

A subway system, proposed in the late 1980s, but postponed for lack of funds, is currently under construction, with the Metro bridge over the Irtysh River. The bridge is already opened for cars (upper level), but the metro (lower level) is still under construction. As a first step, one short line will connect the districts in the northwest with the city center. The first line of the metro is scheduled to be finished in 2015.

Honors[edit]

Notable people[edit]

Athletes[edit]

Twin towns and sister cities[edit]

Omsk is twinned with:

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Law #467-OZ
  2. ^ a b c Law #548-OZ
  3. ^ География Омска
  4. ^ a b c "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  5. ^ The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population.
  6. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  7. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Russian)
  8. ^ mapcrow.info
  9. ^ Omsk history timeline (in Russian)
  10. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров." [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989) (in Russian). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  11. ^ "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  12. ^ "Weather and Climate - The Climate of Omsk" (in Russian). Weather and Climate (Погода и климат). Retrieved December 13, 2012. 
  13. ^ "Climatological Information for Omsk, Russia". Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved December 13, 2012. 
  14. ^ Dictionary of Minor Planet Names - p.284

Sources[edit]

  • Законодательное Собрание Омской области. Закон №467-ОЗ от 15 октября 2003 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Омской области и о порядке его изменения», в ред. Закона №1591-ОЗ от 10 декабря 2013 г. «О внесении изменений в отдельные Законы Омской области в связи с принятием Федерального Закона "Об образовании в Российской Федерации"». Вступил в силу через три месяца со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Омский вестник", №69, 31 октября 2003 г. (Legislative Assembly of Omsk Oblast. Law #467-OZ of October 15, 2003 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Omsk Oblast and on the Procedures of Its Change, as amended by the Law #1591-OZ of December 10, 2013 On Amending Various Laws of Omsk Oblast Due to the Adoption of the Federal Law "On Education in the Russian Federation". Effective as of the day three months after the official publication date.).
  • Законодательное Собрание Омской области. Закон №548-ОЗ от 30 июля 2004 г. «О границах и статусе муниципальных образований Омской области», в ред. Закона №1548-ОЗ от 26 июня 2013 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Омской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Омской области и о порядке его изменения" и Закон Омской области "О границах и статусе муниципальных образований Омской области"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Омский вестник", №45, №47, №49, 13, 20, 27 августа 2004 г. (Legislative Assembly of Omsk Oblast. Law #548-OZ of July 30, 2004 On the Borders and Status of the Municipal Formations of Omsk Oblast, as amended by the Law #1548-OZ of June 26, 2013 On Amending the Law of Omsk Oblast "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Omsk Oblast and on the Procedures of Its Change" and the Law of Omsk Oblast "On the Borders and Status of the Municipal Formations of Omsk Oblast". Effective as of the day of the official publication.).

External links[edit]