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Pauline Hanson's One Nation

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Pauline Hanson's One Nation
PresidentPauline Hanson
General SecretaryRod Miles
FounderPauline Hanson
Founded11 April 1997; 24 years ago (1997-04-11)
HeadquartersQueensland, Australia
Membership (2015)Increase 5,000[1][better source needed]
Ideology
Political positionRight-wing[10] to far-right[11]
Colours  Orange
Split into
House of Representatives
0 / 151
Senate
2 / 76
Queensland Parliament
1 / 93
New South Wales Legislative Council
2 / 42
Website
onenation.org.au

Pauline Hanson's One Nation (PHON or ONP), also known as One Nation or One Nation Party, is an Australian right-wing[10] to far-right political party.[11] It was founded by Pauline Hanson, who has led the party during two periods and was elected as a Federal Senator for Queensland in 2016. One Nation had electoral success in the late 1990s, before suffering an extended decline after 2001. Its leaders have been accused, charged, and later acquitted, of fraud, and the party has suffered from numerous defections, resignations and other internal scandals which culminated in Hanson's resignation from the party. One Nation's policies and platform are much criticized as being racist and xenophobic, although the party denies this.[12] Nevertheless, One Nation has had a profound impact on debates on multiculturalism and immigration in Australia.[12] Following Hanson's return as leader and the 2016 federal election, the party gained 4 seats in the Senate.

One Nation was founded in 1997, by member of parliament Pauline Hanson and her advisors David Ettridge and David Oldfield after Hanson was disendorsed as a federal candidate for the Liberal Party of Australia. The disendorsement came before the 1996 federal election because of comments she made about Indigenous Australians.[13] Oldfield, a Councillor on Manly Council in suburban Sydney and at one time an employee of Liberal minister Tony Abbott, was the organisational architect of the party.[14] Hanson sat as an independent for one year before forming Pauline Hanson's One Nation.

Arguing that other political parties were out of touch with mainstream Australia, One Nation ran on a broadly populist and protectionist platform. It promised to drastically reduce immigration and to abolish "divisive and discriminatory policies ... attached to Aboriginal and multicultural affairs." Condemning multiculturalism as a "threat to the very basis of the Australian culture, identity and shared values", One Nation rallied against Liberal government immigration and multicultural policies which, it argued, were leading to "the Asianisation of Australia."[15]

The party denounced economic rationalism and globalisation. Adopting strong protectionist policies, One Nation advocated the restoration of import tariffs, a revival of Australia's manufacturing industry, and an increase in support for small business and the rural sector.[16]

History

1997: One Nation founded

One Nation leader Pauline Hanson

Shortly after being elected to federal parliament, Hanson formed the One Nation party with co-founders David Oldfield and David Ettridge. During the formative days of One Nation, Oldfield was employed Liberal Party backbench MP Tony Abbott as a political advisor.[13] One Nation was launched on 11 April 1997, at an event held in Ipswich, Queensland.[17] The party was officially registered by the Australian Electoral Commission (AEC) on 27 June.[18]

1998: first elections

The 1998 Queensland state election produced One Nation's greatest electoral success with the ALP winning 44 seats to be the largest party in the Assembly, the Coalition winning 32 seats and One Nation winning 11 seats. During the campaign polling for One Nation lead to commentators saying One Nation might secure the balance of power in a hung parliament.[19] During the campaign, all three major political parties suffered a decline in voter support due to One Nation having entered the fray. The National Party saw an 11.1% drop in support, their Liberal Party coalition partners lost 6.7% and Labor's vote dropped 4.0%.[19] To the surprise of many pundits, the One Nation Party received 22.7% of the first preference vote, giving them the second largest voter turnout for any party in Queensland during the 1998 election. One Nation drew the majority of its support from regional and rural Queensland, winning 9 of its 11 seats in rural and regional electorates.[19] Subsequently, the One Nation contingent in the Queensland Parliament split, with dissident members forming the rival City-Country Alliance in late 1999.[20]

At the 1998 federal election, Hanson contested the new seat of Blair after a redistribution effectively split Oxley in half. Hanson lost to Liberal candidate Cameron Thompson, and the One Nation candidate in Oxley lost the seat to ALP candidate Bernie Ripoll.[21] One Nation candidate Heather Hill was elected as a senator for Queensland. Hill's eligibility to sit as a senator was successfully challenged in Sue v Hill under the Australian Constitution on the basis that she had failed to renounce her childhood British citizenship, despite being a naturalised Australian citizen. The seat went to the party's Len Harris following a recount.[22]

Political scientists Ian McAllister and Clive Bean, in an analysis of the 1998 federal election, found that although it was assumed that One Nation supporters came from a traditionally conservative demographic, instead:

"in a number of significant respects it in fact tends more towards Labor's profile instead. One Nation support, for example, comes disproportionately from manual workers, trade union members, those who describe themselves as working class, the less well educated, men and people who never attend church – a list of characteristics which comes close to defining the archetypal Labor voter … [The evidence] suggests that it is Labor-style voters in rural areas – rather than the much more predominantly urban Labor voter – who are chiefly attracted to One Nation"[23]

Within a year of One Nation's electoral success, 3 of the 11 Queensland MPs elected had quit the party claiming the leadership had too much control over the party.[13]

Internal disputes and claims of corruption

The party was affected by internal divisions and has split several times. Lawsuits involving ex-members did eventually force Hanson to repay approximately $500,000 of public funding won at the 1998 Queensland election amid claims by Abbott that the party was fraudulently registered. Abbott established a trust fund called "Australians for Honest Politics Trust" to help bankroll civil court cases against the Party.[24] The suits alleged that the party was undemocratically constituted in order to concentrate all power in the hands of three people—Hanson, Ettridge and Oldfield (in particular Oldfield)—and that it technically had only two members: Ettridge and Hanson. Even though Hanson's fraud charges were dropped, the Electoral Commission of Queensland never reimbursed Hanson for the monies that they collected from the claim.[13]

The first Annual General Meeting of the One Nation party was held in April 1999, which critic Paul Reynolds said demonstrated that One Nation lacked organisation.[25]

At the 1999 New South Wales state election, David Oldfield was elected to the New South Wales Legislative Council. In October 2000, Hanson expelled Oldfield from the party after a disagreement.[13] His expulsion created even more instability in a party which was constantly embroiled in scandal and internal strife. Oldfield attacked Hanson publicly, saying that "everything including her maiden speech and every word of any consequence that she's said since, has actually been written for her".[13] Oldfield engineered a split within the party, creating One Nation NSW, in 2001.[13] The new party took advantage of electoral party registration laws to register itself as a political party under the 'One Nation' name with the NSW electoral commission, and achieved registration in April 2002.[13]

At the 2001 Western Australian state election One Nation won three seats in the state, however the party was reduced to three seats the same year at the 2001 Queensland state election. During the 2001 Australian federal election, the party's vote fell from 9% to 5.5%. Hanson failed in her bid to win a Senate seat from Queensland, despite polling a strong 10% of the primary vote. Hanson also failed to win a seat in the New South Wales Legislative Council.[13]

Electoral fraud charges

In 2001, disendorsed One Nation candidate Terry Sharples accused the party of not having the 500 members needed for registration, and called for the party to be deregistered, which was carried by the Supreme Court. Hanson appealed the verdict but was unsuccessful.[26] Hanson appeared before the Brisbane Magistrates Court to face charges of electoral fraud, that same year. Hanson pleaded not guilty to the charges, claiming that she was being subjected to "a political witch-hunt." While court hearings proceeded, Hanson ran for a seat in the NSW Upper House as an independent, but only received 1.9 per cent of the vote.[13]

Both Ettridge and Hanson were found guilty of fraudulently registering One Nation and obtaining more than $500,000 from the AEC, in 2003. Crown lawyers accused them both of falsely claiming more than 500 people were party members when they were not truly members. Hanson was sentenced to three years in jail, stating outside the court that the verdict was "Rubbish, I'm not guilty... it's a joke".[13]

It was later disclosed that Abbott had been working behind the scenes to take Ettridge and Hanson down, meeting with several disgruntled One Nation members including Sharples. November 6 that same year Hanson was released from prison after successfully appealing her conviction and being acquitted on all counts.[13]

2004–2013: Electoral decline

At the 2004 Queensland state election, One Nation polled less than 5% of the vote and its sole elected representative, Rosa Lee Long, acted as an independent. One Nation attempted to defend its Queensland Senate seat at the 2004 federal election, but lost it (effectively to the National Party). Len Harris's Senate term expired on 30 June 2005.[27]

On 8 February 2005, One Nation lost federal party status but was re-registered in time for the 2007 federal election. It still had state parties in Queensland and New South Wales. Subsequently, it created another state party in Western Australia. In the February 2005 Western Australian state election, the One Nation vote collapsed.[13]

In the 2006 South Australian state election, six One Nation candidates stood for the lower house. Their highest levels of the primary vote was 4.1% in the district of Hammond and 2.7% in Goyder, with the other four hovering around 1%. They attracted 0.8% (7559 votes) of the upper house vote. One Nation consequently won no seats in that election.[13]

In the 2006 Queensland state election, the party contested four of 89 seats, and its vote collapsed. It suffered a swing of 4.3% to be left with just 0.6% of the vote. Its only remaining seat in the state (and country), Tablelands, was retained with an increased majority by Rosa Lee Long.[28] Tablelands was abolished prior to the 2009 Queensland state election, with Lee Long failing to win the seat of Dalrymple.

In the 2012 Queensland state election the party unsuccessfully contested six seats. The party received only 2,525 first preference votes (representing 0.1% of the total cast) across the state.[29]

2013–2015: Hanson's return as leader

Hanson rejoined One Nation as a rank-and-file member, in 2013. Later that year she unsuccessfully contested the Senate for New South Wales at the 2013 federal election. In 2014, Hanson was reappointed as leader by the One Nation executive.[30] She contested the seat of Lockyer for the party at the January 2015 Queensland state election, falling 114 votes short of defeating sitting Liberal National Party member Ian Rickuss.[31]

In July 2015, Hanson announced that the party was renamed the original "Pauline Hanson's One Nation" and contested in the Senate for Queensland at the 2016 federal election.[32]

In the lead up to the 2016 election, Hanson arranged a "Fed Up" tour that began in July 2015 as part of her re-election campaign, flying in a private plane to Rockhampton prior to a Reclaim Australia rally,[33] piloted by James Ashby.[34]

2016–present: return to federal politics

Pauline Hanson in a Jabiru J230 at Caboolture Airfield for the Caboolture Air Show. The aircraft has "Fed Up" slogan decals on the side (April 2016)

At the 2016 federal election the party polled 4.3% (+3.8) of the nationwide primary vote in the Senate. Only Queensland polled higher for the party than their nationwide percentage − the party polled 9.2% (+8.6) of the primary vote in that state. Pauline Hanson (QLD) and three other One Nation candidates − Malcolm Roberts (QLD), Brian Burston (NSW) and Rod Culleton (WA) were elected to the Senate.[35] Elected to the 3rd Queensland Senate spot, as per convention Hanson is serving a six-year term while the three other One Nation Senators who were elected in the last half of spots were appointed to three-year terms. Culleton was stripped of his seat in January 2017 after he was declared bankrupt. In March 2017, the High Court ruled that Culleton's election to the Senate was invalid in any event because of a criminal conviction in New South Wales. After a court-ordered recount, Culleton was replaced by the second candidate on the WA list, Peter Georgiou.[36]

Resignations, disendorsements and ineligibility

Rod Culleton (WA) left the party in December 2016, after months of legal troubles and party infighting to sit as an independent bringing the number of party senators to 3.[37][38] On 3 February 2017, the High Court of Australia ruled that Culleton's election was invalid due to a conviction for which he was subject to being sentenced at the time of the election, notwithstanding that the conviction was subsequently annulled. The resulting vacancy was filled by a recount of the votes at the election, which resulted in Peter Georgiou taking the seat and returning the One Nation representation in the Senate to four.

During the 2017 Western Australian state election, several One Nation candidates either quit or were disendorsed.[39] Dane Sorensen provided a copy of the party's Western Australian "candidate agreement" form for this election, which all candidates had to sign. It includes an "administration fee" of $250,000 if an elected candidate subsequently leaves the party.[40] One Nation currently forms a 'conservative bloc' with the Liberal Democratic Party and Shooters, Fishers and Farmers Party in the Western Australia Legislative Council.[41]

On 27 October 2017, the full High Court, as Court of Disputed Returns, ruled that Malcolm Roberts had been ineligible to be elected to the Parliament. On 13 November, Senator Fraser Anning took Roberts' seat after a Senate recount. However, on the same day Anning left the party to become an Independent.[42]

On 14 June 2018, Senator Brian Burston announced his resignation from the party to sit as an independent, following a month-long clash with Hanson centred around the Turnbull Government's corporate tax cuts, on which Hanson had reversed her position. This reduced the party to two senators, with Hanson remaining the only member of One Nation elected at the 2016 Federal election.[43]

Hanson wears a burqa into the Senate

Hanson drew widespread condemnation when she wore the full Islamic dress into Senate Question Time, before calling for the burqa to be banned in Australia. Audible gasps of shock were heard in the parliament. Liberal party Senator and Attorney-General of Australia, George Brandis condemned Hanson's actions, declaring to the parliament that "To ridicule that community, to drive it into a corner, to mock its religious garments is an appalling thing to do. I would ask you to reflect on that". Senator Brandis received applause and praise from all sides of parliament for his response.[44]

"it is OK to be white"

On 15 October 2018, a Senate motion brought by the party stating "it is OK to be white" was defeated 31–28 in a vote. The government expressed regret at the support the vote received, blaming it to an administrative error in which its senators were mistakenly instructed to vote positively. Critics noted that the phrase "it's OK to be white" has been associated with white supremacist rhetoric.[45]

Mark Latham joins One Nation

Former Labor Party leader Mark Latham joined the party in November 2018 as leader for New South Wales.[46] He successfully contested a seat in the Legislative Council, winning it in March 2019.[47]

James Ashby Scandals

On 22 May 2017, a new scandal arose when a taped conversation between Hanson and disgraced political advisor James Ashby was released. The tape showed that Ashby had supported charging One Nation candidates inflated prices for campaign materials.[48][49]

In March 2019, One Nation was the subject of a two-part Al Jazeera documentary series alleging that the party was soliciting financial assistance from the National Rifle Association and Koch Industries in order to change Australian gun control laws. Al Jazeera used an undercover reporter posing as a gun rights advocate.[50][51][52][53][54] In response, One Nation leader Pauline Hanson condemned the documentary as a Qatar hit piece and announced that she had filed a complaint with the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation.[55][52][53] Similar sentiments were echoed by the One Nation officials, James Ashby and Steve Dickson, who were featured in the documentary.[56] In response to the documentary, the Australian Electoral Commission said that none of the activities shown in the documentary violated section 326 of the Commonwealth Electoral Act 1918 since they occurred overseas.[52]

2019 election, Family Court claims

At the May 2019 federal election One Nation polled 5.40% (up 1.12%) for the nationwide Senate primary vote. The party polled higher than their national vote in Queensland, taking 10.27% up 1.08%, of the primary vote in the senate.[citation needed]

The PHON House of Representatives candidate for the Division of O'Connor, Dean Smith,[57][58] who won 8.4% (7,252) votes, was in December of the same year a target of recruitment for Neo-Nazi group The Base. In secretly recorded tapes of his "interview" by a recruiter, Smith tells of his hatred of immigrants and his wish to "save the race". He tells the recruiter that he had become "more and more extreme and passionate about my views", and disillusioned with One Nation and the possibility of a political solution. However, he was deemed too great a risk for The Base because of his political profile, so was not admitted into their ranks.[59]

Also in 2019, Hanson received widespread condemnation in the Australian media after claiming that domestic violence victims routinely lie to the Family Court. The Law Council of Australia called for the abandonment of a federal parliamentary inquiry into the family law system, citing concerns that the hearings were being used by Hanson for political purposes to undermine domestic violence claims made by women.[60]

Ideology

One Nation's policies and ideology have been described as based on nationalism,[61] populism,[3] and opposition to high levels of immigration.[5] In its early years, One Nation's policies were synonymous with opposition to affirmative action for Aboriginal communities, what it regarded as increasingly high rates of immigration from Asian countries and arguing for economic protectionism which reflected the key themes of Pauline Hanson's 1998 maiden speech.[62][16] Writer Hans-Georg Betz described One Nation and Pauline Hanson as among "the first prominent radical right-wing populist entrepreneurs to mobilize popular resentment against a very specific target — the intellectual elite" and that in the twenty first century where "today’s army of self-styled commentators and pundits summarily dismissing radical right-wing populist voters as uncouth, uneducated plebeians intellectually incapable of understanding the blessings of progressive identity politics, Hanson’s anti-elite rhetoric anno 1996 proved remarkably prescient, if rather tame." Betz also argued that One Nation differs from European right-wing parties by focusing on its own brand of populism which he termed Hansonism based on Hanson's personality and debates unique to Australian society.[63] Milton Osborne noted in 1999 that research indicated Hanson's initial supporters did not cite immigration as a major reason for their support for One Nation, but instead they were most concerned about economic issues and unemployment.[64] Political scientist Ian McAllister argues the current version of One Nation from 2017 does not have much in the way of policy beyond an "anti-establishment stance"[65] while others have argued it has changed to focus its policies on opposition to Islam.[6][66]

Hanson's views provoked controversy in Australia and numerous protests have been held opposing the party.[67] Former Australian Prime Minister Paul Keating summed up the many of these criticisms in a 1996 speech denouncing Hanson:

"The great tragedy of the shamelessly regressive politics of Pauline Hanson is not so much that it is rooted in ignorance, prejudice and fear, though it is; not so much that it projects the ugly face of racism, though it does; not so much that it is dangerously divisive and deeply hurtful to many of her fellow Australians, though it is; not even that it will cripple our efforts to enmesh ourselves in a region wherein lie the jobs and prosperity of future generations of young Australians, though it will,"..."The great tragedy is that it perpetrates a myth, a fantasy, a lie."[67]

Both Hanson and One Nation have disputed accusations of racism by arguing that the main parties are out of touch with many Australians on the issues of immigration, asylum seekers and multiculturalism and have ended up adopting some of the policies One Nation initially called for.[68]

Immigration and asylum

In its platform, One Nation states that it recognizes positive contributions of immigrants to Australian life but supports a general reduction in the levels of net migration to "closer to the 20th century average of 70,000" citing economic, cultural and environmental arguments against mass migration. The party also calls for a travel ban on certain countries, similar to one enacted by the Trump administration in the United States, in order to combat radical Islam and prevent the immigration of people the party argues are more likely to reject Australian values and promote violent extremism. The party also supports making English Australia's official language and supports stronger assimilation of immigrants. One Nation also seeks to withdraw Australia from the United Nations Refugee Convention and is opposed to the UN Global Compact on Migration.[69][70][68]

Economy

One Nation supports a broadly protectionist platform. The party has denounced economic rationalism and globalisation, adopting protectionist policies, One Nation advocated the restoration of import tariffs, a revival of Australia's manufacturing industry, and an increase in support for small business and the rural sector.[16] The party is opposed to foreign ownership of Australian agricultural land and businesses, claiming that it will review all free trade agreements and exit those deemed not to be in Australia's best interest and prioritize jobs for Australian nationals.[71]

One Nation backed the Turnbull Government's controversial 2018 corporate tax cuts.[72][73][74]

Domestic policies

The party argues for the introduction of Citizens Initiated Referenda (CIR) and states it will review the salaries and pensions paid to Australian politicians. It also supports a ban on wearing the burqa in public spaces.[75][76]

Law and order

One Nation claims it will increase rehabilitation facilities for drug addicts and introduce life sentences for drug traffickers, Pauline Hanson has previously voiced her support of medicinal cannabis but strong objection to recreational drug usage and opposition to pill testing.[77] The party supports responsible gun ownership but wants tougher sentences for arms traffickers. The party also supports one law for all Australians and is opposed to any form of sharia law in Australia.[71]

Race

One Nation's policies and platform have been criticized as racist and xenophobic,[12] although the party itself has denied this.[68]

A 2001 study showed that One Nation has no formal ties with racist groups, but holds extensive informal ties and has received endorsements from far-right movements due to the party requiring "the support of those groups in establishing the party and because of a convergence of interests".[78] These organisations include the League of Rights, Australians Against Further Immigration, the Confederate Action Party, National Action, and several militia groups.[78] In 2019, members of the militant white supremacist group, True Blue Crew (TBC) were linked to One Nation candidate Nikhil Reddy, with members of both groups volunteering for one another.[79]

In 2021, the Australian Senate approved and voted in favour of a motion tabled by Pauline Hanson and One Nation which called on the federal government to reject teaching critical race theory in Australian schools.[80]

Welfare

Since being elected to the parliament One Nation has voted with the government on a number of welfare cuts.[81]

Electoral results

Federal

Senate
Election year # of
overall votes
% of
overall vote
# of
overall seats won
# of
overall seats
+/– Notes
1998 1,007,439 8.99 (#3)
1 / 40
1 / 76
Increase 1
2001 644,364 5.54 (#4)
0 / 40
1 / 76
Steady
2004 206,455 1.73 (#6)
0 / 40
0 / 76
Decrease 1
2007 52,708 0.42 (#13)
0 / 40
0 / 76
Steady
2010 70,672 0.56 (#13)
0 / 40
0 / 76
Steady
2013 70,851 0.53 (#18)
0 / 40
0 / 76
Steady
2016
(D-D)
593,013 4.28 (#4)
4 / 76
4 / 76
Increase 4 Shared balance of power
2019 788,203 5.40 (#4)
1 / 40
2 / 76
Decrease 2 Shared balance of power

New South Wales

Legislative Council
Election year # of
overall votes
% of
overall vote
# of
overall seats
+/– Notes
1999 225,668 6.34 (#3)
1 / 42
Increase 1 Shared balance of power
Party did not contest elections between 2003 (See One Nation NSW) and 2015
2019 306,933 6.92 (#4)
2 / 42
Increase 2 Shared balance of power

Queensland

Legislative Assembly
Election year # of
overall votes
% of
overall vote
# of
overall seats
+/– Notes
1998 439,121 22.68 (#3)
11 / 89
Increase 11 Sole balance of power
2001 179,076 8.69 (#4)
3 / 89
Decrease 8
2004 104,980 4.88 (#5)
1 / 89
Decrease 2
2006 13,207 0.60 (#6)
1 / 89
Steady
2009 9,038 0.38 (#6)
0 / 89
Decrease 1
2012 2,525 0.10 (#6)
0 / 89
Steady
2015 24,111 0.92 (#7)
0 / 89
Steady
2017 371,193 13.73 (#3)
1 / 93
Increase 1
2020 204,258 7.12 (#4)
1 / 93
Steady

Western Australia

Legislative Council
Election year # of
overall votes
% of
overall vote
# of
overall seats
+/– Notes
2001 103,571 9.88 (#3)
3 / 34
Increase 3 Shared balance of power
2005 17,435 1.59 (#7)
0 / 34
Decrease 3
2008 7,012 0.63 (#7)
0 / 36
Steady
2013 Did not contest
2017 110,480 8.19 (#4)
3 / 36
Increase 3 Shared balance of power
2021 21,259 1.48 (#7)
0 / 36
Decrease 3

Leaders

Unlike the Queensland State Leadership, the changes of the Federal Leadership of the party were largely undocumented (besides the Hanson terms), due to low media attention and confusion of the name of office titles within the party. This list comprises the leaders, most definite, of the party.

No. Leader Term of office Office (or Previous Office) Notes
1 Pauline Hanson 11 April 1997 5 August 2002 Member of the Australian House of Representatives for the Division of Oxley, QLD,
19961998 (resigned, seat transfer)
2 John Fischer 5 August 2002 1 June 2004 Member of the Western Australian Legislative Council for the Mining and Pastoral Region, WA,
20012005 (defeated)
3 Ian Nelson 1 June 2004 13 May 2013 General Secretary of Pauline Hanson's One Nation,
1998–2004 (resigned)
4 Jim Savage 13 May 2013 18 November 2014 Treasurer of Pauline Hanson's One Nation,
2007–2013 (resigned)
(1) Pauline Hanson 18 November 2014 Incumbent Senator for Queensland,
2016—present

In August 2017 the party's constitution was changed, for Hanson to become party President for as long as she may wish and to choose her successor, who may also continue until resignation.[82]

Members of parliament

Current MPs

Federal Parliament

New South Wales

Queensland

Former MPs

Federal Parliament

New South Wales

Queensland

Western Australia

Donors

A 2019 report found that Pauline Hanson's One Nation Party had received over $6,000 in disclosed donations from pro-gun groups during the 2011-2018 period, with concerns these donations threatened to compromise Australia's safety by undermining gun control laws.[83]

See also

References

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  2. ^ "The American Far-Right Origins of Pauline Hanson's Views on Islam" (PDF). Australia Institute. January 2017. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 May 2017. Retrieved 24 September 2017.
  3. ^ a b "Senate count: Pauline Hanson's One Nation Party gets two Queensland senators". The Australian. 4 August 2016. Retrieved 1 September 2016. The populist right-wing party snared four seats after preferences were allocated today...
  4. ^ "Ultra-nationalist's car-crash immigration interview". Noosa News. 9 August 2013. Retrieved 17 September 2020. Stephanie Banister, who is hoping to represent the ultra-nationalist One Nation party
  5. ^ a b "Anti-immigrant One Nation party shunned in Western Australia poll". Daily Telegraph. 12 March 2017.
  6. ^ a b Jamie Smyth (4 July 2016). "Australian firebrand Pauline Hanson marks political return with anti-Muslim speech". The Financial Times. Retrieved 5 July 2016.
  7. ^ Jean Kennedy (5 July 2016). "Election 2016: Pauline Hanson's comments could lead to violence, Tim Soutphommasane warns". ABC News. Retrieved 5 July 2016.
  8. ^ "Pauline's bizarre climate change theory". NewsComAu. 23 April 2019. Retrieved 7 December 2019.
  9. ^ "New Australia senator claims UN conspiracy". 5 August 2016. Retrieved 7 December 2019.
  10. ^ a b
  11. ^ a b
  12. ^ a b c Sengul, Kurt. "Mick Tsikas/AAP Pauline Hanson built a political career on white victimhood and brought far-right rhetoric to the mainstream". The Conversation. The Conversation.
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  14. ^ Patel, Uma (10 July 2016). "Pauline Hanson: One Nation party's resurgence after 20 years of controversy". ABC NEWS. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 4 November 2020.
  15. ^ Malcolm Farnsworth. "One Nation's Immigration, Population and Social Cohesion Policy 1998". Archived from the original on 2 July 2003. Retrieved 19 September 2017.
  16. ^ a b c Charlton, P. 1998. Full Circle. The Courier-Mail, 13 June 1998.
  17. ^ "One Nation re-emerges on political radar (transcript)". PM. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 16 May 2000. Retrieved 29 March 2019.
  18. ^ "Australian Electoral Commission: Notice of registration". Commonwealth of Australia Gazette (GN27). 9 July 1997. p. 1880. Retrieved 29 March 2019.
  19. ^ a b c Newman, Gerard. "1998 Queensland Election - Current Issues Brief 2 1998-99". Parliament of Australia. Australian Government. Retrieved 4 November 2020.
  20. ^ Wanna, John (2003). "Queensland". In Moon, Campbell; Sharman, Jeremy (eds.). Australian Politics and Government: The Commonwealth, the States and Territories. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. p. 92. ISBN 0521825075. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
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  22. ^ Twomey, Anne (2000). "Sue v Hill – The Evolution of Australian Independence". In Stone, Adrienne; Williams, George (eds.). The High Court at the crossroads: essays in constitutional law. New South Wales, Australia: Federation Press. ISBN 1-86287-371-2.
  23. ^ Clive, Bean; McAllister, Ian (2000). "Voting Behaviour". In Simms, M; Warhurst, J (eds.). Howard's Agenda: The 1998 Australian Election. University of Queensland Press. p. 181.
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  25. ^ Rutherford, Jennifer (June 2001). "One Love Too Many: The Undoing of Pauline Hanson". Australian Journal of Politics and History. 47 (2): 192–208. doi:10.1111/1467-8497.00227.
  26. ^ The prosecution of Pauline Hanson and David Ettridge: a report on an inquiry into issues raised in a resolution of Parliament (PDF). January 2004. ISBN 1-876986-21-2. Retrieved 8 January 2017.
  27. ^ Australian Electoral Commission (9 November 2005). "First Preferences by Candidate – Queensland". Archived from the original on 29 August 2007. Retrieved 7 August 2007.
  28. ^ 2006 Queensland Election. Electorate Results. Election Results. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 12 June 2014.
  29. ^ "2012 State General Election – Election Summary". Electoral Commission Queensland. Archived from the original on 21 March 2012. Retrieved 24 September 2012.
  30. ^ Agius, Kym (23 November 2014). "Pauline Hanson returns to lead One Nation, plans to contest Queensland election". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 4 August 2021.
  31. ^ Killoran, Matthew (13 February 2015). "Pauline Hanson misses out on seat of Lockyer after bid for recount rejected". The Courier-Mail.
  32. ^ "Hanson Kicks Off her 'Fed Up' Tour Tomorrow". 25 July 2015. Archived from the original on 25 July 2015. Retrieved 19 September 2017.
  33. ^ "Pauline Hanson's plane to take flight for Fed Up tour". Brisbane Times. 16 July 2015. Retrieved 6 April 2017.
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Further reading

  • Abbott, Tony; Adams, Phillip; Brett, Judith; Brunton, Ron; Fraser, Malcolm; Goot, Murray; Grattan, Michelle; Kelly, Paul; Kingston, Margo; Lake, Marilyn; McGuinness, P.P.; Reynolds, Henry; Richardson, Graham; Rothwell, Nicolas; Sheridan, Greg; Wooldridge, Michael; (1998), Two Nations. The Causes and Effects of the Rise of the One Nation Party in Australia, Bookman Press, Melbourne (Victoria) ISBN 1-86395-177-6.
  • Balson, Scott (2000), Inside One Nation. The inside story on a people's party born to fail, Interactive Presentations, Mt Crosby News, Queensland. ISBN 0-9577415-2-9.
  • Campbell, Graeme and Uhlmann, Mark (1995), Australia Betrayed. How Australian democracy has been undermined and our naive trust betrayed, Foundation Press, Victoria Park, Western Australia. ISBN 1-875778-02-0.
  • Davis, Rex and Stimson, Robert (1998), 'Disillusionment and disenchantment at the fringe: explaining the geography of the One Nation Party vote at the Queensland election,' People and Place, Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 69–82.
  • Dodd, Helen J (1997). Pauline. The Hanson Phenomenon, Boolarong Press, Moorooka, Queensland. ISBN 0-646-33217-1.
  • Ettridge, David (2004), Consider Your Verdict, New Holland Publishers, Frenchs Forest, New South Wales. ISBN 1-74110-232-4.
  • Grant, Bligh (ed.) (1997), Pauline Hanson. One Nation and Australian Politics, University of New England Press, Armidale, New South Wales. ISBN 1-875821-38-4.
  • Hanson, Pauline (2007), Untamed and Unashamed – Pauline Hanson's autobiography, Jo-Jo Publishing, Docklands, Victoria. ISBN 0-9802836-2-0.
  • Jayasuriya, Laksiri and Pookong, Kee (1999), The Asianisation of Australia? Some Facts about the Myths, Melbourne University Press, Carlton South, Victoria. ISBN 0-522-84854-0
  • Jupp, James (1998), 'Populism in the land of Oz,' in Meanjin, Vol.57, No.4, pp. 740–747.
  • Kingston, Margo (1999), Off the Rails. The Pauline Hanson Trip, Allen and Unwin, St Leonards, New South Wales. ISBN 1-86508-159-0.
  • Leach, Michael; Stokes, Geoffrey; Ward, Ian; (eds.) (2000), The Rise and Fall of One Nation, University of Queensland Press, St Lucia, Queensland. ISBN 0-7022-3136-3.
  • Mackay, Hugh (1999), Turning Point. Australians Choosing Their Future, Pan Macmillan, Sydney, New South Wales, Ch. 24, 'Xenophobia and Politics. Why Hanson was good for us.' ISBN 0-7329-1001-3.
  • Merritt, George J (1997), Pauline Hanson. The Truth, St George Publications, Parkholme, South Australia. ISBN 0-646-32012-2.
  • Pasquarelli, John (1998), The Pauline Hanson Story by the Man Who Knows, New Holland Publishers, Frenchs Forest, New South Wales. ISBN 1-86436-341-X.

External links