OneWeb satellite constellation

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

The OneWeb satellite constellation—formerly, WorldVu constellation—is an initial 650-satellite constellation currently being built out to provide global satellite Internet broadband services to people everywhere and is on track to provide global services starting in 2021. The constellation is being deployed by the company OneWeb, formerly known as WorldVu Satellites and headquartered in London, UK with offices in California, Florida, Virginia, Dubai and Singapore. The first six satellites of the constellation were launched in February 2019.[1]

The small satellites are being built by OneWeb Satellites, a joint venture between Airbus and OneWeb.[2] The satellites will operate in circular low Earth orbit, at approximately 750 miles (1,200 km) altitude,[3] transmitting and receiving in the Ku band of the radio frequency spectrum.[4] OneWeb is considering nearly quadrupling the size of the satellite constellation over time by adding 1,972 additional satellites that it has priority rights to.[5]

A visual example of the much-smaller 24-satellite Global Positioning System constellation in motion with the Earth rotating. Notice how the number of satellites in view from a given point on the Earth's surface, in this example at 45°N, changes with time.


Early reports of the potential involvement of Google in offering broadband internet services surfaced in February 2014, when a "very large [satellite] constellation" was rumored to be as large as 1600 satellites.[6]

By June 2014, WorldVu (which would later be renamed to OneWeb) had acquired the satellite spectrum that was formerly owned by SkyBridge, a company that went bankrupt in 2000[7] in a much earlier attempt to offer broadband Internet services via satellite.[8]

By September 2014, the WorldVu company had 30 employees, and several Google employees who had joined Google as part of the acquisition of O3b Networks in 2013—Greg Wyler, Brian Holz and David Bettinger—left Google to become a part of WorldVu Satellites Ltd. The rights to the radio frequency spectrum were transferred to WorldVu. It was unclear why the WorldVu team left Google, as well as what Google's role might be in WorldVu going forward. At the time, WorldVu was working closely with SpaceX and SpaceX' founder Elon Musk to explore satellite internet services,[9] although no formal relationship had been established and no launch commitments had been made in 2014.[10]

In May 2014, the early concept had been to have at least 20 satellites operating in each of 20 different orbital planes to provide consistent internet coverage over the surface of the Earth.[4]

By November 2014, the Wall Street Journal reported that Musk and Wyler were considering options for building a factory to manufacture high-volume low-cost satellites, and that "initial talks have been held with state officials in Florida and Colorado"[11] about potentially locating a factory in those states, as well as that SpaceX would likely launch the satellites.[11] Also in November, WorldVu issued a tender "to satellite manufacturers for 640 125-kilogram satellites", asking for responses by mid-December, having secured regulatory approval for use of the requisite electromagnetic spectrum communication frequencies in mid-2014.[12][13]

The 2014 OneWeb solicitation to satellite manufacturers was for a total build of approximately 900 small Internet-delivery satellites, including ground and on-orbit spares. Responses were received from both European and US manufacturers including Airbus Defence and Space, Lockheed Martin Space Systems, OHB SE, SSL and Thales Alenia Space, and discussions focused on how each of these companies might "escape their status-quo histories as major space hardware contractors and remake themselves into producers capable of producing multiple satellites per month, each with a cost of less than US$500,000."[14] OneWeb announced that it planned to form a joint venture with the winning bidder and open a new facility for manufacturing the new smallsats.[14]

In January 2015, the Wall Street Journal reported that WorldVu, now operating under the name OneWeb LTD, had secured funding from Virgin Group and Qualcomm to build and launch the constellation, while SpaceX was not an investor and their role in the venture was not clear. OneWeb also divulged that the planned satellites would weigh approximately 125 kg (276 lb) and that the plans were to deploy approximately 650 of them in low Earth orbit to operate at 1,200 kilometers (750 mi) altitude.[15][16] Just a few days later, Elon Musk announced the rival SpaceX satellite constellation venture, with the opening of the SpaceX satellite development facility in Seattle, Washington, with the intent of taking SpaceX itself into the business of internet provision and internet backhaul services, initially announced as aiming to build an approximately 4000 satellite constellation, with the first generation becoming operational in approximately 2020.[17]

The satellites for the OneWeb constellation were initially announced to be in the 110 kilograms (250 lb)-class, about the same size as the two Earth-imaging satellites that were then operated by Skybox Imaging, which Google acquired in August 2014.[16][18][19] However, by the following year, sources put the satellites nearer 175–200 kg (386–441 lb) in mass.[14][20]

In March 2015, OneWeb indicated that they intended to select a launch service provider by mid-2015[14] and in June 2015 announced that Arianespace was contracted to provide 21 multi-sat launches on Soyuz beginning in 2017 with Virgin Galactic under contract to provide 39 single-sat launches using its LauncherOne smallsat launch vehicle.[21][22] By 2015, there was also an option to use Ariane 6 for up to three launches after 2021, making this the first potential contract announced for the Ariane launch vehicle.[20][23][24]

By June 2015, the company had modified their plan somewhat to orbit a somewhat larger constellation of 720 satellites, operating in low Earth orbit at 1,200 kilometres (750 mi) altitude,[20] which plan was somewhat reduced by early 2016 back to just 640 satellites planned, but still at 1200 km.[3]

In June 2015, Airbus Defence and Space was selected to build the satellites,[25][26] and development was remained on schedule one year later with the first ten satellites still headed for a 2017 launch on a Europeanized Soyuz launch vehicle.[27] That same month, Hughes Communications made an equity investment in OneWeb, and agreed to produce the ground network system for OneWeb.[28][29][30]

In December 2016, SoftBank Group Corp agreed to invest $1 billion in OneWeb, thus becoming OneWeb's largest shareholder, with a roughly 40% stake. Another $200 million was funded at that time by its current investors, which include Qualcomm Inc, Airbus Group and Virgin Group. The transaction was expected to close in the first quarter of 2017.[31][5]

In February 2017, OneWeb announced that it had sold most of the communication capacity of its initial 648 satellites, and was considering nearly quadrupling the size of the satellite constellation by adding 1,972 additional satellites that it has priority spectrum license rights for.[5] With the original capital raise of $500 million in 2015, plus the $1 billion investment of SoftBank in 2016, previous "investors committed to an additional $200 million, bringing OneWeb's total capital raised to $1.7 billion."[5]

In March 2017, OneWeb filed with the US regulatory authorities plans to field a constellation of an additional 2000 "V-band satellites in non-geosynchronous orbits to provide communications services" in an electromagnetic spectrum that had not previously been "heavily employed for commercial communications services." This would include "720 LEO V-band satellites at 1,200 kilometers, and another constellation in Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) of 1,280 satellites."[32]

Some controversy arose in 2015–2017 with regulatory authorities on licensing the communications spectrum for these large constellations of satellites. The traditional and historical regulatory rule for satellites licensing of communications spectrum has been that satellite operators could "launch a single spacecraft to meet their in-service deadline [from the regulator], a policy subsequently seen as allowing an operator to block the use of valuable radio spectrum for years without deploying its fleet."[33] The US regulatory authority has set a six-year deadline to have an entire large constellation deployed to comply with licensing terms. The international regulator, the ITU, has proposed by mid-2017 an international guideline that would be considerably less restrictive. As of September 2017, both Boeing and SpaceX have petitioned the US FCC for a waiver of the 6-year rule, while OneWeb has received FCC approval under the existing regime.[33]

In August 2018, it was announced that the first test satellite launch might move into 2019, and would be no earlier than mid-December 2018,[34] and by December, was planned to be no earlier than March 2019.[35] The satellite system is now planned to be fully online by 2027.[36] After OneWeb had built the initial satellites and done ground testing where they found the as-built sats "demonstrated better than expected performance", OneWeb announced in December 2018 that the company will need only 600 satellites rather than the 900 previously planned for the initial constellation.[35]


On February 27, 2019, OneWeb successfully launched the first 6 of the 648 planned satellites (600 active plus 48 on-orbit spares) into low Earth orbit from the Guiana Space Centre in French Guiana using a Russian Soyuz-2 ST-B rocket.[1][37] Also on that date at the MWC2019, OneWeb announced that it signed its first two client agreements with Talia Ltd for their Quika low latency broadband service to Africa and the Middle East and Intermatica S.p.A for service to Europe, marking the beginning of its commercialization.[38] Additional launches are expected for early 2020.[39]

List of launches[edit]

In November 2019, OneWeb planned monthly launches to begin in January 2020,[40] although the first of these launches was delayed to early February 2020.[41]

Flight № Date/Time (UTC) Launch site Launch vehicle Number deployed Outcome
1 27 February 2019, 21:37 Kourou ELS Soyuz ST-B/Fregat-M 6 (test satellites) Success
2 7 February 2020[41] Baikonur Site 31/6 Soyuz-2.1b/Fregat-M 34 Planned

Design characteristics[edit]

The satellites in the OneWeb constellation are approximately 150 kg (330 lb) in mass,[42] a bit smaller than the 2015 design estimate of 175–200 kg (386–441 lb).[14][20] The 648 operational satellites are to operate in 18 polar orbit planes at 1,200 kilometres (750 mi) altitude.[20][43]

The satellites will operate in the Ku band, communicating in the microwave range of frequencies in the 12–18 GHz portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.[4][16] The satellites use a technique called "progressive pitch" in which the satellites are slightly turned to avoid interference with Ku-band satellites in geostationary orbit. The user terminal antenna on the ground will be a phased array antenna measuring approximately 36 by 16 centimeters (14.2 by 6.3 in) and will provide Internet access at 50 megabits/second downlink bandwidth[16] (almost certainly less uplink, but this number remains hard to pin down).[citation needed]

The satellites will be designed to comply with "orbital debris-mitigation guidelines for removing satellites from orbit and, for low-orbit satellites, assuring that they reenter the Earth's atmosphere within 25 years of retirement."[26][needs update]

Manufacturing and constellation rollout[edit]

The constellation was originally announced in June 2014 to be just half of the total of approximately 720 satellites. A quarter of the satellites were to make up the initial constellation, and these would operate in the lower of the two proposed orbits, at approximately 850 kilometres (530 mi).[8] The initial constellation would presumably be raised or lowered into its final orbital altitude of either 800 kilometres (500 mi) or 950 kilometres (590 mi) as consumer and business use of the broadband service grows over time.[4] By early 2015, OneWeb indicated that the first launches would occur no earlier than 2017.[16]

In February 2016, OneWeb announced that they would set up an assembly and test facility in Florida with plans to assemble and launch the majority of the satellites by the end of 2019, while manufacturing an additional 250 of the 140-kilogram-satellites (300 lb) as spares to be used in later years.[3]

By the time the actual orbital deployment of the constellation began, in February 2019, the planned constellation size had settled once again at 648, near the original projection, with 600 active satellites with 48 on-orbit spares.[42] Each satellite costs £830,000 (around $1 million) to build.[44]


End-of-life concerns[edit]

With such a large number of satellites being added to the already crowded low Earth orbit, plans for handling the satellites once the operational life of each satellite is completed are an important consideration. The region between 600 and 1,000 kilometres (370 and 620 mi) is already the most congested orbital regime around Earth, and concerns about adding to the existing space debris problem have been expressed.[8] There could be a new regime of graveyard orbits added, similar to those in use for decades to handle post-operational commsats that operated in the geostationary belt; however at the orbital altitudes envisioned for OneWeb, the disposal orbit may not have a sufficiently long life to assure long-term stability.[45]

An alternative that has been proposed for years is to introduce the capability to retrieve derelict objects for near-space clean up and then either deorbit the satellite or do some sort of in-space recycling of the satellite materials. Several technical approaches have been proposed, but there has been no legal framework to date that has required satellite operators to clean up the negative externality of their derelict satellites. New approaches offer the technical prospect of markedly reducing the cost of object capture and deorbit with the implementation of a one-up/one-down launch license regime to Earth orbits that would require satellite operators to remove one spacecraft for each one deployed.[46]

By October 2017, OneWeb had filed documents with the US FCC with their space debris mitigation plan. OneWeb "satellites are designed for mission lives of at least five years, and 'the post-mission disposal operation is anticipated to take less than one year.' OneWeb also said it has designed its satellite network to avoid collisions with space stations and debris, and that OneWeb 'will actively and regularly screen for conjunctions between its own satellites and other objects in the Joint Space Operations Center's ('JSpOC') published catalog."[45]

Interference with other Earth-bound transceivers[edit]

OneWeb competitor, satellite fleet operator ABS, has expressed concerns about the amount of electromagnetic interference that the OneWeb constellation could add to existing terrestrial transceivers.[47]

Russian security concerns[edit]

Vladimir Sadovnikov of the Federal Security Service stated that the FSB was opposed to OneWeb covering Russia, claiming that OneWeb could be used for espionage purposes.[48] OneWeb's request for a frequency band was previously rejected by the Ministry for Digital Development and Communications, purportedly due to outstanding legal issues.[48] FSB also proposed increasing scrutiny on other satellite Internet equipment in Russia.[49]


Competition to OneWeb for producing smaller and lower-cost satellites in general is thought to come "from other makers of small satellites, such as Nevada-based Sierra Nevada Corp. and Britain's Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd."[11] In broadband internet service provision more specifically, there are a large number of alternatives to the proposed WorldVu satellite broadband service, mostly involving wired and terrestrial radio broadband service.

Other potential competitors in the satellite internet space are SpaceX's proposed 12000-satellite Starlink constellation and a 2015 proposal from Samsung outlining a 4600-satellite constellation orbiting at 1,400 kilometers (900 mi) that could bring 200 gigabytes per month of internet data to "each of the world's 5 billion people".[50][51]

Amazon announced a large broadband internet satellite constellation in April 2019, planning to launch 3,236 satellites in the next decade in what Amazon calls "Project Kuiper", a satellite constellation that will work in concert[52] with Amazon's previously-announced large network of 12 satellite ground station facilities (the "AWS Ground Station unit") announced in November 2018.[53]

Historically, earlier companies that have attempted to build satellite internet service networks and provide space-based internet connections have not fared well, as both services were hobbled by high costs which consequently attracted few users. Iridium SSC filed for bankruptcy protection in 1999 and Globalstar did the same in 2002.[11]

See also[edit]

  • Iridium satellite constellation — an operational constellation of 66 active satellites used to provide global satellite phone service
  • Orbcomm — an operational constellation used to provide global asset monitoring and messaging services from its constellation of 29 LEO communications satellites orbiting at 775 km
  • Starlink — A satellite constellation development project underway by SpaceX to deploy nearly 12,000 satellites in three orbital shells by the mid-2020s
  • Teledesic — a former (1990s) venture to accomplish broadband satellite internet services
  • Viasat, Inc. — a current broadband satellite provider providing fixed, ground mobile, and airborne antennas
  • Kymeta — small form factor satellite antennas for mobile terrestrial applications
  • Hughes Network Systems – subsidiary of EchoStar


  • Derek Webber. No Bucks, No Buck Rogers: The Business of Commercial Space. — Universal-Publishers, 2017. — P. 248. — 296 p. — ISBN 9781627340915.
  • Alessandra Vernile. The Rise of Private Actors in the Space Sector. — Springer, 2018. — P. 37. — 121 p. — ISBN 9783319738024.
  • John Bloom. Eccentric Orbits: The Iridium Story. — Grove/Atlantic, Inc., 2016. — 577 p. — ISBN 9780802192820.


  1. ^ a b Clark, Stephen (2019-02-27). "First six OneWeb satellites launched from French Guiana". Spaceflight Now. Archived from the original on 2019-02-28. Retrieved 2019-03-04.
  2. ^ "What Airbus learned from building satellites with OneWeb". 2019-03-19. Retrieved 2019-05-04.
  3. ^ a b c "OneWeb Satellite Startup to Set up Manufacturing in Florida". Wall Street Journal. 2016-01-03. Archived from the original on 2016-02-03. Retrieved 2016-02-04.
  4. ^ a b c d de Selding, Peter B. (2014-05-30). "Google-backed Global Broadband Venture Secures Spectrum for Satellite Network". SpaceNews. Retrieved 2014-06-14.
  5. ^ a b c d "OneWeb weighing 2,000 more satellites -". 24 February 2017. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
  6. ^ Messier, Doug (2014-02-16). "Is Google Planning Son of Teledesic?". Parabolic Arc. Archived from the original on 2014-07-02. Retrieved 2014-06-14.
  7. ^ Fernholz, Tim. "Satellite internet is a space business widow-maker—so why does Elon Musk want in? — Quartz". Retrieved 23 April 2018.
  8. ^ a b c Boucher, Marc (2014-06-03). "Will Google Build a Satellite Constellation?". SpacRef Business. Archived from the original on 2014-07-16. Retrieved 2014-06-14.
  9. ^ "Google Satellite Employee Greg Wyler Leaves Company". Wall Street Journal. 2014-08-02. Archived from the original on 2014-09-05. Retrieved 2014-08-03. A key employee leading Google Inc.'s efforts to beam Internet access from satellites has left the company and is now working closely with Space Exploration Technologies Corp. and its founder Elon Musk, according to people familiar with the matter.... It isn't clear why the WorldVu team departed Google.
  10. ^ "WorldVu, a Satellite Startup Aiming To Provide Global Internet Connectivity, Continues To Grow Absent Clear Google Relationship". Space News. 2014-08-03. Retrieved 2014-08-03.
  11. ^ a b c d Winkler, Rolfe; Pasztor, Andy (2014-11-07). "Elon Musk's Next Mission: Internet Satellites SpaceX, Tesla Founder Explores Venture to Make Lighter, Cheaper Satellites". Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 2017-10-20. Retrieved 2017-10-19.
  12. ^ Messier, Doug (2014-11-11). "WorldVu Satellites Issues RFP for 640 Satellites". Parabolic Arc. Archived from the original on 2014-11-29. Retrieved 2014-11-15.
  13. ^ Rolfe Winkler, "Elon Musk Confirms SpaceX Is Building Internet Satellites", Wall Street Journal, 11/11/2014
  14. ^ a b c d e de Selding, Peter B. (2015-03-19). "Competition To Build OneWeb Constellation Draws 2 U.S., 3 European Companies". Space News. Retrieved 20 March 2015.
  15. ^ Winkler, Rolfe (2015-01-14). "Greg Wyler's OneWeb Satellite-Internet Company Secures Funding". Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 2015-01-15. Retrieved 2015-01-15.
  16. ^ a b c d e de Selding, Peter B. (15 January 2015). "Virgin, Qualcomm Invest in OneWeb Satellite Internet Venture". SpaceNews. Retrieved 16 January 2015.
  17. ^ Petersen, Melody (16 January 2015). "Elon Musk and Richard Branson invest in satellite-Internet ventures". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 19 January 2015. Retrieved 19 January 2015.
  18. ^ "Skybox Imaging + Google" (Press release). Skybox Imaging. 2014-08-01. Archived from the original on 2014-11-13. Retrieved 2014-11-12.
  19. ^ Clark, Stephen (2014-06-10). "Google buys startup Skybox Imaging for $500 million". Spaceflight Now. Archived from the original on 2014-06-14. Retrieved 2014-06-15.
  20. ^ a b c d e "OneWeb satellite operator eyes huge rocket campaign". BBC. 25 June 2015. Archived from the original on 25 June 2015. Retrieved 25 June 2015.
  21. ^ "Virgin Galactic Signs Contract with OneWeb to Perform 39 Satellite Launches" (Press release). Long Beach, California: Virgin Galactic. 25 June 2015. Archived from the original on 28 July 2015. Retrieved 25 June 2015.
  22. ^ Burn-Callander, Rebecca (22 August 2015). "Virgin Galactic boldly goes into small satellites, telling future astronauts 'you have to wait'". UK Telegraph. Archived from the original on 24 August 2015. Retrieved 2015-08-24.
  23. ^ "OneWeb signs agreement with Arianespace for the deployment of the OneWeb Constellation" (Press release). Evry: Arianespace. 25 June 2015. Archived from the original on 26 June 2015. Retrieved 25 June 2015.
  24. ^ "OneWeb takes pole-position in global satellite Internet race". Space Digest. 25 June 2015. Archived from the original on 26 June 2015. Retrieved 25 June 2015. Stéphane Israël, Chairman and CEO of Arianespace, noted that this was the first order for new European Ariane 6 launcher.
  25. ^ "OneWeb selects Airbus to build 900 Internet satellites". Archived from the original on 17 June 2015. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
  26. ^ a b "OneWeb Taps Airbus To Build 900 Internet Smallsats". SpaceNews. 2015-06-15. Retrieved 19 June 2015.
  27. ^ "One year after kickoff, OneWeb says its 700-satellite constellation is on schedule -". 6 July 2016. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
  28. ^ "Echostar, now building OneWeb ground network, says company not a competitor". 2017-11-09. Retrieved 2019-03-26.
  29. ^ "OneWeb signs $190M contract with Hughes for ground network to support LEOs". FierceWireless. Archived from the original on 2019-03-26. Retrieved 2019-03-26.
  30. ^ Knapp, Alex. "Branson-Backed OneWeb Raises $500 Million To Build Satellite Internet". Forbes. Archived from the original on 2019-03-26. Retrieved 2019-03-26.
  31. ^ Pasztor, Andy (2016-12-19). "Japan's SoftBank Invests $1 Billion in Satellite Startup OneWeb". Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 2016-12-19. Retrieved 2017-01-19.
  32. ^ "FCC gets five new applications for non-geostationary satellite constellations -". 2 March 2017. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
  33. ^ a b "SES asks ITU to replace 'one and done' rule for satellite constellations with new system - Space Intel Report". 4 September 2017. Archived from the original on 27 June 2018. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
  34. ^ OneWeb, Arianespace target December-February for first Soyuz launch, 27 August 2018.
  35. ^ a b Henry, Caleb (13 December 2018). "OneWeb scales back baseline constellation by 300 satellites". SpaceNews. Retrieved 16 December 2018.
  36. ^ Kolomychenko, Maria. Balmforth, Richard; Williams, Alison (eds.). "Exclusive: Russia opposes U.S. OneWeb satellite service, cites security concerns". Reuters. Archived from the original on 2018-10-27. Retrieved 2018-10-26.
  37. ^ "OneWeb makes history as first launch mission is a success". OneWeb. 2019-02-28. Archived from the original on 2019-02-28. Retrieved 2019-02-28.
  38. ^ "OneWeb Announces First Two Client Agreements - Start of Commercial Network Commercialisation". OneWeb. 2019-02-27. Archived from the original on 2019-05-12. Retrieved 2019-02-27.
  39. ^ "OneWeb's first big deployment launch slips to January". 8 November 2019. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
  40. ^ "OneWeb's first big deployment launch slips to January". November 8, 2019.
  41. ^ a b "Launch Schedule - Spaceflight Now". December 30, 2019.
  42. ^ a b Henry, Caleb (27 February 2019). "OneWeb's first six satellites in orbit following Soyuz launch". SpaceNews. Retrieved 4 March 2019.
  43. ^ "Why OneWeb is Eager To Be the 'Clean-up Crew of Connectivity' -". 20 November 2015. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
  44. ^ "Adrian Steckel: The rocketman who'll launch 34 satellites every MONTH – and beam broadband across Britain". 11 August 2019. Archived from the original on 13 August 2019. Retrieved 13 August 2019.
  45. ^ a b Brodkin, Jon (2017-10-04). "SpaceX and OneWeb broadband satellites raise fears about space debris". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on 2017-10-06. Retrieved 2017-10-07.
  46. ^ Zegler, Frank; Bernard Kutter (2010-09-02). "Evolving to a Depot-Based Space Transportation Architecture" (PDF). AIAA SPACE 2010 Conference & Exposition. AIAA. pp. 13–14. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2014-06-24. Retrieved 2014-06-14. for disposing of these obsolete or derelict spacecraft all [approaches] involve the expenditure of substantially more delta V than what has been traditional. It may well be required that old spacecraft be removed at the same time new spacecraft are being emplaced.... [this architecture] anticipates the task of removing derelict spacecraft by providing an infrastructure to permit these high ΔV missions and enables the likely new paradigm of removing a spacecraft for each one deployed.
  47. ^ OneWeb Gets (Slide) Decked by Competitor at CASBAA, SpaceNews, 28 October 2015, accessed 2015-10-29.
  48. ^ a b Kolomychenko, Maria (24 October 2018). Balmforth, Richard; Williams, Alison (eds.). "Exclusive: Russia opposes U.S. OneWeb satellite service, cites security concerns". Reuters. Archived from the original on 3 March 2019. Retrieved 28 February 2019.
  49. ^ "Спутниковый интернет vs ФСБ: развитие технологий или самоизоляция?". Archived from the original on 2018-11-15. Retrieved 2018-11-15.
  50. ^ Gershgorn, Dave (2015-08-17). "Samsung Wants To Blanket The Earth In Satellite Internet". Popular Science. Archived from the original on 2015-08-20. Retrieved 2015-08-21.
  51. ^ Khan, Farooq (2015). "Mobile Internet from the Heavens". arXiv:1508.02383 [cs.NI].
  52. ^ Sheetz, Michael (4 April 2019). "Amazon wants to launch thousands of satellites so it can offer broadband internet from space". CNBC. Archived from the original on 4 April 2019. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  53. ^ Sheetz, Michael (27 November 2018). "Amazon cloud business reaches into space with satellite connection service". CNBC. Archived from the original on 7 April 2019. Retrieved 4 April 2019.

External links[edit]