One Thousand Children

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The One Thousand Children (OTC)[1][2] is a designation, created in 2000, which is used to refer to the approximately 1,400 Jewish children who were rescued from Nazi Germany and other Nazi-occupied or threatened European countries, and who were taken directly to the United States during the period 1934–1945. The phrase "One Thousand Children" only refers to those children who came unaccompanied and left their parents behind back in Europe. In nearly all cases, their parents were not able to escape with their children, because they could not get the necessary visas among other reasons. Later, nearly all these parents were murdered by the Nazis.

The OTC children were rescued by both American and European organizations, as well as by individuals.

Originally only about one thousand such children had been identified as OTC children — hence the name "The One Thousand Children". By 2017 about 1,400 have been identified.

The One Thousand Children, Inc. (OTC, Inc.) was an organization created for further welfare of the OTC children.

Definition and early history[edit]

Some 1.5 million children, nearly all of them Jewish, were deliberately murdered by the Nazis in the Holocaust. (This includes those who died of starvation, or illness due to inhumane conditions in the ghettoes.)

A relatively few Jewish children were saved by being hidden by courageous Gentiles in various ways, in or close to their Nazi-occupied hometown (see Hidden Children).

Another relatively few Jewish children were saved by moving to non-Nazi-occupied lands. Naturally this required the aid of adults - these were saved by the efforts of programs, groups, individuals, or actual parents. In western Europe these would include the Kindertransport program which included the individual efforts of Sir Nicholas Winton; and the work of the French Jewish organization Œuvre de Secours aux Enfants (OSE). [3] Most of the programs that worked specifically to save children had the children remain within Western Europe.

Other well organized programs did prepare and send children to Palestine.[4][5][6]

In contrast, inthe One Thousand Children "program,"[7][8][9]approximately 1,400 children, nearly all Jewish, were successfully rescued and brought across the ocean to the United States.

In general, they were brought in quiet operations designed to avoid negative attention from isolationist and other antisemitic forces. Originally 1,177 such children had been identified as OTC — hence the name the "One Thousand Children" (OTC).

These OTC children:

  • either came from Europe directly to the United States during the period 1934 to 1945;
  • were of age up to sixteen (the cut-off age, before they were considered adults). The youngest was fourteen months old;
  • arrived unaccompanied, leaving their parents behind; and
  • were usually placed with foster families, schools and other facilities across the U.S. However some came under individual arrangements with various final arrangements.

The OTC history is divided into four periods:

  • the first: 1934, until Kristallnacht on November 9/10, 1934 – during which there were very few OTC;
  • second: starting with Kristallnacht November 9/10, 1938, which had strongly alerted the American public to the oppression of the Jews in Nazi Germany, until the outbreak of the European War on September 1, 1939;
  • third: September 1, 1939 until Pearl Harbor December 7, 1941, during the period while Europe was at war but the United States was officially neutral, until Pearl Harbor December 7, 1941, when America joined the war. This was a period when travel from all of Europe to the neutral United States was still permitted, but only if one could obtain the required travel documents; and
  • fourth: December 7, 1941 until Victory in Europe May 8, 1945. During this period America and Germany were at war, so that legal travel from the Nazi-occupied lands to America was not available.

The first small group of six children arrived at New York City in November 1934. This was followed by subsequent small groups, totaling about 100 children annually, that occurred in the early years of operation, and they were taken to foster homes arranged through appeals to congregations and other organizations' members.

Most of the children came through programs run by private refugee agencies such as the German Jewish Children's Aid (GJCA).[10] The Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society (HIAS) as well as the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, (colloquially known as "the Joint"), HICEM, and the Society of Friends (the Quakers. Many of these efforts were combined to form the U.S. Committee for the Care of European Children (USCOM) which was registered with the US government and later became part of the National War Fund. Fundraising efforts were assisted by the American Jewish Committee, the American Jewish Congress, and the National Council of Jewish Women.[11]

For instance, many of the OTC were initially gathered together, supported, taken care of, and educated by the French Oeuvre de Secours aux Enfants (OSE), sometimes for many months in the OSE "chateaux" (these were typically very large houses and grounds). They stayed with OSE until OSE able to pass them on to "the Joint", or the Quakers, which then took them to the United States. Under the leadership of Andree Salomon, OSE did manage to gather together about 350 such children in three large groups, who travelled to America with the aid of the organizations mentioned.[12][13] Many of these children came from the Gurs internment camp.

Other OTC came under private arrangements and sponsorship, typically made by the parent(s) with a family relative or friend. Such children would live with their sponsor, or sometimes live in a boarding school in close contact with their sponsor.

Before 1938, only small groups were brought into the country by such organizations, because of concern for anti-semitism and social hostility to allowing foreigners to enter the U.S. during the Depression. The sponsoring organizations wanted to avoid drawing undue attention to the children. Furthermore, their immigration was limited by the U.S. immigration quota system for their countries of origin.

The demand on these organizations increased markedly after Kristallnacht on November 9/10, 1940 convinced more European parents that the destruction of Jews was an element of the Nazi agenda.

In the later period of 1941–1942, when news of Nazi atrocities was more widely circulated, larger groups of OTC were organized and arrived in the U.S. A few of the OTC came under the British Children's Overseas Reception Board (CORB) program, as well as the "U.S. Committee for the Care of European Children" (USCOM).

In the OTC programs under the Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society (HIAS), German Jewish Children's Aid Society,[14] (GJCA), the Quakers, etc., foster families in the U.S. agreed to care for the children until age twenty-one, see that they were educated, and provided a guarantee that they would not become public charges. Most of these children were assigned a social worker from a local social service agency to oversee the child's resettlement process. Jewish children were generally placed in Jewish homes. These children, and their sponsors, expected that they would be reunited with their own families at the end of the war. Most of the children lost one or both parents, and most of their extended families, by the time World War II had ended.

Where the Children Came From, And Some of Their Journeys[7][8][9][15][16][edit]

Most of the OTC children came from Germany, Austria, and Czechoslovakia. Some came from France, Belgium, Holland and Luxembourg. Only very very few came directly from Eastern Europe. However, some families of OTC had previously made it from Eastern to Western Europe; and then the OTC child fled from Western Europe. (For instance, this was the case for Wulf Wolodia Grajonca, who later became the "rock-and-roll" impresario Bill Graham (promoter))

Before the war, many simply managed to get to Hamburg or another port, and sail from there. though this itself was not easy.

After the German blitzkrieg of May 1940 through Belgium, Holland, and Luxembourg, and rapidly into France, many OTC children fled from Occupied France or Vichy France by going south and west to the Spanish border. Then they made the difficult climb over the Pyrenees, usually guided by a passeur guide/smuggler. From Spain, they traveled to neutral Portugal and Lisbon. From there, they sailed to America, often on one of the Portuguese liners Serpa Pinto (also known as the RMS Ebro), or Mouzinho, or Nyassa. This escape route was also taken by many families. This escape route, through France and over the Pyrenees to Spain, then Portugal and Lisbon, was also followed by those who fled from Belgium, Holland, and Luxembourg.

Some other OTC children managed to get to Casablanca in North Africa, and sailed from there. It was often the case that whole families made some or all the journey to the port, before the sad parting when the OTC child continued alone. For instance, some French intact families followed a trajectory that led them to one of the French concentration camps such as Gurs. Then OSE was able to extract the child(ren) from that camp, but with the parents still interned. Then OSE would aid the child(ren) over the next OTC stages to their final transport across the Atlantic. In the later stages of this journey, often HIAS, or the "Joint" would also assist the OTC children.[3][17]

Remarkably, a similar small group of about 6-8 unaccompanied Jewish children fled to the United States from Venezuela. Their parents, in the small Jewish community in Maracaibo to Venezuela, were well aware of Hitler's possible global threat, which included German submarines off the Venezuelan coast.

The "OTC" Children[edit]

For many of the OTC children, the period before they reached America was very difficult. Before World War II, most were simply assembled by rescue agencies directly from their home towns in Germany and Austria, and then easily escorted to America. But after the war started, nearly all of them went through extreme hardships and dangers before they boarded ship for the United States. Some did travel to the port with parents, but many traveled alone, at least for part of their flight. Some were smuggled over the Pyrenees (usually with their parents). Some were incarcerated for a time in concentration camps such as Gurs internment camp in southern France, while some spent time in a French "château" (large mansion) run by the Oeuvre de Secours aux Enfants or OSE.[18] It was usually only late in a journey that a Rescue Agency would start positively escorting the children.[7][8][19]

Some of the OTC children came by individual arrangements made by their family, in which the child would be sent into the care of a relative in America. In America, they would either live with that family, or perhaps be placed in a boarding school.

Many OTC children made notable contributions to American society. Among them are:[20]

  • One OTC child, Jack Steinberger, became a Nobel Laureate in physics.
  • Another OTC child, Ambassador Richard Schifter, during and after World War II was one of the Ritchie Boys. The Ritchie Boys were refugees who joined the U.S. Army, were trained in intelligence at Fort Ritchie, and then operated behind German lines during World War II. Several OTC children became Ritchie Boys, or served in the Armed Forces. Afterwards Ambassador Richter had a very significant diplomatic and legal career, and was the U.S. Ambassador for Human Relations at the United Nations. As a child in Austria, his father told him that no Jew could become an Ambassador (in Austria). Schifter did become an American Ambassador to the United Nations, but his father had been already murdered by the Nazis.
  • Another child Wulf Wolodia Grajonca renamed himself Bill Graham and became prominent in the 1960s as the concert promoter and music venue operator in the rock music and psychedelic rock scene in San Francisco. Bill Graham was the promoter for the musical groups Grateful Dead and Jefferson Airplane. He operated the Fillmore East, Fillmore West, The Fillmore and Winterland Ballroom rock music venues, and organized the large Summer Jam at Watkins Glen and US Festival events before his death in a helicopter crash in 1991. He was posthumously inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1992.
  • Henri Parens became a child psychiatrist, and wrote several professional books that presented methods he had developed to help children who had been traumatized, such as OTC children. Naturally he made use of his own OTC experience at ages 11–12, and subsequently. In his book "Renewal of Life: Healing from the Holocaust",[21] Parens explicitly presents his feelings and emotions during his OTC experiences and his later slow "healing."
  • Herbert Freudenberger, a psychologist and author of the book "Burn-out: The High Cost of High Achievement" (1980)
  • Arthur Hans Weiss, one of the Ritchie Boys. As a United States military counter intelligence figure, who found Adolf Hitler's last will and political testament in autumn 1945. He later became a lawyer.
  • Gunther (Guy) Stern was one of the Ritchie Boys, like Ambassador Ritcher (above). He then had a distinguished career as a university professor and Holocaust Museum director.
  • Harry Eckstein (born Horst Eckstein) became a political science professor at Princeton University and the University of California, Irvine.

Emotional and Practical Effects[edit]

At the time, the OTC children went through much emotional stress and trauma and practical difficulties in Europe before their arrival in America, also during their initial period in America, and even in later war-time years. At war's end, most OTC children would learn that their parents had been murdered by the Nazis. At that time, they had to adjust to, and create for themselves, another new set of life experiences. As is now well-understood, such stress and trauma will continue to create conscious and unconscious trauma, and their repercussions, for many years.[9]

These OTC trauma, both at the time and afterwards, are closely similar to those met by other Child Holocaust Survivors who survived in Europe.[22][23]

Like other Child Holocaust Survivors, the actual experiences and psychological trauma received by the OTC Child Survivors differed fundamentally, crucially and negatively from that of an adult Holocaust Survivor. An adult generally would have developed a sense of self and ego, which would provide him or her with a way of attempting to deal with the practical and emotional trauma. Usually a child has not yet developed a strong ego nor sense of self. Also, a child depends on his or her parents for support and protection, and especially love. Yet for these Child Holocaust Survivors, they lacked their parents and their parents' love; and they only had weakly developed egos and sense of self, at the very time that the external and psychological trauma were most extreme.

The first very significant trauma occurred at the moment of parting from their parent(s), whether when boarding ship or at an earlier time and event. For the younger OTC children, regardless of whatever reassuring words the parent(s) might say, the child would feel abandoned by his parents. Even older children, who could understand the reality "intellectually," none-the-less would feel as having been abandoned.

For the very young children, even though in later years they would have no actual memory of the parting and of these feelings, and also no memory of (part of) the later years, yet the trauma of parting and of continued separation will still have current and continuing subconscious impact.

Most OTC children were placed in "foster-families," some of which were loving and some not; or sometimes they were placed in various types of institutions, some caring, and some not. But in most cases these could not replace the love and support from his own family; and the new relationship would take time to develop. In some fortunate instances, the OTC child would grow to totally blend into the foster family, and learn to love them as if they were his own parents and siblings.

The older OTC children fully knew the dangers their left-behind parents faced from the Nazi threat. And then, at the end of the war, nearly always the OTC child would find out, sooner or later, that his or her parents had been murdered by the Nazis; and there would also have been the prior stress of waiting and hoping, before that final factual discovery.

Not surprisingly, some of the OTC children became very angry with their situation. Some would act out, sometimes so much so that their "foster-parents" decided they had to return the OTC child to the original Organization, such as HIAS, to be placed elsewhere – but then the cycle might repeat.

As an example, one OTC child, Phyllis Helene Mattson, also acted out at the "Orphanage" Institution, where twice she had to be placed – she ultimately stayed with four "foster-families," and was in the "Orphanage" twice. She ran away from two of her "foster-families," and one "foster-family" sent her back to the "Orphanage." As she herself writes, it is somewhat remarkable that she managed to become a responsible mature adult. She recounts all this in her book "War Orphan in San Francisco"[24]

At a more practical level, nearly every OTC child arrived in America not being able to speak English, and so he or she was held behind in school grade placement (though most rapidly learned English, and then advanced rapidly into his proper school-grade). He or she had to adapt to a new culture and way of behaving.

Holocaust Child Survivors and Hidden Children, OTC similarities to Hidden Children, OTC are Child Survivors of the Holocaust[edit]

Hidden Children of the Holocaust[edit]

Hidden Children [25][26][27][28][29] of the Holocaust are those children who were hidden in some way during the Holocaust from the Nazis in occupied Europe, hidden so as to avoid capture by the Nazis.

One sub-group even of Hidden Children are Children who, during the Holocaust, were placed into the care of a "foster-family," usually Catholic, and raised as-if one of the family.[28][29]

These Hidden Children were saved from murder by the Nazis. None-the-less all of them, including those in "foster-families," suffered great trauma at the time, and also later both consciously and subconsciously.[30]

OTC are Child Survivors of the Holocaust[edit]

OTC children went through very significant trauma, both in terms of the psychological and practical – caused by the Holocaust. These trauma in large part correspond to many aspects of those trauma developed by the "foster-family" sub-group of the Hidden Children – Child Survivors who had been raised as-if one of a (generally Catholic) family. The OTC trauma similarly was caused by the Holocaust.[30] OTC are Child Survivors of the Holocaust.

Research and discovery[edit]

The fact that some unaccompanied children fled from Europe directly to the U.S.A. was first researched by Judith Baumel-Schwartz[7][31] in a doctoral thesis and related book.

However, only in 2000 did Iris Posner[7] have the realization and then implement it, that these children should be considered a significant distinct group of Holocaust Survivors, which should be discussed in the truly public domain.

Specifically, in 2000, Iris Posner had learned of the British Government-assisted Kindertransport effort, and was intrigued by the question of whether there was a similar actual official American Government effort. Posner wrote letters to newspapers asking any such children to contact her. Posner and Leonore Moskowitz also researched ship manifests and other documents. In this way, Posner "created" the story of this group of unaccompanied children to America ("The One Thousand Children," as she later named them). At that time, they managed to identify slightly over 1,000, hence the name. Posner and Moskowitz managed to locate about 500 of these who were still alive, and invited each of them to the 2002 OTC Conference.

Soon after, in 2001, Posner and Moskowitz jointly founded the non-profit organization The One Thousand Children, Inc.

Posner and Moskowitz, under the aegis of their organization "The One Thousand Children, Inc" organized a three-day International OTC Conference and Reunion in Chicago in 2002. Approximately 200 attendees had the opportunity to listen and interact with over 50 speakers drawn from OTC children, their children and grandchildren, and "foster" family members and rescuers from rescue organizations.

At the time of the Conference in 2002, they had found the names of about 1,200 OTC'ers.[32][33] Since that time the known number has increased to about 1400.

American "Response"[edit]

The OTC story is somewhat similar to that of the kindertransport in which unaccompanied children came from mainland Europe to Great Britain. In contrast to the OTC 'program," the British kindertransport program was officially created by the British Government in very speedy response to kristallnacht on Nov 9/10, 1938. Within six days the British Government presented an official bill in Parliament which was rapidly passed, which waived all immigration and visa requirements for unaccompanied children, though it left actual arrangements to private relief organizations and individual sponsors.[34]

In contrast, the United States did not change any immigration laws. In 1939, the proposed Wagner–Rogers Bill to admit 20,000 Jewish refugees under the age of 14 to the United States from Nazi Germany, co‑sponsored by Sen. Robert F. Wagner (D-N.Y.) and Rep. Edith Rogers (R-Mass.), failed to get Congressional approval in 1939. Jewish organizations did not feel able to challenge this decision. The full story of the failure of the Wagner-Rogers bill shows the power of the isolationist (and antisemitic?) forces at that time.[35] Even the Ickes plan for settling Jews in Alaska, known as the Slattery Report, did not come to any success.

Furthermore, the State Department had a deliberately obstructionist "Paper Walls" policy in operation to delay or prevent the issuing of any officially permitted visas for all refugees who desired entry to America.",[36][37] This Paper Wall contributed to the low number of refugees. From July 1941 all immigration applications went to a special inter-departmental committee, and under the "relatives rule" special scrutiny was given to any applicant with relatives in German, Italian or Russian territory.

Beginning in July 1943, a new State Department visa application form over four feet long was used, with details required of the refugee and of the two sponsors; and six copies had to be submitted. Applications took about nine months, and were not expedited even in cases of imminent danger. Furthermore, from fall 1943, applications from refugees "not in acute danger" could be refused (e.g. people who had reached Spain, Portugal or North Africa). This created a huge barrier, since many of these children (usually with their parents) had fled there from other parts of Europe, some by being smuggled over the Pyrenees.

The American public also resisted the OTC program, because of social hostility to allowing foreigners to enter the U.S. during the Depression, and generally from isolationist and antisemitic forces.[35]).

Some of the Groups of OTC Sailings, and their Rescuers[edit]

  • The "Brith Sholom" Group of 50 OTC, who were rescued in 1938 by Gilbert and Eleanor Kraus. Their detailed story is presented in a later section.
  • In June 1942, about 50 OTC sailed from Casablanca for New York on board the Serpa Pinto. They had been helped originally by OSE in France. Then the American Friends Service Committee helped them to leave France from Marseilles to Casablanca, under the auspices of the U.S. Committee for the Care of European Children (USCOM) (and see that WIKI section).
  • 3 groups totalling 311 OTC, who sailed from Lisbon, who were helped by OSE[38] and specifically by Andree Salomon.[39]

Iris Posner's contributions to the OTC story[40][edit]

Iris Posner's contributions started with her "discovering" and "creating" the One Thousand Children as a concept.

Posner and Moskowitz then went on to search for information about these OTC children – their names and other OTC information – and then searched for the actual OTC "children."

Posner and Moskowitz then put on the 2002 OTC Conference (see above).

Posner created the OTC story. Posner provided the new "One Thousand Children" group-identity for these children. Posner enabled these children to realize they were "Child Survivors of the Holocaust." Posner caused all Holocaust groups and scholars to recognize this "new" group of Holocaust Child Survivors."

Personal Realization that They were "Child Survivors of the Holocaust"[edit]

It was at this 2002 OTC Conference that many of the OTC Children first realized that they had two new identities – both as OTC, and as "Child Survivors of the Holocaust." They realized that they truly were Child Survivors of the Holocaust. For a very emphatic audio-visual statement by an OTC that she indeed was a Child Survivor of the Holocaust, listen to her YouTube testimony [41]

One Thousand Children, Inc (OTC, Inc.)[edit]

Iris Posner and Leonore Moskowitz created the non-profit research and education organization One Thousand Children, Inc (OTC, Inc.), whose primary purposes are to maintain a connection between the OTC children, to explore this little-known segment of American history, and to create archival materials and depositories. OTC,Inc's print, photo, and audio-visual archives, and some of its activities have been transferred to the "YIVO Institute for Jewish Research" though OTC, Inc itself has ceased to exist (see next section).

Video Summation of the OTC Experience, and the "Disbanding" of OTC, Inc in Oct 2013[edit]

OTC, Inc. formally disbanded in Oct 2013, but its work goes on. The "closing" took place at a two-hour conference[42] at the YIVO Institute for Jewish Research. Testimony by individual OTC'ers make up a significant part of this conference.

British Kindertransport, and Compared with the One Thousand Children Effort[edit]

A larger but similar British program, the Kindertransport, is more well-known. That effort brought approximately 10,000 similarly defined mainly Jewish children to the United Kingdom, between November 21, 1938 and September 3, 1939. It had to stop at that date, since that was the beginning of World War II.

The Kindertransport program was created by the British Government which within six days of kristallnacht presented an Act in the British Parliament. This act waived all visa and immigration requirements for an unspecified number of unaccompanied children. Naturally, the children had to be privately financed and guaranteed, and placed by various British Jewish Organizations. (Some of the "kinder" from Britain subsequently migrated to America, e.g. the Nobel Prize-winning scientists Arno Penzias and Walter Kohn.)

In contrast, the United States Government did nothing to aid any of the OTC children, and did not waive any quota or immigration requirements. The 12-year OTC effort required each OTC child to meet the American immigration requirements.[43]

OTC Archived Documents and Other Media Are Now Mainly at the "YIVO Institute for Jewish Research"[edit]

The Organization's archives have been donated to and now reside at the YIVO Institute for Jewish Research [44] in New York City. These primary archives include video-recordings of the complete 2002 OTC Conference as well as partial written transcripts. Many artifacts, including personal diaries written as children or later as adults, are included; as well as data about each individual (identified) child, other information, and photographs. This archive is open to scholars.

The list of the 1177 originally-identified OTC'ers, with names and many other details, is at YIVO. It is also at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum [45] (In both cases, it is confidential, and is only available to researchers.)

Other documents and artifacts are located at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM),[46] and the National Museum of American Jewish History (NMAJH)[47] in Philadelphia.

Story of the Rescue of 50 Brith Sholom OTC Children[edit]

Some of the OTC children were rescued by Jewish organizations such as HIAS. But some were rescued by individuals. For example, one American 51 year-old bachelor distant cousin sponsored and took official responsibility for a six-year-old OTC'er, but the OTC'er had to be placed in a small year-round boarding-school[48]

A remarkable rescue was made by a private wealthy Philadelphia family, Gilbert and Eleanor Kraus. On their own, they rescued 25 boys and 25 girls from Vienna after Kristallnacht, but before the war in Europe started. They had many practical difficulties, including those to obtain the necessary 50 American visas from within the immigration quota system. On arrival, these children were first placed in the summer camp facilities of the fraternal order Brith Sholom, and then were placed into the homes of Philadelphia families. [49].[50]

Illustrative Example: One OTC Child's Story: Werner S. Zimmt[edit]

Werner S. Zimmt survived the Nazis, but only because the German Jewish Children's Aid rescued him as an OTC'er. [51]

Werner was born in 1921 to a Jewish family in Berlin, Germany. After Hitler's rise to power and the inception of his anti-Semitic policies, Werner's parents, fearing for his life, worked with the German-Jewish Children's Aid to quietly move him to safety in the United States. He arrived in the U.S. in 1935, aged 14, and after a short time in an orphanage in New York, was moved to Chicago, where he lived with a foster family. During this time Werner Zimmt learned English and attended school. His parents later also escaped the Nazi's death grip and came to the U.S. to join him.

After the U.S. entered World War II, Werner, aged 21, volunteered to serve in the U.S. Marines, but he was rejected because he was considered an enemy alien due to his German heritage. The following year in 1943 the U.S. Government realized that such German Jewish "refugee-aliens" were actually an important military asset, and he was drafted in the U.S. Army to become one of the Ritchie Boys. "He had the dangerous job of manning listening posts ahead of the main enemy line, and sending back intelligence to headquarters; and of going on reconnaissance patrols. He also served as the interrogator of German prisoners of war."

After the war, Werner Zimmt went on to become an industrial chemist, working for DuPont for many years. Zimmt died in 2014, aged 93. Throughout his life, Werner had served his adopted country very well.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The actual OTC web-pages give much information and are a primary source: www.onethousandchildren.yivo.org [1]
  2. ^ a primary source is the group's authoritative book: Don't Wave Goodbye: The Children's Flight from Nazi Persecution to American Freedom, Jason, Philip K. and Iris Posner, editors, Praeger Greenwood Publishers, Westport, Connecticut, 2004. ISBN 0-275-98229-7.
  3. ^ a b The official web-page for OSE is http://www.ose-france.org
  4. ^ Youth Aliyah
  5. ^ Youth village
  6. ^ Sh'erit ha-Pletah
  7. ^ a b c d e Jason, Philip K. and Iris Posner, editors, Don't Wave Goodbye: The Children's Flight from Nazi Persecution to American Freedom, Praeger Greenwood Publishers, Westport, Connecticut, 2004. ISBN 0-275-98229-7
  8. ^ a b c Baumel, Judith T. Unfulfilled Promise. Denali Press, Juneau, AK. 1990. ISBN 0-938737-21-X
  9. ^ a b c The One Thousand Children web-pages www.onethousandchildren.yivo.org [2]
  10. ^ Much information about the GJCA is available from documents kept at the "Center for Jewish History" http://access.cjh.org/home.php?type=extid&term=109118#1
  11. ^ http://www.thebreman.org/exhibitions/online/1000kids/organizations
  12. ^ OSE-France official web-site www.ose-france.org http://www.ose-france.org
  13. ^ United States Holocaust Memorial Museum USHMM caption to photo 38351, which shows Andree Salomon and several of these children http://collections.ushmm.org/search/catalog/pa1125964
  14. ^ http://access.cjh.org/home.php?type=extid&term=109118#1
  15. ^ USHMM Holocaust Encyclopedia [3]
  16. ^ web-page of the complete "One Thousand Children" archives held at the YIVO Institute [4]
  17. ^ Œuvre de secours aux enfants
  18. ^ The official web-page for OSE is http://www.ose-france.org
  19. ^ The One Thousand Children web-pages www.onethousandchildren.yivo.org [5]
  20. ^ Sonnert, Gerhard and Gerald Holton "What Happened to the Children Who Fled Nazi Persecution": ISBN 1-4039-7625-2.
  21. ^ "Renewal of Life: Healing from the Holocaust" by Henri Parens, Schreiber Publishing (2004), ISBN 978-1-887563-89-5
  22. ^ Moskovitz, Sarah "LOVE DESPITE HATE – Child Survivors of the Holocaust and their Adult Lives." Schocken Books, New York 1983. ISBN 0-8052-3801-8.
  23. ^ Krell, Robert"Child Holocaust Survivors, Memories and Reflections." Trafford Publishing, 2007. ISBN 978-1-4251-3720-5.
  24. ^ War Orphan in San Francisco, by Phyllis Helene Mattson, Stevens Creek Press, 2005 ISBN 0-9761656-0-0
  25. ^ Much about the Hidden Children was included in an Exhibition held at the United States Holocaust Museum (USHMM) in 2006: "Life in Shadows." http://www.ushmm.org/exhibition/hidden-children/index
  26. ^ Even more information can be found at the hyperlinks in the prior reference: http://www.ushmm.org/exhibition/hidden-children/index
  27. ^ A related Exhibition at the Museum of Jewish Heritage, NYCH, also described the Hidden Children
  28. ^ a b The Andi-Defamation League (ADL) is a source for information about the Hidden Children http://archive.adl.org/hidden/
  29. ^ a b Here the ADL describes, with photos, a few Child Survivors, not all being Hidden Children http://archive.adl.org/children_holocaust/children_main1.html
  30. ^ a b Robert Krell, "Child Holocaust Survivors, Memories and Reflections." Trafford Publishing, 2007. ISBN 978-1-4251-3720-5.
  31. ^ Baumel, Judith T. "Unfulfilled Promise." Denali Press, Juneau, AK. 1990. ISBN 0-938737-21-X
  32. ^ There exists a data-base of 1,177 potential OTC as of 5 April 2001, https://www.ushmm.org/online/hsv/source_view.php?SourceId=20638. It is available only to researchers, at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
  33. ^ YIVO also has some data-bases, again available only to researchers.
  34. ^ [6]
  35. ^ a b https://www.commentarymagazine.com/articles/children-in-europe-are-europes-problem
  36. ^ Wyman, David S. The Abandonment of the Jews: America and the Holocaust 1941–1945 (Pantheon, New York) ISBN 0-394-42813-7, particularly Chapter 7 pp 124–142
  37. ^ "FDR and the Jews" by Richard Breitman and Allan J. Lichtman tells some of the other lack of support for early actions against Hitler, and for Jewish refugees in general.
  38. ^ Œuvre de secours aux enfants
  39. ^ https://collections.ushmm.org/search/catalog/pa1125964
  40. ^ This section briefly summarizes and highlights statements already referenced previously
  41. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IAm5JHKqL1E
  42. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XosFr7g580c
  43. ^ Wyman, David S. The Abandonment of the Jews: America and the Holocaust 1941–1945 (Pantheon, New York) ISBN 0-394-42813-7, particularly Chapter 7
  44. ^ http://www.yivo.org
  45. ^ https://www.ushmm.org/online/hsv/source_view.php?SourceId=20638
  46. ^ http://ushmm.org
  47. ^ http://nmajh.org
  48. ^ "Claude Kacser's OTC Story" cited below, in the section of "Videos" below.
  49. ^ This story is presented in detail in http://www.thejewishweek.com/arts/hbo-series/unlikeliest-rescue-mission]
  50. ^ This story was also made into a documentary film shown on PBS. The film story outline and a trailer for the film are presented at http://www.hbo.com/documentaries/50-children-the-rescue-mission-of-mr-and-mrs-kraus/synopsis.html. (The film is not available on the web, since it is under copyright by the film distributor.
  51. ^ "Street Smarts: Tucson veteran was among 1,000 children saved from Nazi Germany" - interview with journalist David Leighton, Arizona Daily Star newspaper, May 13, 2014. [7].

Further reading[edit]

  • Parens, Henri. "Renewal of Life: healing from the Holocaust." Schreiber Publishing, Rockville MD, 2004. ISBN 1-887563-89-X
  • Thea Kahn Lindauer. "There Must Be An Ocean Between Us" (iUniverse) ISBN 978-0-595-45240-8
  • Phyllis Helene Mattson. "War Orphan in San Francisco" (Stevens Creek Press) ISBN 0-9761656-0-0. This book presents an example of the possible psychological effects of the OTC experience. The author describes her many behavioral issues and placement transitions that she went through, because of the drastic disruption in her life at age 12. She had become an orphan.
  • Fern Schumer Chapman. "Is It Night or Day?"
  • Louis Maier. "In Lieu of Flowers" ISBN 0-86663-213-1
  • "Forced Journey: The Saga of Werner Berlinger" (2013), by Rosemary Zibart. ISBN 978-1-932926-33-0 (hardback), ISBN 978-1-932926-32-3 (paperback). Written for teenagers, this tells the fictionized OTC story of "Werner," from Hamburg to America.

Videos about OTC'ers or OTC[edit]

Further useful information is presented in the following videos. Some of these are personal testimonies which often contain significant information about OTC as it was experienced by the OTC'ers. Others are recorded lectures or symposiums about the OTC 'ers and OTC.

  • "I, an OTC, am a True Holocaust Survivor!! Hitler Wanted to put Me on the Dung-Heap of History!! I am Here to Say He Failed!!" says Thea Lindauer, a Jewish OTC. (2 minutes) (2008) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IAm5JHKqL1E
  • "Torn From Home," an 11-minute video of several OTC each telling their own story https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=th720hTGbGA
  • "The Complete Story of the One Thousand Children" This visually and verbally tells the story of the OTC, the kids, the rescuers, and the rescue-programs. It demonstrates the tortuous physical paths and difficulties many of the OTC kids went through to get to America and freedom.(2008)(12 minutes) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wNiP32kWLKM
  • Claude Kacser's One Thousand Children Story. Claude, an OTC, was 6 when he arrived in New York City in 1940. This video presents an important aspect of the OTC experience - the typical life-path impact upon the OTC kids. Claude not only presents his own OTC story, but he also discusses the effect his OTC experiences had upon his whole personal, professional, and emotional life, very much as such an example of the similar "total" OTC impact for most OTC kids. This video emphasizes the psychological impact of the OTC experience throughout life. (30 minutes)(2002) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7t35R5Iv8pI
  • Thea Lindauer's One Thousand Children Story Thea left Germany in 1934 as an OTC at age 12. She presents the social background of her story in Germany, the beginning of her own OTC story in Germany, then her own OTC story in America 1934-1937. She also presents the developments in Germany during that time, and their specific impact upon her Jewish family that she left behind. (2008) (44 minute video).https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ih4wTrIakTw
  • Ambassador Richard Schifter's One Thousand Children (OTC) Story. Richard, at age 15, fled Vienna in 1938 immediately after Kristallnacht. He went on to serve in Intelligence in the U.S. Army in Germany 1944-46, and had a career that culminated by serving as U.S. Ambassador for Human Rights at the United Nations. (2003) (18 minute video) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AcVutyG4Sqc
  • "'Was there an American Kindertransport?' An Interview with Iris Posner" This 27 minute interview about OTC is mainly factual and historical, primarily about the search for the OTC kids. It presents a great deal about the OTC story, discussed from various view-points. Iris presents an overview of how she first asked the key-question "Was there an American Kindertransport?" and then searched for and found the OTC kids, and actually created the "OTC concept." She presents much about the OTC, how the kids were placed in America, and how appropriate records were made. (She does not talk about the kids themselves.) (27 minutes) (2007).https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ykb878J4nOM
  • As already presented above, the "closing" session of OTC Inc in Oct 2013 was recorded. It includes testimony by several OTC'ers, as well as a round-table discussion. It presents much information about the OTC story and experience, and its practical and psychological impact. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XosFr7g580c

External link[edit]

  • The official One Thousand Children web-page: www.onethousandchildren.yivo.org [8]