On the Universe
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|Natural philosophy (physics)|
[*]: Generally agreed to be spurious[†]: Authenticity disputed
On the Universe (Greek: Περὶ Κόσμου; Latin: De mundo) is a theological and scientific treatise included in the Corpus Aristotelicum but usually regarded as spurious. It was likely published between 3rd century BC and the 2nd century AD. The work discusses cosmological, geological, and meteorological subjects, alongside a consideration of the role an independent god plays in maintaining the universe.
According to Johan C. Thom, De mundo "attempts to provide an explanation of the role of god in preserving and maintaining the cosmos while at the same time upholding the notion of his transcendence and independence." This view is decidedly non-Aristotlean, given that Aristotle believed in a non-transcendent unmoved mover. While the work is mostly in the Peripatetic style established by Aristotle, elements of Platonic, Stoic, and Neopythagorean philosophy permeates it (which Thom argues is indicative of its post-Aristotlean authorship). Alongside its theological considerations, it also discusses cosmological, geological, and meteorological subjects.
Authorship and date
Doubts about the authorship of De Mundo were already expressed in antiquity: when Proclus mentioned the work in one of his commentaries he added "if the book De Mundo is by him". In the Middle Ages, it was widely believed that De Mundo was a genuine product of Aristotle. The notable exception was the 12th-century philosopher Maimonides who rejected it outright. Doubts were expressed again in the 15th and 16th centuries, and it became common to reject the work in the 17th century. General agreement to deny Aristotle's authorship was reached in the 19th century, with only a few voices dissenting since then.
The main reasons to reject the work are:
- Differences in language and style, including the use of words unrecorded until the 3rd-century BCE
- Many minor points of philosophical doctrine which differ from Aristotle (such as the idea that air is moist and cold in book 2)
- A theological position which diverges in certain respects to that of Aristotle—in particular an emphasis on a God, which, although outside of the universe, is nevertheless present and active everywhere in it.
Attempts have sometimes been made to identify the author of the work. In the 19th century, when the Stoic philosopher Posidonius was thought to be in the background of many treatises on natural philosophy, it was common to regard the book as based on his writings, and the work itself was sometimes ascribed to him. As late as 1905 Wilhelm Capelle (Neue Jahrbücher, 1905), traced most of the doctrines to Posidonius. Another name occasionally proposed as author but now rejected was Nicolaus of Damascus. Today the general position is simply to assume it was written by an anonymous eclectic philosopher,  and as such the author is referred to now as Pseudo-Aristotle. The writer "knew a great deal about philosophy, yet cherished Aristotelian philosophy above all others", but there are "no grounds even to speculate" who the author was.
- The account of the British Isles which draws on the discoveries by Pytheas, who probably published them shortly after Aristotle's death.
- The idea that the Hyrcanian (Caspian) Sea is connected to the ocean which probably descends from a misleading report by Patrocles (early 3rd-century BCE).
- Thom, Johan C., ed. (2014). "Introduction". Cosmic Order and Divine Power: Pseudo-Aristotle, On the Cosmos. Tübingen, Germany: Mohr Siebeck. p. 3. ISBN 978-3-16-152809-5.
- Thom, Johan C., ed. (2014). "Introduction". Cosmic Order and Divine Power: Pseudo-Aristotle, On the Cosmos. Tübingen, Germany: Mohr Siebeck. p. 5. ISBN 978-3-16-152809-5.
- Thom, Johan C., ed. (2014). "Introduction". Cosmic Order and Divine Power: Pseudo-Aristotle, On the Cosmos. Tübingen, Germany: Mohr Siebeck. pp. 10–13. ISBN 978-3-16-152809-5.
- Kraye 2014, p. 182
- Kraye 2014, pp. 183-4
- Kraye 2014, pp. 185-6
- Kraye 2014, p. 187. Kraye identifies Giovanni Reale and Abraham Bos as two recent scholars who have continued to argue for Aristotle's authorship.
- Gregorić & Karamanlis 2020, pp. 6-8
- Kraye 2014, p. 196
- Aristotle; Forster, E. S. (Edward Seymour); Dobson, J. F. (John Frederic) (1914). De Mundo. p. 1.
- Bos, A. P. (2003). The soul and its instrumental Body: A Reinterpretation of Aristotle's Philosophy of Living Nature. Brill's Studies in Intellectual History. 112. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill. p. 210. ISBN 9789004130166.
- Gregorić & Karamanlis 2020, p. 8
- Pajón Leyra & Bartoš 2020, pp. 119-120
- Pajón Leyra & Bartoš 2020, p. 120
- McCollum, Adam (2011). "Sergius of Reshaina as Translator: The Case of the De Mundo". In Lössl, Josef; Watt, John W. (eds.). Interpreting the Bible and Aristotle in Late Antiquity: The Alexandrian Commentary Tradition Between Rome and Baghdad. Farnham, UK: Ashgate Publishing. p. 165. ISBN 9781409410072.
- Kraye, Jill (2014). "Disputes over the authorship of De Mundo". In Thom, Johan C. (ed.). Cosmic Order and Divine Power: Pseudo-Aristotle, On the Cosmos. Mohr Siebeck. ISBN 978-3161528095.
- Pajón Leyra, Irene; Bartoš, Hynek (2020). "Geography (Chapter 3, 393a9–394a6)". In Gregorić, Pavel; Karamanlis, George (eds.). Pseudo-Aristotle: De Mundo (On the Cosmos). A commentary. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1108834780.
- Gregorić, Pavel; Karamanlis, George (2020). "Introduction". Pseudo-Aristotle: De Mundo (On the Cosmos). A commentary. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1108834780.