On Narcissism

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On Narcissism
On Narcissism, German edition.jpg
The German edition
AuthorSigmund Freud
Original titleZur Einführung des Narzißmus

On Narcissism (German: Zur Einführung des Narzißmus) is a 1914 essay by Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis.[1][2][3] It is widely considered an introduction to Freud's theories of narcissism.

In the paper, Freud sums up his earlier discussions on the subject of narcissism and considers its place in sexual development.[3] Furthermore, he looks at the deeper problems of the relation between the ego and external objects, drawing a new distinction between the 'ego-libido' and 'object-libido'[3][4] He introduces the idea of the 'ego ideal', and the self-observing agency related to it.[3] Freud also looks briefly at his controversies with Carl Jung and Alfred Adler; indeed one of his motives for writing this was probably to show that the concept of narcissism offers an alternative to Jung's non-sexual 'libido' and Adler's 'masculine protest'.[3][5]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Rhodewalt, Frederick. "Narcissism". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2020-06-29.
  2. ^ Blumenthal, Ellen (2006-12-01). "Psychoanalysis: Theory and treatment". Harvard Health Publishing. Retrieved 2020-06-29.
  3. ^ a b c d e Freud, Sigmund (1914-01-01). "On Narcissism" (PDF). Narcissistic Abuse Rehab. Retrieved 2020-06-29.
  4. ^ Cratsley, Kelso (2016-03-23). "Revisiting Freud and Kohut on narcissism". Sage Journals. Retrieved 2020-06-29.
  5. ^ Adler, Alfred (1912). The neurotic constitution; Outlines of a comparative individualistic psychology and psychotherapy. Dodd, Mead. ISBN 1177496593.