Page protected with pending changes

One-child policy

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

One-child policy
Jiayuguan-066.JPG
A Chinese mother and son at a market in Jiayuguan, China
Chinese独生子女政策

China's one-child policy was part of a birth planning program designed to control the size of its population. Distinct from the family planning policies of most other countries (which focus on providing contraceptive options to help women have the number of children they want), it set a limit on the number of children parents could have, the world's most extreme example of population planning. It was introduced in 1979 (after a decade-long two-child policy)[1], modified in the mid 1980s to allow rural parents a second child if the first was a daughter, and then lasted three more decades before being eliminated at the end of 2015. The policy also allowed exceptions for some other groups, including ethnic minorities. The term one-child policy is thus a misnomer, because for nearly 30 years of the 36 years that it existed (1979-2015) about half of all parents in China were allowed to have a second child. Provincial governments could (and did) require the use of contraception, sterilizations and abortions to ensure compliance and imposed enormous fines for violations. Local and national governments created commissions to raise awareness and carry out registration and inspection work.

According to the Chinese government, 400 million births were prevented, starting from 1970 a decade before the start of the one child policy. Some scholars have disputed this claim, with Martin King Whyte and Wang et al contending that the policy had little effect on population growth or the size of the total population.[2][3][4] China has been compared to countries with similar socioeconomic development like Thailand and Iran, along with the Indian states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu, which achieved similar declines of fertility without a one-child policy.[5] However, a recent demographic study challenged these scholars by showing that China's low fertility was achieved two or three decades earlier than would be expected given its level of development, and that more than 500 million births were prevented between 1970 and 2015 (a calculation based on an alternate model of fertility decline proposed by the scholars themselves[3]), some 400 million of which may have been due to one-child restrictions.[6] In addition, by 2060 China's birth planning policies may have averted as many as 1 billion people in China when one adds in all the eliminated descendants of the births originally averted by the policies.[7][8] Although 76% of Chinese people said that they supported the policy in a 2008 survey, it was controversial outside of China.[9]

Effective from January 2016, the birth planning policy became a universal two-child policy that allowed each couple to have two children.

China's population since 1950

Introduction[edit]

Birth rate in China

During the period of Mao Zedong's leadership in China, the birth rate fell from 37 per thousand to 20 per thousand.[10] Infant mortality declined from 227 per thousand births in 1949 to 53 per thousand in 1981, and life expectancy dramatically increased from around 35 years in 1948 to 66 years in 1976.[10][11] Until the 1960s, the government encouraged families to have as many children as possible[12] because of Mao's belief that population growth empowered the country, preventing the emergence of family planning programs earlier in China's development.[13] The population grew from around 540 million in 1949 to 940 million in 1976.[14] Beginning in 1970, citizens were encouraged to marry at later ages and have only two children[1].

Although the fertility rate began to decline, the Chinese government observed the global debate over a possible overpopulation catastrophe suggested by organizations such as Club of Rome and Sierra Club. It thus began to encourage one-child families in 1978, and then announced in 1979 its intention to advocate for one-child families. In 1980, the central government organized a meeting in Chengdu to discuss the speed and scope of one-child restrictions.[1]

One participant at the Chengdu meeting had read two influential books about population concerns, The Limits to Growth and A Blueprint for Survival while visiting Europe in 1979. That official, Song Jian, along with several associates, determined that the ideal population of China was 700 million, and that a universal one-child policy for all would be required to meet that goal. [15] Moreover, Song and his group showed that if fertility rates remained constant at 3 births per woman, China's population would surpass 3 billion by 2060 and 4 billion by 2080.[1] In spite of some criticism inside the party, the plan (also referred to as the Family Planning Policy[16]) was formally implemented as a temporary measure on 18 September 1980.[17][18][19][20] The plan called for families to have one child each in order to curb a then-surging population and alleviate social, economic, and environmental problems in China.[21][22]

Although a recent and often-repeated interpretation by Greenhalgh claims that Song Jian was the central architect of the one-child policy and that he "hijacked" the population policymaking process,[23] that claim has been refuted by several leading scholars, including Liang Zhongtang, a leading internal critic of one-child restrictions and an eye-witness at the discussions in Chengdu.[24] In the words of Wang et al., "the idea of the one-child policy came from leaders within the Party, not from scientists who offered evidence to support it”[2] Central officials had already decided in 1979 to advocate for one-child restrictions before knowing of Song's work and, upon learning of his work in 1980, already seemed sympathetic to his position.[25] Moreover, even if Song's work convinced them to proceed with universal one-child restrictions in 1980, the policy was loosened to a "1.5"-child policy just five years later, and it is that policy which has been misnomered since as the "one-child policy." Thus, it is misleading to suggest that Song Jian was either the inventor or architect of the policy that China had in place from 1985-2015.

History[edit]

The one-child policy was originally designed to be a One-Generation Policy.[26] It was enforced at the provincial level and enforcement varied; some provinces had more relaxed restrictions. The one-child limit was most strictly enforced in densely populated urban areas.[27]

Beginning in 1980, the official policy granted local officials the flexibility to make exceptions and allow second children in the case of "practical difficulties" (such as cases in which the father is a disabled serviceman) or when both parents are single children,[28] and some provinces had other exemptions worked into their policies as well. In most areas, families were allowed to apply to have a second child if their first-born is a daughter.[29][30] Furthermore, families with children with disabilities have different policies and families whose first child suffers from physical disability, mental illness, or intellectual disability were allowed to have more children.[31] However, second children were sometimes subject to birth spacing (usually 3 or 4 years). Children born in overseas countries were not counted under the policy if they do not obtain Chinese citizenship. Chinese citizens returning from abroad were allowed to have a second child.[32] Sichuan province allowed exemptions for couples of certain backgrounds.[33] By one estimate there were at least 22 ways in which parents could qualify for exceptions to the law towards the end of the one-child policy's existence.[34] As of 2007, only 36% of the population were subjected to a strict one-child limit. 53% were permitted to have a second child if their first was a daughter; 9.6% of Chinese couples were permitted two children regardless of their gender; and 1.6% – mainly Tibetans – had no limit at all.[35]

The Danshan, Sichuan Province Nongchang Village people Public Affairs Bulletin Board in September 2005 noted that RMB 25,000 in social compensation fees were owed in 2005. Thus far 11,500 RMB had been collected, so another 13,500 RMB had to be collected.

Following the 2008 Sichuan earthquake, a new exception to the regulations was announced in Sichuan province for parents who had lost children in the earthquake.[36][37] Similar exceptions had previously been made for parents of severely disabled or deceased children.[38] People have also tried to evade the policy by giving birth to a second child in Hong Kong, but at least for Guangdong residents, the one-child policy was also enforced if the birth was given in Hong Kong or abroad.[39]

In accordance with China's affirmative action policies towards ethnic minorities, all non-Han ethnic groups are subjected to different laws and were usually allowed to have two children in urban areas, and three or four in rural areas. Han Chinese living in rural towns were also permitted to have two children.[40] Because of couples such as these, as well as who simply pay a fine (or "social maintenance fee") to have more children,[41] the overall fertility rate of mainland China was close to 1.4 children per woman as of 2011.[42]

Implementation[edit]

The Family Planning Policy was enforced through a financial penalty in the form of the "social child-raising fee", sometimes called a "family planning fine" in the West, which was collected as a fraction of either the annual disposable income of city dwellers or of the annual cash income of peasants, in the year of the child's birth.[43] For instance, in Guangdong, the fee is between 3 and 6 annual incomes for incomes below the per capita income of the district, plus 1 to 2 times the annual income exceeding the average. Both members of the couple need to pay the fine.[44]

As part of the policy, women were required to have a contraceptive intrauterine device (IUD) surgically installed after having a first child, and to be sterilized by tubal ligation after having a second child. From 1980 to 2014, 324 million Chinese women were fitted with IUDs in this way and 108 million were sterilized. Women who refused these procedures – which many resented – could lose their government employment and their children could lose access to education or health services. The IUDs installed in this way were modified such that they could not be removed manually, but only through surgery. In 2016, following the abolition of the one-child policy, the Chinese government announced that IUD removals would now be paid for by the government.[45]

Relaxation[edit]

In 2013, Deputy Director Wang Peian of the National Health and Family Planning Commission said that "China's population will not grow substantially in the short term".[46] A survey by the commission found that only about half of eligible couples wish to have two children, mostly because of the cost of living impact of a second child.[47]

In November 2013, following the Third Plenum of the 18th Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party, China announced the decision to relax the one-child policy. Under the new policy, families could have two children if one parent, rather than both parents, was an only child.[48][49] This mainly applied to urban couples, since there were very few rural only children due to long-standing exceptions to the policy for rural couples.[50] The coastal province of Zhejiang, one of China's most affluent, became the first area to implement this "relaxed policy" in January 2014.[51] The relaxed policy has been implemented in 29 out of the 31 provinces, with the exceptions of Xinjiang and Tibet. Under this policy, approximately 11 million couples in China are allowed to have a second child; however, only "nearly one million" couples applied to have a second child in 2014,[52] less than half the expected number of 2 million per year.[53] By May 2014, 241,000 out of 271,000 applications had been approved. Officials of China's National Health and Family Planning Commission claimed that this outcome was expected, and that "second-child policy" would continue progressing with a good start.[54]

In 2016, 433 births and 211 deaths were recorded in Wulipu, Hubei. The birth rate was 8.9% and death rate was 4.3% resulting in a natural population increase of 4.6%.[55] In the results of a separate survey published by the Shayang County government, Wulipu's population had increased from 48,044 to 48,132 during a survey period. 424 children were born during the survey period resulting in a birth rate of 8.82%. During the same period, 63 people died, resulting in death rate of 1.31%. Of the births in the survey, 406 (95.75%) were in compliance with the family planning policy of China. 312 (73.58%) of the births were the firstborn in the family. (All of these births were in compliance with the family planning policy of China.) Among the firstborn children, 157 were female. 107 (25.24%) of the births were the second-born child in the family. 90 of these births were in compliance with the family planning policy of China. Among the second-born children, 47 were female. Five (1.18%) of the births surveyed were neither the firstborn nor second-born child in the family. Four of these births were in compliance with the family planning policy of China. Among the children born who were neither firstborn nor second-born, two were female.[56]

Abolition[edit]

In October 2015, the Chinese news agency Xinhua announced plans of the government to abolish the one-child policy, now allowing all families to have two children, citing from a communiqué issued by the Communist Party "to improve the balanced development of population" – an apparent reference to the country's female-to-male sex ratio – and to deal with an aging population according to the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation.[21][57][58][59][60][61][62][63] The new law took effect on 1 January 2016 after it was passed in the standing committee of the National People's Congress on 27 December 2015.[64][65]

The rationale for the abolition was summarized by former Wall Street Journal reporter Mei Fong: "The reason China is doing this right now is because they have too many men, too many old people, and too few young people. They have this huge crushing demographic crisis as a result of the one-child policy. And if people don't start having more children, they're going to have a vastly diminished workforce to support a huge aging population."[66] China's ratio is about five working adults to one retiree; the huge retiree community must be supported, and that will dampen future growth, according to Fong.

Since the citizens of China are living longer and having fewer children, the growth of the population imbalance is expected to continue, as reported by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation which referred to a United Nations projections forecast that "China will lose 67 million working-age people by 2030, while simultaneously doubling the number of elderly. That could put immense pressure on the economy and government resources."[21] The longer term outlook is also pessimistic, based on an estimate by the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, revealed by Cai Fang, deputy director. "By 2050, one-third of the country will be aged 60 years or older, and there will be fewer workers supporting each retired person."[67]

Although many critics of China's reproductive restrictions approve of the policy's abolition, Amnesty International said that the move to the two-child policy would not end forced sterilizations, forced abortions, or government control over birth permits.[68][69] Others also stated that the abolition is not a sign of the relaxation of authoritarian control in China. A reporter for CNN said, "It was not a sign that the party will suddenly start respecting personal freedoms more than it has in the past. No, this is a case of the party adjusting policy to conditions. ... The new policy, raising the limit to two children per couple, preserves the state's role."[70][71]

The abolition may not achieve a significant benefit, as the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation analysis indicated: "Repealing the one-child policy may not spur a huge baby boom, however, in part because fertility rates are believed to be declining even without the policy's enforcement. Previous easings of the one-child policy have spurred fewer births than expected, and many people among China's younger generations see smaller family sizes as ideal."[21] The CNN reporter adds that China's new prosperity is also a factor in the declining[67] birth rate, saying, "Couples naturally decide to have fewer children as they move from the fields into the cities, become more educated, and when women establish careers outside the home."[70]

Administration[edit]

The one-child policy was managed by the National Population and Family Planning Commission under the central government since 1981. The Ministry of Health of the People's Republic of China and the National Health and Family Planning Commission were made defunct and a new single agency National Health and Family Planning Commission took over national health and family planning policies in 2013. The agency reports to the State Council.

The policy was enforced at the provincial level through fines that were imposed based on the income of the family and other factors. "Population and Family Planning Commissions" existed at every level of government to raise awareness and carry out registration and inspection work.[72]

Effects[edit]

Fertility Reduction: Debates Over the Roles of Policy vs. Socio-economic Change[edit]

The progression of China's population pyramid, International Futures.

The fertility rate in China continued its fall from 2.8 births per woman in 1979 (already a sharp reduction from more than five births per woman in the early 1970s) to 1.5 by the mid 1990s. Some scholars claim that this decline is similar to that observed in other places that had no one-child restrictions, such as Thailand as well as Indian states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu, a claim designed to support the argument that China's fertility might have fallen to such levels anyway without draconian fertility restrictions [2][73][5][74]. According to a 2017 study in the Journal of Economic Perspectives, "the one-child policy accelerated the already-occurring drop in fertility for a few years, but in the longer term, economic development played a more fundamental role in leading to and maintaining China's low fertility level."[75]. However, a more recent study found that China's fertility decline to very low levels by the mid 1990s was far more impressive given its lower level of socio-economic development at that time;[8] even after taking rapid economic development into account, China's fertility restrictions likely averted over 500 million births between 1970 and 2015, with the portion caused by one-child restrictions possibly totaling 400 million.[76] Fertility restrictions also had other unintended consequences, such as a deficit of 40 million female babies. Most of this deficit was due to sex-selective abortion as well as the 1.5 child stopping rule, which required rural parents to stop childbearing if their first born was a son.[77]Another consequence was the acceleration of the aging of China's population. [78][79]

Disparity in sex ratio at birth[edit]

The sex ratio at birth in People's Republic of China, males per 100 females, 1980–2010.

The sex ratio of a newborn infant (between male and female births) in mainland China reached 117:100, and stabilized between 2000 and 2013, substantially higher than the natural baseline, which ranges between 103:100 and 107:100. It had risen from 108:100 in 1981—at the boundary of the natural baseline—to 111:100 in 1990.[80] According to a report by the National Population and Family Planning Commission, there will be 30 million more men than women in 2020, potentially leading to social instability, and courtship-motivated emigration.[81]

The disparity in the gender ratio at birth increases dramatically after the first birth, for which the ratios remained steadily within the natural baseline over the 20 year interval between 1980 and 1999. Thus, a large majority of couples appear to accept the outcome of the first pregnancy, whether it is a boy or a girl. If the first child is a girl, and they are able to have a second child, then a couple may take extraordinary steps to assure that the second child is a boy. If a couple already has two or more boys, the sex ratio of higher parity births swings decidedly in a feminine direction. This demographic evidence indicates that while families highly value having male offspring, a secondary norm of having a girl or having some balance in the sexes of children often comes into play. Zeng 1993 reported a study based on the 1990 census in which they found sex ratios of just 65 or 70 boys per 100 girls for births in families that already had two or more boys.[82] A study by Anderson & Silver (1995) found a similar pattern among both Han and non-Han nationalities in Xinjiang Province: a strong preference for girls in high parity births in families that had already borne two or more boys.[83] This tendency to favour girls in high parity births to couples who had already borne sons was later also noted by Coale and Banister, who suggested as well that once a couple had achieved its goal for the number of males, it was also much more likely to engage in "stopping behavior", i.e., to stop having more children.[84]

The long-term disparity has led to a significant gender imbalance or skewing of the sex ratio. As reported by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, China has between 32 million and 36 million more males than would be expected naturally, and this has led to social problems. "Because of a traditional preference for baby boys over girls, the one-child policy is often cited as the cause of China's skewed sex ratio ... Even the government acknowledges the problem and has expressed concern about the tens of millions of young men who won't be able to find brides and may turn to kidnapping women, sex trafficking, other forms of crime or social unrest."[21] The situation will not improve in the near future. According to the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, there will be 24 million more men than women of marriageable age by 2020.[85]

Education[edit]

According to a 2017 study in the Journal of Economic Perspectives, "existing studies indicate either a modest or minimal effect of the fertility change induced by the one-child policy on children education".[75]

Adoption and Abandonment[edit]

A roadside sign in rural Sichuan: "It is forbidden to discriminate against, mistreat or abandon baby girls."

For parents who had "unauthorized" births or who wanted a son but had a daughter, giving up the child for adoption was a kind of strategy to avoid penalties under one-child restrictions. In fact, "out adoption" was not uncommon in China even before birth planning. In the 1980s, adoptions of daughters accounted for slightly above half of the so-called "missing girls," as out-adopted daughters often went unreported in censuses and survey and adoptive parents were not penalized for violating birth quotas [86] However, in 1991, a central decree attempted to close off this loophole by raising penalties and levying those penalties on any household that had an "unauthorized" child, including those that had adopted children.[87] This closing of the adoption loophole resulted in the abandonment of some two million Chinese children (mostly daughters),[8] many of who ended up in orphanages, some 120,000 of whom would be adopted by international parents.

The peak wave of abandonment occurred in the 1990s, with a smaller wave after 2000.[87] Around the same time, poor care and high mortality rates in some state orphanages generated intense international pressure for reform.[88][89]

After 2005, the number of international adoptions declined, due both to falling birth rates and the related increase in demand for adoptions by Chinese parents themselves. In an interview with National Public Radio on 30 October 2015, Adam Pertman,[90] president and CEO of the National Center on Adoption and Permanency, indicated that "the infant girls of yesteryear have not been available, if you will, for five, seven years. China has been ... trying to keep the girls within the country ... And the consequence is that, today, rather than those young girls who used to be available – primarily girls – today, it's older children, children with special needs, children in sibling groups. It's very, very different."[91]

Twins[edit]

Since there are no penalties for multiple births, it is believed that an increasing number of couples are turning to fertility medicines to induce the conception of twins. According to a 2006 China Daily report, the number of twins born per year was estimated to have doubled.[timeframe?][92]

Quality of life for women[edit]

The one-child policy has played a major role in improving the quality of life for women in China. For thousands of years, girls have held a lower status in Chinese households. However, the one-child policy's limit on the number of children has prompted parents of women to start investing money in their well-being. As a result of being an only child, women have increased opportunity to receive an education, and support to get better jobs. One of the side effects of the one-child policy is to have liberated women from heavy duties in terms of taking care of many children and the family in the past; instead women had a lot of spare time for themselves to pursue their career or hobbies. The other major "side effect" of the one child policy is that the traditional concepts of gender roles between men and women have weakened. Being one and the only "chance" the parents have, women are expected to compete with peer men for better educational resources or career opportunities. Especially in cities where one-child policy was much more regulated and enforced, expectations on women to succeed in life are no less than on men.[93]

Healthcare improvements[edit]

It is reported that the focus of China on population planning helps provide a better health service for women and a reduction in the risks of death and injury associated with pregnancy. At family planning offices, women receive free contraception and pre-natal classes that contributed to the policy's success in two respects. First, the average Chinese household expends fewer resources, both in terms of time and money, on children, which gives many Chinese people more money with which to invest. Second, since Chinese adults can no longer rely on children to care for them in their old age, there is an impetus to save money for the future.[94]

"Four-two-one" problem[edit]

A white sign with two lines of red Chinese characters and a smaller one beneath them on a background of white tile
A government sign in Tangshan Township: "For a prosperous, powerful nation and a happy family, please practice family planning."

As the first generation of law-enforced only-children came of age for becoming parents themselves, one adult child was left with having to provide support for his or her two parents and four grandparents.[95][96] Called the "4-2-1 Problem", this leaves the older generations with increased chances of dependency on retirement funds or charity in order to receive support. If not for personal savings, pensions, or state welfare fail, most senior citizens would be left entirely dependent upon their very small family or neighbours for assistance. If, for any reason, the single child is unable to care for their older adult relatives, the oldest generations would face a lack of resources and necessities. In response to such an issue, all provinces have decided[when?] that couples are allowed to have two children if both parents were only children themselves. By 2007, all provinces in the nation except Henan had adopted this new policy;[97][98] Henan followed in 2011.[99]

Unregistered children[edit]

Heihaizi (Chinese: 黑孩子; pinyin: hēiháizi) or "black child" is a term denoting children born outside the one-child policy, or generally children who are not registered in the Chinese national household registration system.

Being excluded from the family register means they do not possess a Hukou, which is "an identifying document, similar in some ways to the American social security card."[100] In this respect they do not legally exist and as a result cannot access most public services, such as education and health care, and do not receive protection under the law.[101][102][103]

Potential social problems[edit]

Some parents may over-indulge their only child. The media referred to the indulged children in one-child families as "little emperors".[104] Since the 1990s, some people have worried that this will result in a higher tendency toward poor social communication and cooperation skills amongst the new generation, as they have no siblings at home. No social studies have investigated the ratio of these so-called "over-indulged" children and to what extent they are indulged. With the first generation of children born under the policy (which initially became a requirement for most couples with first children born starting in 1979 and extending into the 1980s) reaching adulthood, such worries were reduced.[105]

However, the "little emperor syndrome" and additional expressions, describing the generation of Chinese singletons are very abundant in the Chinese media, Chinese academia and popular discussions. Being over-indulged, lacking self-discipline and having no adaptive capabilities are traits that are highly associated with Chinese singletons.[106]

Some 30 delegates called on the government in the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference in March 2007 to abolish the one-child rule, citing "social problems and personality disorders in young people". One statement read, "It is not healthy for children to play only with their parents and be spoiled by them: it is not right to limit the number to two children per family, either."[107] The proposal was prepared by Ye Tingfang, a professor at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, who suggested that the government at least restore the previous rule that allowed couples to have up to two children. According to a scholar, "The one-child limit is too extreme. It violates nature's law. And in the long run, this will lead to mother nature's revenge."[107][108]

Birth tourism[edit]

Reports surfaced of Chinese women giving birth to their second child overseas, a practice known as birth tourism. Many went to Hong Kong, which is exempt from the one-child policy. Likewise, a Hong Kong passport differs from China mainland passport by providing additional advantages. Recently though, the Hong Kong government has drastically reduced the quota of births set for non-local women in public hospitals. As a result, fees for delivering babies there have surged. As further admission cuts or a total ban on non-local births in Hong Kong are being considered, mainland agencies that arrange for expectant mothers to give birth overseas are predicting a surge in those going to North America.[109]

As the United States practises birthright citizenship, all children born in the US will automatically have US citizenship. The closest US location from China is Saipan in the Northern Mariana Islands, a US dependency in the western Pacific Ocean that allows Chinese visitors without visa restrictions. As of 2012, the island was experiencing an upswing in Chinese births, since birth tourism there had become cheaper than to Hong Kong. This option is used by relatively affluent Chinese who often have secondary motives as well, wishing their children to be able to leave mainland China when they grow older or bring their parents to the US. Canada, compared to US, is less achievable as their government denies many visa requests.[110][111]

Sex-selective abortion[edit]

Due to the preference in Rural Chinese society to give birth to a son,[112] pre-natal sex determination and sex-selective abortions are illegal in China.[113] Often argued as one of the key factors in the imbalanced sex-ratio in China, as excess female infant mortality and underreporting of female births cannot solely explain this gender disparity.[114] Researchers have found that the gender of the firstborn child in rural parts of China impact whether or not the mother will seek an ultrasound for the second child. 40% of women with a firstborn son seek an ultrasound for their second pregnancy, versus 70% of women with firstborn daughters. This clearly depicts a desire for women to birth a son if one has not yet been birthed.[115] In response to this, the Chinese government made sex-selective abortions illegal in 2005.[115]

Criticism[edit]

The policy is controversial outside China for many reasons, including accusations of human rights abuses in the implementation of the policy, as well as concerns about negative social consequences.[116]

Statement of the effect of the policy on birth reduction[edit]

The Chinese government, quoting Zhai Zhenwu, director of Renmin University's School of Sociology and Population in Beijing, estimates that 400 million births were prevented by the one-child policy as of 2011, while some demographers challenge that number, putting the figure at perhaps half that level, according to CNN.[117] Zhai clarified that the 400 million estimate referred not just to the one-child policy, but includes births prevented by predecessor policies implemented one decade before, stating that "there are many different numbers out there but it doesn't change the basic fact that the policy prevented a really large number of births".[118]

This claim is disputed by Wang Feng, director of the Brookings-Tsinghua Center for Public Policy, and Cai Yong from the Carolina Population Center at University of North Carolina Chapel Hill[118] Wang claims that "Thailand and China have had almost identical fertility trajectories since the mid 1980s", and "Thailand does not have a one-child policy."[118] China's Health Ministry has also disclosed that at least 336 million abortions were performed on account of the policy.[119]

According to a report by the US Embassy, scholarship published by Chinese scholars and their presentations at the October 1997 Beijing conference of the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population seemed to suggest that market-based incentives or increasing voluntariness is not morally better but that it is in the end more effective.[120] In 1988, Zeng Yi and Professor T. Paul Schultz of Yale University discussed the effect of the transformation to the market on Chinese fertility, arguing that the introduction of the contract responsibility system in agriculture during the early 1980s weakened family planning controls during that period.[121] Zeng contended that the "big cooking pot" system of the People's Communes had insulated people from the costs of having many children. By the late 1980s, economic costs and incentives created by the contract system were already reducing the number of children farmers wanted.

A long-term experiment in a county in Shanxi Province, in which the family planning law was suspended, suggested that families would not have many more children even if the law were abolished.[34] A 2003 review of the policy-making process behind the adoption of the one-child policy shows that less intrusive options, including those that emphasized delay and spacing of births, were known but not fully considered by China's political leaders.[122]

Unequal enforcement[edit]

Corrupted government officials and especially wealthy individuals have often been able to violate the policy in spite of fines.[123] Filmmaker Zhang Yimou had three children and was subsequently fined 7.48 million yuan ($1.2 million).[124] For example, between 2000 and 2005, as many as 1,968 officials in central China's Hunan province were found to be violating the policy, according to the provincial family planning commission; also exposed by the commission were 21 national and local lawmakers, 24 political advisors, 112 entrepreneurs and 6 senior intellectuals.[123]

Some of the offending officials did not face penalties,[123] although the government did respond by raising fines and calling on local officials to "expose the celebrities and high-income people who violate the family planning policy and have more than one child".[123] Also, people who lived in the rural areas of China were allowed to have two children without punishment, although the family is required to wait a couple of years before having another child.[125]

Human rights violations[edit]

The one-child policy has been challenged for violating a human right to determine the size of one's own proper family. According to a 1968 proclamation of the International Conference on Human Rights, "Parents have a basic human right to determine freely and responsibly the number and the spacing of their children."[126][127]

According to the UK newspaper The Daily Telegraph, a quota of 20,000 abortions and sterilizations was set for Huaiji County in Guangdong Province in one year due to reported disregard of the one-child policy. According to the article local officials were being pressured into purchasing portable ultrasound devices to identify abortion candidates in remote villages. The article also reported that women as far along as 8.5 months pregnant were forced to abort, usually by an injection of saline solution.[128] A 1993 book by social scientist, Steven W. Mosher, reported that women in their ninth month of pregnancy, or already in labour, were having their children killed whilst in the birth canal or immediately after birth.[129]

According to a 2005 news report by Australian Broadcasting Corporation correspondent, John Taylor, China outlawed the use of physical force to make a woman submit to an abortion or sterilization in 2002 but ineffectively enforces the measure.[130] In 2012, Feng Jianmei, a villager from central China's Shaanxi province was forced into an abortion by local officials after her family refused to pay the fine for having a second child. Chinese authorities have since apologized and two officials were fired, while five others were sanctioned.[131]

In the past, China promoted eugenics as part of its population planning policies, but the government has backed away from such policies, as evidenced by China's ratification of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, which compels the nation to significantly reform its genetic testing laws.[132] Recent[when?] research has also emphasized the necessity of understanding a myriad of complex social relations that affect the meaning of informed consent in China.[133] Furthermore, in 2003, China revised its marriage registration regulations and couples no longer have to submit to a pre-marital physical or genetic examination before being granted a marriage license.[134]

The United Nations Population Fund's (UNFPA) support for family planning in China, which has been associated with the One-Child policy in the United States, led the United States Congress to pull out of the UNFPA during the Reagan administration,[135] and again under George W. Bush's presidency, citing human rights abuses[136] and stating that the right to "found a family" was protected under the Preamble in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.[137] President Obama resumed U.S. government financial support for the UNFPA shortly after taking office in 2009, intending to "work collaboratively to reduce poverty, improve the health of women and children, prevent HIV/AIDS and provide family planning assistance to women in 154 countries".[138][139]

Effect on infanticide rates[edit]

Sex-selected abortion, abandonment, and infanticide are illegal in China. Nevertheless, the United States Department of State,[140] the Parliament of the United Kingdom,[141] and the human rights organization Amnesty International[142] have all declared that infanticide still exists.[143][144][145] A writer for the Georgetown Journal of International Affairs wrote, "The 'one-child' policy has also led to what Amartya Sen first called 'Missing Women', or the 100 million girls 'missing' from the populations of China (and other developing countries) as a result of female infanticide, abandonment, and neglect".[146]

The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation offered the following summary as to the long term effects of sex-selective abortion and abandonment of female infants:

Multiple research studies have also found that sex-selective abortion – where a woman undergoes an ultrasound to determine the sex of her baby, and then aborts it if it's a girl – was widespread for years, particularly for second or subsequent children. Millions of female fetuses have been aborted since the 1970s. China outlawed sex selective abortions in 2005, but the law is tough to enforce because of the difficulty of proving why a couple decided to have an abortion. The abandonment, and killing, of baby girls has also been reported, though recent research studies say it has become rare, in part due to strict criminal prohibitions.[21]

Anthropologist G. William Skinner at the University of California, Davis and Chinese researcher Yuan Jianhua have claimed that infanticide was fairly common in China before the 1990s.[147]

In popular culture[edit]

  • Ball, David (2002). China Run. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-74322743-3. A novel about an American woman who travels to China to adopt an orphan of the one-child policy, only to find herself a fugitive when the Chinese government informs her that she has been given "the wrong baby".
  • The prevention of a state-imposed abortion during labor to conform with the one child policy is a key plot point in Tom Clancy's novel The Bear and the Dragon.
  • The difficulties of implementing the one-child policy are dramatized in Mo Yan's novel Frog (2009; English translation by Howard Goldblatt, 2015).
  • Avoiding the family-planning enforcers is at the heart of Ma Jian's novel The Dark Road (translated by Flora Drew, 2013).
  • Novelist Lu Min writes about her own family's experience with the One Child Policy in her essay "A Second Pregnancy, 1980" (translated by Helen Wang, 2015).[148]
  • Xue, Xinran (2015). Buy Me the Sky. Rider (imprint). ISBN 978-1-8460-4471-7. Tells the stories of the children brought up under China's one-child policy and the effect that has had on their lives, families and ability to deal with life's challenges.
  • Fong, Mei (2016). One Child: The Story of China's Most Radical Experiment. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. ISBN 9780544275393.

See also[edit]

General:

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Scharping, Thomas (2003). Birth control in China 1949–2000: Population policy and demographic development. London: Routledge.
  2. ^ a b c Feng, Wang; Yong, Cai; Gu, Baochang (2012). "Population, Policy, and Politics: How Will History Judge China's One-Child Policy?" (PDF). Population and Development Review. 38: 115–29. doi:10.1111/j.1728-4457.2013.00555.x.
  3. ^ a b Whyte, Martin K.; Wang, Feng; Cai, Yong (2015). "Challenging Myths about China's One-Child Policy" (PDF). The China Journal.
  4. ^ Li, Hongbin; Zhang, Junsen (2006). "How effective is the one-child policy in China?" (PDF). Working Paper Series.
  5. ^ a b Sen, Amartya (Jun 2012). "Population: Delusion and Reality" (PDF). Richard R Guzmán.
  6. ^ Daniel Goodkind. 2017. The Astonishing Population Averted by China's Birth Restrictions: Estimates, Nightmares, and Reprogrammed Ambitions. DEMOGRAPHY 54: 1375-1399 doi: 10.1007/s13524-017-0595-x
  7. ^ "Analysis of China's one-child policy sparks uproar". 18 October 2017.
  8. ^ a b c Goodkind, Daniel (2018). "If Science Had Come First: A Billion Person Fable for the Ages". DEMOGRAPHY. 55 (2): 743–768.
  9. ^ "The Chinese Celebrate Their Roaring Economy, As They Struggle With Its Costs". Retrieved 9 December 2015.
  10. ^ a b Bergaglio, Maristella. "Population Growth in China: The Basic Characteristics of China's Demographic Transition" (PDF). Global geografia. IT.
  11. ^ "World Development Indicators". Google Public Data Explorer. World Bank. 1 July 2009. Retrieved 4 October 2013.
  12. ^ Mann, Jim (7 June 1992). "The Physics of Revenge: When Dr. Lu Gang's American Dream Died, Six People Died With It". The Los Angeles Times Magazine. Retrieved 14 July 2012.
  13. ^ Potts, M. (19 August 2006). "China's one child policy". BMJ. 333 (7564): 361–62. doi:10.1136/bmj.38938.412593.80. PMC 1550444. PMID 16916810.
  14. ^ "Total population, CBR, CDR, NIR and TFR of China (1949–2000)". China Daily. Retrieved 4 October 2013.
  15. ^ Zubrin, Robert (2012). Radical Environmentalists, Criminal Pseudo-Scientists, and the Fatal Cult of Antihumanism. The New Atlantis. 2646. ISBN 978-1-59403476-3.
  16. ^ Family Planning in China, Embassy of the People's Republic of China in Lithuania; Information Office of the State Council of the People's Republic of China, August 1995, Section III paragraph 2, retrieved 27 October 2014
  17. ^ "Experts challenge China's 1-child population claim". Boston.com. 27 October 2011.
  18. ^ Zhu, W X (1 June 2003). "The One Child Family Policy". Archives of Disease in Childhood. 88 (6): 463–64. doi:10.1136/adc.88.6.463. PMC 1763112. PMID 12765905.
  19. ^ "East and Southeast Asia: China". CIA World Factbook.
  20. ^ Coale, Ansley J. (March 1981). "Population Trends, Population Policy, and Population Studies in China" (PDF). Population and Development Review. 7 (1): 85. doi:10.2307/1972766. Coale shows detailed birth and death data up to 1979, and gives a cultural background to the famine in 1959–61.
  21. ^ a b c d e f Five things to know about China's one-child policy, CA: CBC.
  22. ^ da Silva, Pascal Rocha (2006). "La politique de l'enfant unique en République populaire de Chine" [The politics of one child in the People's Republic of China] (PDF) (in French). University of Geneva: 22–28.
  23. ^ Greenhalgh, Susan (2008). Just One Child: Science and Policy in Deng's China. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. Dust Jacket.
  24. ^ Mara, Hvistendahl (2010). "Has China outgrown the one-child policy?" (329). Science.
  25. ^ Tien, H.Y. (1991). China's Strategic Demographic Initiative. New York: Praeger.
  26. ^ Fong, Vanessa L. (2004). Only Hope: Coming of Age Under China's One-Child Policy. Stanford University Press. p. 179. ISBN 978-0-80475330-2.
  27. ^ "Status of Population and Family Planning Program in China by Province". Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific. Archived from the original on 30 March 2012.
  28. ^ Scheuer, James (4 January 1987). "America, the U.N. and China's Family Planning (Opinion)". The New York Times. Retrieved 27 October 2008.
  29. ^ "Most people free to have more child". China Daily. 11 July 2007. Retrieved 31 July 2009.
  30. ^ Hu, Huiting (18 October 2002). "Family Planning Law and China's Birth Control Situation". China Daily. Retrieved 2 March 2009.
  31. ^ "China's Only Child". NOVA. 14 February 1984. PBS. Retrieved 13 October 2009.
  32. ^ Qiang, Guo (28 December 2006). "Are the rich challenging family planning policy?". China Daily.
  33. ^ 29th session of the standing committee of the 8th People's Congress of Sichuan Province (rev ed.), United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, 17 October 1997, Articles 11–13, archived from the original on 6 July 2008, retrieved 31 October 2008
  34. ^ a b Wong, Edward (22 July 2012). "Reports of Forced Abortions Fuel Push to End Chinese Law". The New York Times. Retrieved 23 July 2012.
  35. ^ Callick, Rowan (24 January 2007). "China relaxes its one-child policy". The Australian.
  36. ^ Jacobs, Andrew Jacobs (27 May 2008). "One-Child Policy Lifted for Quake Victims' Parents". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 May 2008.
  37. ^ "Baby offer for earthquake parents". BBC. Retrieved 31 October 2008.
  38. ^ "China Amends Child Policy for Some Quake Victims". Morning Edition. NPR.
  39. ^ Tan, Kenneth (9 February 2012). "Hong Kong to issue blanket ban on mothers from the mainland?". Shanghaiist. Retrieved 4 October 2013.
  40. ^ Yardley, Jim (11 May 2008). "China Sticking With One-Child Policy". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 November 2008.
  41. ^ "New rich challenge family planning policy". Xinhua. 14 December 2015. Archived from the original on 15 October 2007.
  42. ^ "The most surprising demographic crisis". The Economist. 5 May 2011. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
  43. ^ Summary of Family Planning notice on how FP fines are collected
  44. ^ "Heavy Fine for Violators of One-Child Policy". CN. Retrieved 4 October 2013.
  45. ^ Wee, Sui-lee (7 January 2017). "After One-Child Policy, Outrage at China's Offer to Remove IUDs". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 January 2017.
  46. ^ Burkitt, Laurie (17 November 2013), "China to Move Slowly on One-Child Law Reform", The Wall Street Journal (online ed.), retrieved 5 December 2013.
  47. ^ Levin, Dan (25 February 2014). "Many in China Can Now Have a Second Child, but Say No". The New York Times. Retrieved 26 February 2014.
  48. ^ China reforms: One-child policy to be relaxed, UK: BBC, 15 November 2013, retrieved 5 December 2013.
  49. ^ "Why is China relaxing its one-child policy?". The Economist. The Economist. 27 January 2015. Retrieved 27 January 2015.
  50. ^ "Xinhua Insight: Heated discussion over loosening of one-child policy". Xinhua net. Archived from the original on 21 January 2015.
  51. ^ "Eastern Chinese province first to ease one-child policy". Reuters. 17 January 2014.
  52. ^ "1 mln Chinese couples apply to have second child". China daily.
  53. ^ China daily, Feb 2014.
  54. ^ Wang, Yamei (2014). "11 million couples qualify for a second child". Xinhua News. Archived from the original on 14 September 2014. Retrieved 10 December 2014.
  55. ^ "五里铺镇". 沙洋县人民政府门户网站 www.shayang.gov.cn (in Simplified Chinese). 沙洋县新闻中心. Retrieved 31 March 2018. 五里铺镇{...}2016年出生人口433人,死亡211人,人口出生率8.9‰,死亡率4.3‰,自然增长率4.6‰。
  56. ^ "沙洋县全员人口相关数据统计表". 沙洋县人民政府门户网站 www.shayang.gov.cn (in Simplified Chinese). 沙洋县新闻中心. Retrieved 31 March 2018. 地区 总 人 口 出 生 总 数 一 孩 二 孩 多 孩 死 亡 期 初 期 末 人 数 出生率‰ 符合政策生育人数 符合政策生育% 人 数 符合政策生育人数 其中:女孩人数 一孩率% 人 数 符合政策生育人数 其中:女孩人数 二孩率% 人 数 符合政策生育人数 其中:女孩人数 多孩率% 人 数 死亡率‰{...}五里铺镇 48044 48132 424 8.82 406 95.75 312 312 157 73.58 107 90 47 25.24 5 4 2 1.18 63 1.31
  57. ^ "China to abolish decades-old one-child policy". Al Jazeera English. 29 October 2015. Retrieved 30 October 2015.
  58. ^ Jiang, Steven; Hanna, Jason (29 October 2015). "China says it will end one-child policy". CNN. Retrieved 29 October 2015.
  59. ^ "Beschluss der Kommunistischen Partei: China beendet Ein-Kind-Politik" (in German). DE: Tagesschau. 29 October 2015. Retrieved 29 October 2015.
  60. ^ "China to end one-child policy and allow two". BBC News.
  61. ^ "China to allow two children for all couples". Xinhua. 29 October 2015.
  62. ^ Phillips, Tom. "China ends one-child policy after 35 years". The Guardian.
  63. ^ "The 'model' example of China's one child policy". BBC News.
  64. ^ "Top legislature amends law to allow all couples to have two children". Xinhua News Agency. 27 December 2015.
  65. ^ "China formally abolishes decades-old one-child policy". International Business Times. 27 December 2015.
  66. ^ Fong, Mei (15 October 2015), "China one-child policy", National Geographic.
  67. ^ a b China daily, Dec 2014.
  68. ^ "China ends one-child policy — but critics warn new two-child policy won't end forced abortions". The Raw Story. 29 October 2015. Retrieved 29 October 2015.
  69. ^ "China: Reform of one-child policy not enough". www.amnesty.org.
  70. ^ a b Ghitis (29 October 2015), China: one-child policy, CNN.
  71. ^ "China's one-child calamity". 5 November 2015.
  72. ^ Dewey, Arthur E (16 December 2004). "One-Child Policy in China". Senior State Department. Archived from the original on 21 July 2011.
  73. ^ Sen, Amartya. "Population Policy: Authoritarianism versus Cooperation" (PDF). BR: Universidade de Campinas. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 June 2016.
  74. ^ Cai, Yong (Sep 2010). "China's Below-Replacement Fertility: Government Policy or Socioeconomic Development?" (PDF). Population and Development Review. 36 (3): 419–40. doi:10.1111/j.1728-4457.2010.00341.x. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 July 2015.
  75. ^ a b Zhang, Junsen (1 February 2017). "The Evolution of China's One-Child Policy and Its Effects on Family Outcomes". Journal of Economic Perspectives. 31 (1): 141–160. doi:10.1257/jep.31.1.141. ISSN 0895-3309.
  76. ^ Daniel Goodkind. 2017. The Astonishing Population Averted by China's Birth Restrictions: Estimates, Nightmares, and Reprogrammed Ambitions. DEMOGRAPHY 54: 1375-1399 doi: 10.1007/s13524-017-0595-x
  77. ^ Goodkind, Daniel (2015). "The claim that China's fertility restrictions contributed to the use of prenatal sex selection: A sceptical reappraisal". Population Studies. 69: 269-273.
  78. ^ Li, Shiyu, and Shuanglin Lin. "Population aging and China's social security reforms." Journal of Policy Modeling 38.1 (2016): 65-95.
  79. ^ Nie, Jing-Bao (7 November 2016). "Erosion of Eldercare in China: a Socio-Ethical Inquiry in Aging, Elderly Suicide and the Government's Responsibilities in the Context of the One-Child Policy". Ageing International. 41 (4): 350–365. doi:10.1007/s12126-016-9261-7.
  80. ^ Wei, Chen (2005). "Sex Ratios at Birth in China" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 July 2006. Retrieved 2 March 2009.
  81. ^ "Chinese facing shortage of wives". BBC. 12 January 2007. Retrieved 12 January 2007.
  82. ^ Zeng, Yi; et al. (1993), "Causes and Implications of the Recent Increase in the Reported Sex Ratio at Birth in China", Population and Development Review, 19 (June): 283–302, doi:10.2307/2938438.
  83. ^ Anderson, Barbara A; Silver, Brian D (1995), "Ethnic Differences in Fertility and Sex Ratios at Birth in China: Evidence from Xinjiang", Population Studies, 49 (July): 211–26, doi:10.1080/0032472031000148476.
  84. ^ Coale, Ansley J; Banister, Judith (December 1996). "Five decades of missing females in China". Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. 140 (4): 421–450. JSTOR 987286. Also printed as "Five decades of missing females in China". Demography. 31: 459–79. Aug 1994. doi:10.2307/2061752. PMID 7828766.
  85. ^ "Online dating a path to marriage for young, busy Chinese", Beijing today, Oct 2015.
  86. ^ Johansson, Sten; Nygren, Olga (1991). "The missing girls of China: a new demographic account". Population and Development Review. Population Council. 17 (1): 35–51. doi:10.2307/1972351. JSTOR 1972351.
  87. ^ a b Johnson, Kay Ann (2016). China’s hidden children: Abandonment, adoption, and the human costs of the one- child policy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  88. ^ Death by Default: A Policy of Fatal Neglect in China's State Orphanages. New York: Human Rights Watch/Asia. 1996. ISBN 1-56432-163-0.
  89. ^ "Chinese Orphanages: A Follow-up" (PDF). Human Rights Watch/Asia. March 1996.
  90. ^ Adam Pertman, National center on adoption & permanency.
  91. ^ How China's one-child policy transformed US attitudes on adoption, NPR, 30 October 2015.
  92. ^ "China: Drug bid to beat child ban". China Daily. Associated Press. 14 February 2006. Retrieved 11 November 2008.
  93. ^ "How China's one-child policy overhauled the status and prospects of girls like me". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 18 February 2016.
  94. ^ Naughton, Barry (2007). The Chinese Economy: Transitions and Growth. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. ISBN 978-0262640640.
  95. ^ 李雯 [Li Wen] (5 April 2008). "四二一"家庭,路在何方? ['Four-two-one families', where is the road going?] (in Chinese). 云南日报网 [Yunnan Daily Online]. Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 31 January 2011.
  96. ^ 四二一"家庭真的是问题吗? [Are 'four-two-one' families really a problem?] (in Chinese). 中国人口学会网 [China Population Association Online]. 10 October 2010. Archived from the original on 7 July 2011. Retrieved 31 January 2011.
  97. ^ "Rethinking China's one-child policy". CBC. 28 October 2009. Retrieved 11 June 2010.
  98. ^ 计生委新闻发言人:11%以上人口可生两个孩子 [Spokesperson of the one-child policy committee: 11% or more of the population may have two children] (in Chinese). Sina. 10 July 2007. Retrieved 7 November 2008.
  99. ^ "China's most populous province amends family-planning policy". People's Daily Online. 25 November 2011.
  100. ^ Gluckman, Ron (19 December 2013). "The Ghosts of China's One-Child Policy". Vocativ. Retrieved 3 May 2018.
  101. ^ 黒核子~一人っ子政策の大失敗 [Black Children - The Failure of One Child Policy] (in Japanese). Retrieved 10 July 2010.
  102. ^ "One Child Policy - Laogai Research Foundation (LRF)". Laogai Research Foundation. Archived from the original on 31 October 2010. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  103. ^ Li, Shuzhuo; Zhang, Yexia; Feldman, Marcus W (2010). "Birth Registration in China: Practices, Problems and Policies". Population research and policy review. 29 (3): 297–317. doi:10.1007/s11113-009-9141-x. PMC 2990197. PMID 21113384.
  104. ^ Ross, S. R. J. (2012). AQA GCSE Geography A. Cheltenham: Nelson Thornes. p. 182. ISBN 978-1-4085-1708-6.
  105. ^ Deane, Daniela (26 July 1992). "The Little Emperors". The Los Angeles Times. p. 16.
  106. ^ "Chinese Singletons – Basic 'Spoiled' Related Vocabulary". Thinking Chinese. 11 November 2010.
  107. ^ a b "Consultative Conference: 'The government must end the one-child rule'". IT: AsiaNews. 16 March 2007.
  108. ^ "Advisors say it's time to change one-child policy". Shanghai Daily. 15 March 2007.
  109. ^ "談天說地". review33. Archived from the original on 4 October 2013. Retrieved 4 October 2013.
  110. ^ Eugenio, Haidée V. "Birth tourism on the upswing". Saipan Tribune. Archived from the original on 16 May 2012.
  111. ^ Eugenio, Haidée V. "Many Chinese giving birth in CNMI trying to get around one child policy". Saipan Tribune. Archived from the original on 9 December 2012.
  112. ^ Hardee, Karen, Gu Baochang, and Xie Zhenming. 2000. "Holding up more than half the sky:Fertility control and women's empowerment in China,"paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, 23–25 March, Los Angeles
  113. ^ Junhong, Chu, June 2001, "Prenatal Sex Determination and Sex-Selective Abortion in Rural Central China," Population and Development Review, Vol. 27, Iss. 2, p. 262.
  114. ^ Hesketh, Therese . Lu, Li. Xing, Zhu Wei, Sept 2005, "The Effect of China's One-Child Family Policy After 25 Years, The New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 353, Iss. 11.
  115. ^ a b Junhong, Chu (2001). "Prenatal Sex Determination and Sex-Selective Abortion in Rural Central China". Population and Development Review. 27 (2): 259–81
  116. ^ Hvistendahl, Mara (17 September 2010). "Has China Outgrown The One-Child Policy?". Science. 329 (5998): 1458–61. doi:10.1126/science.329.5998.1458. PMID 20847244.
  117. ^ Some demographers challenge that number, putting the figure at perhaps half that level.
  118. ^ a b c "Experts challenge China's 1-child population claim".
  119. ^ "336 million abortions under China's one-child policy". Telegraph.co.uk. 15 March 2013.
  120. ^ "PRC Family Planning: The Market Weakens Controls But Encourages Voluntary Limits". U.S. Embassy in Beijing. June 1988. Archived from the original on 18 February 2013.
  121. ^ PRC journal Social Sciences in China [Zhongguo, January 1988][full citation needed]
  122. ^ Greenhalgh, Susan (2003). "Science, Modernity, and the Making of China's One-Child Policy" (PDF). Population and Development Review. 29 (June): 163–196. doi:10.1111/j.1728-4457.2003.00163.x. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 October 2013.
  123. ^ a b c d "Over 1,900 officials breach birth policy in C. China". Xinhua. 8 July 2007. Archived from the original on 10 October 2008. Retrieved 11 November 2008. But heavy fines and exposures seemed to hardly stop the celebrities and rich people, as there are still many people, who can afford the heavy penalties, insist on having multiple kids, the Hunan commission spokesman said ... Three officials ... who were all found to have kept extramarital mistresses, were all convicted for charges such as embezzlement and taking bribes, but they were not punished for having more than one child.
  124. ^ "China: Filmmaker Zhang Yimou fined $1M for breach of one-child policy - CNN.com". CNN. Retrieved 3 January 2016.
  125. ^ chan, peggy (2005). Cultures of the world China. New York: Marshall Cavendish International.
  126. ^ Freedman, Lynn P.; Isaacs, Stephen L. (Jan–Feb 1993). "Human Rights and Reproductive Choice" (PDF). Studies in Family Planning. Population Council. 24 (1): 18–30. doi:10.2307/2939211. JSTOR 2939211. PMID 8475521. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 8 December 2007.
  127. ^ "Proclamation of Teheran". International Conference on Human Rights. 1968. Archived from the original on 17 October 2007. Retrieved 8 November 2007.
  128. ^ McElroy, Damien (8 April 2001). "Chinese region 'must conduct 20,000 abortions'". The Telegraph. London.
  129. ^ Mosher, Steven W. (July 1993). A Mother's Ordeal. Harcourt. ISBN 0-15-162662-6.
  130. ^ Taylor, John (8 February 2005). "China – One Child Policy". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 1 July 2008.
  131. ^ "Father in forced abortion case wants charges filed". My Way News. Associated Press. 6 July 2012.
  132. ^ (subscription required) "Implications of China's Ratification of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities". China: An International Journal.
  133. ^ Sleeboom-Faulkner, Margaret Elizabeth (1 June 2011). "Genetic testing, governance, and the family in the People's Republic of China". Social Science & Medicine. 72 (11): 1802–9. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2010.03.052.
  134. ^ "Marriage Law of the People's Republic of China" (PDF). Australia: Refugee Review Tribunal.
  135. ^ Moore, Stephen (9 May 1999). "Don't Fund UNFPA Population Control". CATO Institute.
  136. ^ McElroy, Damien (3 February 2002). "China is furious as Bush halts UN 'abortion' funds". The Telegraph. London.
  137. ^ Siv, Sichan (21 January 2003). "United Nations Fund for Population Activities in China". U.S. Department of State. Archived from the original on 19 February 2003.
  138. ^ "UNFPA Welcomes Restoration of U.S. Funding". UNFPA News. 29 January 2009. Archived from the original on 30 December 2016.
  139. ^ Rizvi, Haider (12 March 2009). "Obama Sets New Course at the U.N." IPS News. Inter Press Agency.
  140. ^ Associated Press. "US State Department position". Archived from the original on 26 February 2007.
  141. ^ "Human Rights in China and Tibet". Parliament of the United Kingdom.
  142. ^ Amnesty International. "Violence Against Women – an introduction to the campaign". Archived from the original on 9 October 2006.
  143. ^ Mosher, Steve (1986). "Steve Mosher's China report". The Interim.
  144. ^ "Case Study: Female Infanticide". Gendercide Watch. 2000.
  145. ^ "Infanticide Statistics: Infanticide in China". All Girls Allowed. 2010.
  146. ^ Steffensen, Jennifer. "Georgetown Journal's Guide to the 'One-Child' Policy". Retrieved 30 September 2013.
  147. ^ Lubman, Sarah (15 March 2000). "Experts Allege Infanticide In China — 'Missing' Girls Killed, Abandoned, Pair Say". San Jose Mercury News. CA.
  148. ^ "A Second Pregnancy, 1980", Paper republic.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]