|Country of origin||Japan|
|Skin colour||yellow|
|Egg colour||light brown|
The Onagadori (Japanese: 尾長鶏, "long-tailed chicken") is a historic Japanese breed of chicken, characterised by an exceptionally long tail. It was bred in the seventeenth century in Kōchi Prefecture, on Shikoku island in southern Japan, and was designated a Japanese National Natural Treasure in 1952. It is one of the ancestors of the German Phoenix breed.
The Onagadori was bred in the seventeenth century in Tosa Province, the area that is now Kōchi Prefecture, on Shikoku island in the south-eastern part of the country. It is reared only in that area,:329 mainly in Nankoku.:989 It is believed to have derived from other long-tailed Japanese breeds including the Shokoku, the Totenko and perhaps the Minohiki.
The Onagadori was designated a Special Natural Treasure in 1952.:989 Of the seventeen chicken breeds considered Japanese national treasures, it is the only one to have "special" status.:11:91
The principal characteristic of the Onagadori is its exceptionally long tail, which exceeds 1.5 metres, and has been known to reach 12 m. The tail consists of about 16–18 feathers, which under the right conditions never moult, and grow rapidly, gaining some 0.7–1.3 m per year.:329:989 The saddle hackles also grow to a considerable length.:329
Three colour varieties are recognised: black-breasted white, black-breasted red, and white. Genetic study suggests that the black-breasted white was the original type, and that the others were created by cross-breeding with birds of other breeds.:991
The Onagadori is kept for ornamental purposes only. Japanese breeders through the centuries have gone to great pains in the creation and perpetuation of the breed, and provide special hutches with perches well above the ground, where the tails are kept clean and in good condition.
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