One to one computing (education)

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In the context of education, one-to-one computing (sometimes abbreviated as "1:1") refers to academic institutions, such as schools or colleges, issuing each enrolled student an electronic device in order to access the Internet, digital course materials and digital textbooks. The concept has been actively explored and sporadically implemented since the late 1990s.[1] One-to-one computing is frequently contrasted with a policy of "bring your own device" (BYOD), which encourages or requires students to use their own laptops, smartphones or other electronic devices in class. One-to-one computing offers the benefits of equal access, standardization, easy upgrades, simple networking and the ability to monitor student progress and online behavior. For these reasons, one-to-one computing is a major part of education policy in many countries. These benefits also underlie the one-to-one model of One Laptop per Child (OLPC), a charity that aims to issue electronic devices to millions of children in the developing world.

However, one-to-one requires substantial institutional investment. In addition to the initial cost of purchasing hundreds or thousands of electronic devices, there are very substantial ongoing costs to institutions, including implementation, training, software licensing, monitoring, security, upgrades and maintenance. Therefore, the overall cost–benefit ratio of a one-to-one model is the subject of lively debate. Many students are likely to own and use one or more electronic devices in addition to the school-issued electronic device, raising the question of whether 1:1 is redundant or wasteful. Furthermore, the ultimate academic benefits of one-to-one, if any, are unclear. According to research published by Boston College, the educational value of 1:1 depends on the classroom teacher.[2] Some schools have even phased out their one-to-one programs because there was no evidence of academic gains.[3] (Though: Please note that the district noted in the article went for a 1:1 Chromebook initiative in April 2017 [4] ) Other studies have shown some progress in specific subjects, especially in writing scores, that are correlated with the use of school-issued laptops. The wide range of results for 1:1 programs means there is no consensus on their benefits or drawbacks.[5] Because 1:1 computing programs may have many goals, from improving educational outcomes to increasing equality, and are associated with such a wide range of teaching methods, it is also difficult to judge their overall success or value.

The USA based Chromebook programs may have shown changes in the economics of 1:1 programs. Although 1:1 programs require better WiFi than previous programs, they use ChromeOS which automatically updates and patches in the background (drastically lowering the maintenance costs). The purchasing prices of Chromebooks were substantially lower than competing devices. Since the batteries of Chromebooks easily last a full day, schools experimented with having students charge them at home and only keeping a replacement stock ready in school (for defective, forgotten and out-of-charge Chromebooks) reducing the need for charging equipment/trolleys. GAM (Google Acccounts Management) did charge for licensing, but it could remove the necessity of expensive MDM (Mobile Device Management) solutions and other security solutions at lower then Web-authentication level. This is a major difference with Onedrive-for-bussienss. Some schools also experimented with parents owning the devices (and paying for them). Having less costly equipment on site may also have saved in insurance and rooms may have become available for other purposes. 1:1 also enabled going paperless (i.e. publishers supplied cheaper digital versions of teaching materials) and reducing the cost on paper/printers used. No serious study is known of this, at this point. But individual schools have published costs and savings [6]. The use of Google-Classroom software and G suite in general was instrumental in going paperless. It allowed electronic hand-in and returning of projects to groups of students.

2007 Uruguay's Project Ceibal[edit]

Between 2007 and 2016 Project Ceibal was the most successful 1:1 program in the world. It included the right to internet connectivity in school as well as at home besides the right to have a computer "Since its implementation, every child who enters the public education system in any part of the country is given a computer for personal use with free Internet connection at school. In addition, Plan Ceibal provides programs, educational resources and teacher training courses that transform the ways of teaching and learning."[7]. The 2007 decree specified in it desired outcomes "1.2.3. EXPECTED RESULTS: Have covered 100% of children of school age within a period of 3 years with an Internet connection in their Schools as in their homes." [8] By 2009 all 300.000 students were equipped with hardware and all schools had WiFi. By 2013 use of Google-drive and apps were added to CREA and By 2015 95% of urban schools had fibre-optic connections. By 2016 Chromebooks were added to the available hardware. [9]. Since the original hardware was Fedora based Uruguay has held the top-spot of Linux uptake for years, according to statcounter [10].

2016-2017 Mass Uptake in Schools in the USA[edit]

1:1 Programs in US schools have gained serious momentum somewhere around 2016/2017. In February 2017 edtechmagazine reported more then 50% of teachers reported using 1:1 computing. [11]. In March 2017 Futuresource reported Chromebooks had 58% market-share in US-Education.[12]. The success of Chromebooks in education was reported on by the NYTimes in may 2017[13]. Which explains the success "This became Google’s education marketing playbook: Woo school officials with easy-to-use, money-saving services. Then enlist schools to market to other schools, holding up early adopters as forward thinkers among their peers."

In June 2017 CMS-district was reported to be on a 150.000 Chromebooks 1:1 program. [14] It looks like 1:1 Chromebook programs have come become very popular on the basis of adoption and evangelizing by enthusiastic users in schools. The suburbs of Chicago are most often mentioned as influencers. Leyden in District 212 has on its main page [15] Dr. Nick Polyak saying "Over 2,000 educators from across the country have visited Leyden to learn about teaching and learning in the digital age." which clearly refers to its 1:1 program. The history of Leyden's 1:1 program is clearly told in the 2014 article "How many administrators does it take to get a district to go one to one" [16]. So there is evidence that successful schools indeed show others the way.

The original legitimization for 1:1 education may have been derived from research by the Red group (mainly financed by Intel) [17] whose findings describe the potential of transforming education "Our findings demonstrate that schools employing a 1:1 student-computer ratio and key implementation factors outperform other schools, and reveal significant opportunities for improving education return on investment (ROI) by transforming teaching and learning." Apple is also promoting its own 1:1 iPad programs and there are some signs of uptake of its "classroom" software and iPads for example in San Bernardino [18]. Other countries where 1:1 programs are successful are Sweden, New Zealand (both mentioned in the NYTimes article mentioned above[13]).

USA School Districts going 1:1 examples (sometimes not for all pupils):[edit]

Newberg Oregon: [19] "Newberg Public Schools is a 1:1 Technology district, meaning every student is assigned their own device (iPad or Chromebook). "

Sioux Falls: [20] "The driving purpose of the 1:1 Student Technology Initiative is to increase student engagement, further involve students in active learning, and provide students with 21st Century skills such as communication, problem solving, and collaboration, along with content expertise."

Passaic: [21] Early adopter: " the Passaic City Public Schools rolled out a 1:1 pilot at the Lincoln Middle school and Passaic High school. The district purchased 5,500 Samsung Chromebooks for 4,700 students and began sweeping, district-wide technology upgrades "

Iowa City Schools: [22] "1:1 INITIATIVE COMING IN 2017, 2018 In Fall, 2017, the Iowa City Schools will be deploying a Chromebook 1:1 initiative in all high school grade levels (9th – 12th). The following year, the initiative will be extended to include grades 7 and 8 district-wide."

Central Falls: [23]

Mauston: [24]

newcastle, PA [25]

Upper Scotia Valley [26]

Sudbury Public Schools [27]

Oostburg: [28]

Becton: [29]

Pequannock: [30]

East Bridgewater has to recall some Chromebooks from their 1:1 program because of fires: [31]

Danvers: [32]

Greater Clarck County: [33]

AMS Edmond: [34]

Anderson, SC: [35]

maine IL: [36]

Lumberton: [37]


Niche's top 20 Districts and their involvement. (per 27/12/2017 https://www.niche.com/k12/search/best-school-districts/)
Niche Best School District Ranking URL Evidence of 1:1 in District?
1 Solon City School District http://www.solonschools.org/ https://www.solonschools.org/Page/2895 “The Solon City Schools One2One program will provide students with Chromebooks to use at school and home. At the beginning of the 2016-17 School Year Grades 7-10 will be provided with Chromebooks. By the 2017-18 School Year both Solon High School and Solon Middle School will become completely One2One.”
2 Tredyffrin-Easttown School District https://www.tesd.net https://www.tesd.net/cms/lib/PA01001259/Centricity/Domain/37/1to1FAQApril2017.pdf “Tredyffrin/Easttown School District 1:1 Technology Initiative FAQ (updated April 2017)

What device will students receive? The District-provided laptop, Dell 11” Education Edition, with the following specifications: • 11.6” display • 4GB RAM • 128 GB Solid State Drive • Intel Celeron Processor • Spill-proof design (fully sealed keyboard and touchpad) • Drop protection (rubberized LCD and base trim)

Who will receive District-provided laptops? Laptops will be available to all Conestoga High School students during the 2017-18 school year. ”

3 Radnor Township School District http://www.rtsd.org/ https://www.rtsd.org/domain/1384 Evaluating 1:1 Evaluate 1-to-1 Technology at Radnor High School and Technology K-12A. Full review of the high school 1-to-1 technology.B. Review of access and use of devices K-12.These reviews will assess both the educational and financial impact of the current use of devices.A. January 2018: High school 1-to-1 technology recommendation B. September 2018: K-12 technology recommendation
4 School District of Clayton http://www.claytonschools.net/ Clayton’s strategic plan rums from 2012-2018 so it will be updated soon. No clear evidence of 1:1 on main page. Clearly a GAFE School for staff and students. https://www.boarddocs.com/mo/sdclay/Board.nsf/files/AHSRUK6F4AD9/$file/Updated Technology Final Self Study 012517.pdf Plan to go 1:1 in phases ending in 2023. Acknowledge that they are behind in tech.
5 Dublin City School District http://www.dublinschools.net/ https://www.dublinschools.net/OnetoOne.aspx Clear 1:1 school on basis of Chromebooks implemented Sep 2017 School tech website behind.https://www.dublinschools.net/dcstech.aspx Clear GAFE school with BYOD policy but not explicitly 1:1
6 South Texas Independent School District http://www.stisd.net/ http://www.stisd.net/departments/technology_servicesConfusing: they use a login for MySTISD which links to https://www.google.com/a/mystisd.net/ServiceLogin?service=mail&passive=true&rm=false&continue=http://mail.google.com/a/mystisd.net/<mpl=default<mplcache=2&emr=1 but they then list all office365 offerings including a office365 webmail at istd..
7 Eanes Independent School District http://www.eanesisd.net/ No explicit 1:1 Goals. Direct links to gmail and google-classroom for employees. http://www.eanesisd.net/uploaded/District/Our_District/Reports/2015-16_Highlights.pdf “Technology • Thanks to the 2015 Bond, technology services purchased and deployed 9,400 iPad Air 2 devices with a new mobile device management system for staff and students. In addition, more than 500 new computer systems were deployed across the district as part of the computer refresh bond project. Subsequently, approximately 8,500 old iPad 2’s were sold.”
8 Wellesley Public Schools https://wellesleyps.org/ Technology plan 2016-2020 https://wellesleyps.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Wellesley-Tech-Plan-2016-20.pdf 1:1 iPads for lower years and laptop or MAC for higher years. Google-classroom as central tool.
9 Indian Hill Exempted Village School District http://indianhillschools.org/ http://indianhillschoolshs.ss10.sharpschool.com/UserFiles/Servers/Server_374579/File/Indian Hill High School/StudentsParents/BYO Technology/BYOHandout.pdf BYO approach with schools providing for students that cannot afford or have under repair or forgotten.http://hs.indianhillschools.org/students_parents/b_y_o_technology/b_y_o_frequently_asked_questions/ MS-Officce downloadable as the basis for approach.
10 Lexington Public Schools http://lps.lexingtonma.org/ https://lps.lexingtonma.org/Page/1436 has only old information 2012 iPad program and 2012-2015 plan. The districts genera 2016l improvement plan addresses technology https://lps.lexingtonma.org/cms/lib/MA01001631/Centricity/Domain/442/1617DistrictImprovPlanFINAL.pdf “ Develop a three year Technology Plan for the school district which includes a vision statement and appropriate action steps in the areas of curriculum, digital citizenship, technology infrastructure and hardware, personnel, data culture, and communications.” Technology training pages https://lps.lexingtonma.org/Page/6763make it clear that iPads and PCs and MACs are widely used, but also that GAFE is widely used.
11 Mason City School District http://www.masonohioschools.com/ Have mixed BYOD and personal learning device approach for > Graade 7.https://docs.google.com/document/d/1WdnrSuAN-DB4ieWLJTZbAR7XXqQmQ2f9F7X2oeuvOlg/edit A 2015 video indicates they have a 1:1 Chromebook aspiration https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yYlK4M22P0w Use GAFE and other tools. Do have computer-usage and internet policies and a “Home Access Centre” that allows apps to be used with grades, schedules etc.
12 Jericho Union Free School District http://jerichoschools.org/ Have elaborate help on BYOD wifi http://www.jerichoschools.org/departments/Technology/WIFI/ OWA but also GAFE and BYOD with iPads, Macs, Windows. Use Google classroom.
13 Great Neck Public Schools https://www.greatneck.k12.ny.us “Instructional Technology in our Schools: Great Neck Implements New Apple Classroom App Elementary and secondary schools in Great Neck implemented the new Apple Classroom app to enhance the District's 1:1 iPad Initiative which now spans Grades 3-12 (Grades 4-12 in our south schools). This teacher-only app is linked to our student management system and mobile device management system to enable teachers to monitor student iPad screens while in class, see what apps are currently running, lock screens, group student iPads into learning teams, and launch apps and Web sites that lock in on individual or group iPads.” combined with GAFE.
14 Princeton Public Schools http://www.princetonk12.org/ Strategic goal of x:1 technology in 2016-2021 plan http://www.ppsvision.org/uploads/8/3/2/7/83278812/goal_4_objective_2_technology.rev.pdf Have been buying ipads, chromebooks and other devices.
15 North Allegheny School District http://www.northallegheny.org/ Have planned and are implementing full 1;1 (As a part of FOCUS 2020 students in grades 6, 7, and 9-12 have been assigned either an iPad (Grades 6 and 7) or a laptop (Grades 9-12) to us, this District device is designed to be the student’s personal learning device.). Use GAFE
16 Lower Merion School District https://www.lmsd.org/ Strategic documents do not explicitly go into 1:1, the tech department does http://www.lmsd.org/academics/instructional-tech/one-to-one 1:1 Laptops since 2007. Young children get iPads.
17 Highland Park Independent School District http://www.hpisd.org/ Individual schools do have chromebooks, PCs etc. but no central policy, cannot find a 1:1 policy.
18 West Lafayette Community School Corporation http://www.wl.k12.in.us/ Strategc plan on site is for 2011-2016. Site outdated with only 1 of the school links working. Many applications to Indiana State Board of education: Common School Loan Advancements for Construction and Technology Programs: for ipads, chromebooks, apple-tvs, deskops, smartboards etc. but no clear policy.
19 Newton Public Schools http://www.newton.k12.ma.us/ https://www.newton.k12.ma.us/cms/lib/MA01907692/Centricity/Domain/51/Systemwide%20Goals%202017-18_Final.pdf “● Plan for increased student access to Chromebook/Mac Air for use in school by September 2018, including 100-student pilot. (P, I)”
20 Beachwood City School District http://www.beachwoodschools.org/ No district policy evidence. Schools do have individual programs like: Beachwood Middle School Chromebook Program 1:1 https://issuu.com/beachwoodbison/docs/beachwood_middle_school_chromebook_


The top 5 have 1:1 programs or are in advanced stages of implementing. 7 of the top 10 are or are on their way to 1:1. The apple and mixed BYOD schools that went 1:1 usually use GAFE and often use Google-Classroom. 1 of the top 20 indicates moving to Apple Classroom. If the district does not lead 1:1 then there are sometimes individual schools going 1:1 or experimenting.


A comparison between the 2007 situation and the 2017 status of the 5 schools/districts mentioned in the NY Times article about schools abandoning Laptop projects.
2007 Comment from the article "Seeing no progress, some schools drop laptops" 2017 Status
1. "the Liverpool Central School District, just outside Syracuse, has decided to phase out laptops starting this fall, joining a handful of other schools around the country" Liverpool now have a 1:1 Chromebook program.http://www.liverpool.k12.ny.us/departments/technology/chromebook-11/ In the State of the District address the leaders accept responsibility for the 1:1 Program and link it to performance and educational goals.http://www.liverpool.k12.ny.us/assets/Communications-Folder/State-of-the-District-Address.9.11.2017.pdf
2. "Matoaca High School just outside Richmond, Va., began eliminating its five-year-old laptop program last fall." https://sites.google.com/a/ccpsnet.net/anytime-anywhere-learning/ Outlines their 1:1 Chromebook program.
3 "Everett A. Rea Elementary School in Costa Mesa, Calif. {ed cut.}gave away 30 new laptops to another school in 2005 after a class that was trying them out switched to new teachers who simply did not do as much with the technology." Website of the district inaccessible on 29/12/2017. Indications: http://newportmesa.agendaonline.net/public/Meeting/Attachments/DisplayAttachment.aspx?AttachmentID=355452&IsArchive=0 outlines that they make available to let: 2 ESL Rooms with carts with 32 Chromebooks. http://www.latimes.com/socal/daily-pilot/news/tn-dpt-me-schools-breakfast-20170927-story.html indicates they will continue their Chromebooks programs. Another Elementary in Newport-Mesa proudly displays its Chromebook program http://adams.nmusd.us/cms/page_view?d=x&piid=&vpid=1256797247497
4. "Northfield Mount Hermon School, a private boarding school in western Massachusetts, eliminated its five-year-old laptop program in 2002 after it found that more effort was being expended on repairing the laptops than on training teachers to teach with them." No direct policy on 1:1 Chromebook, but clear statement about GAFE .https://www.nmhschool.org/student-life/information-technology/it-faqs If you follow the link from the FAQ about what should be bought for the child: you get this link:https://www.govconnection.com/IPA/Campaigns/PCCGOV/6693817/16de394d_ca49_4e16_a1a4_d72939ddef6f/8036ca7f_30c7_4987_b0b8_cd124d84fbf1/landing?sid=7ce46078-b536-49c2-9288-2980462317a1 where you can select from 3 chromebooks. They also allow BYOD https://www.nmhschool.org/student-life/information-technology/computer-compatibility
5. "Two years ago, school officials in Broward County, Fla., the sixth-largest district in the country, shelved a $275 million proposal to issue laptops" In this 2014 Article the 1:1 BYOD Rollout is discussed.https://www.districtadministration.com/article/preparing-large-scale-tech-rollouts At least the literacy and maths programs meet the requirements of being able to run on a chromebook.

Maths: http://new.schoolnotes.com/files/ejoseph/My.hrw.com_tips_Broward_County(1).pdf

Literacy https://www.browardschools1.com/cms/lib/FL01803656/Centricity/Domain/11926/Myon%20Letter.pdf

iReady https://www.browardschools1.com/cms/lib/FL01803656/Centricity/Domain/60/i-ReadySystemRequirements.pdf

New Zealand:[edit]

Bombay school 1:1: [38] Tiki School: [39]


Sweden:[edit]

Uddevalla Municipality 1:1 Chromebooks: [40]

ipad 1:1 Schools examples:[edit]

Oak Lawn [41]

kimbolton UK [42]

Please note that Ranchodistrict are having an auction selling their 570 iPads [43] which greatly reduces the credibility of a report they are swapping their chromebooks for iPads.[44]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bebel, Damian; Rachel Kay (2010). "One to one computing: A summary of the quantitative results from the Berkshire Wireless Learning Initiative". Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment. 9 (2). Retrieved 19 March 2014. 
  2. ^ Norris, Cathleen; Elliot Soloway (May 2010). "One-to-one computing has failed our expectations". District Administration. Retrieved 19 March 2014. Boston College researchers found that the impact of a one-to-one computing implementation is largely a function of the classroom teacher... if extracting value from an innovation is dependent on the teacher, then the value added by the innovation per se is limited. 
  3. ^ Hu, Winnie (4 May 2007). "Seeing no progress, some schools drop laptops". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 March 2014. 
  4. ^ "Chromebook 1:1 » Liverpool Central School District". www.liverpool.k12.ny.us. Retrieved 2017-12-26. 
  5. ^ Sauers, Nicholas J.; Scott McLeod (1 May 2012). "What does the research say about school one-to-one computing initiatives?" (PDF). Castle Brief. UCEA Center for the Advanced Study of Technology Leadership in Education, University of Kentucky. Retrieved 19 March 2014. When examining the research related to one-to-one computing programs, it is clear that they have produced a wide range of results. 
  6. ^ "Chromebook costs - Maine Township High School District 207". maine207.org. Retrieved 2018-01-10. 
  7. ^ "Sobre Nosotros". www.ceibal.edu.uy. Retrieved 2017-12-19. 
  8. ^ "Wayback Machine version of "Pliegos de la licitación" 2007" (PDF). 2007-09-29. Retrieved 2017-12-19. 
  9. ^ "Dispositivos". www.ceibal.edu.uy. Retrieved 2017-12-19. 
  10. ^ "Desktop Operating System Market Share Uruguay | StatCounter Global Stats". StatCounter Global Stats. Retrieved 2017-12-19. 
  11. ^ Staff, Edtech (2017-02-01). "More Than 50 Percent of Teachers Report 1:1 Computing". EdTech. Retrieved 2017-12-17. 
  12. ^ "Sales of Mobile PCs into the US K-12 Education Market Continue to Grow - Press Article". www.futuresource-consulting.com. Retrieved 2017-12-17. 
  13. ^ a b Singer, Natasha (2017-05-13). "How Google Took Over the Classroom". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-12-17. 
  14. ^ "Chromebooks and G Suite: A Partnership Worth Exploring". EdTech. 2017-06-07. Retrieved 2017-12-17. 
  15. ^ "Leyden High School District 212 / Homepage". www.leyden212.org. Retrieved 2017-12-17. 
  16. ^ "How Many Administrators Does It Take to Get a District to Go One-to-One? - EdSurge News". EdSurge. 2014-08-20. Retrieved 2017-12-17. 
  17. ^ "Research Overview". www.one-to-oneinstitute.org. Retrieved 2017-12-17. 
  18. ^ "Why San Bernardino's Aquinas High was named an Apple Distinguished School". San Bernardino Sun. 2017-11-07. Retrieved 2017-12-17. 
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  21. ^ "Passaic Schools Go 1:1, Share How They Prepared for Chromebooks In the Classroom - My TechDecisions". My TechDecisions. 2013-10-28. Retrieved 2017-12-18. 
  22. ^ "1:1 Initiative Coming in 2017, 2018 - ICCSD Technology & Innovation Blog". ICCSD Technology & Innovation Blog. 2016-10-17. Retrieved 2017-12-18. 
  23. ^ "Chromebook-1-to-1". Central Falls School District. Retrieved 2017-12-18. 
  24. ^ "Mauston School District - 1:1 Chromebook Information". www.maustonschools.org. Retrieved 2017-12-18. 
  25. ^ http://ntsd.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/1-1-Chromebook-Initiative-Manual-2017-2018.pdf
  26. ^ http://www.usv.k12.oh.us/Downloads/Chromebook%20AUP2.pdf
  27. ^ http://www.sudbury.k12.ma.us/index.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_view&gid=333&Itemid=383
  28. ^ http://oostburg.k12.wi.us/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/OHS-CHROMEBOOK-POLICY-HANDBOOK-1.pdf
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  30. ^ "Pequannock Township School District 1:1 Chromebook Program". sites.google.com. Retrieved 2017-12-18. 
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  33. ^ "CHROMEBOOK COLLECTION – IMPORTANT INFORMATION – Greater Clark County Schools". gcs.k12.in.us. Retrieved 2017-12-18. 
  34. ^ https://ams.edmonds.wednet.edu/UserFiles/Servers/Server_313355/File/News/Chromebook%20Loan%20Procedures%202017-18.pdf
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  39. ^ "Funding / Learning with 1:1 digital devices / Technologies / enabling e-Learning - enabling eLearning". elearning.tki.org.nz. Retrieved 2017-12-18. 
  40. ^ "Uddevalla utvald till digitaliseringsprojekt - Uddevalla kommun". www.uddevalla.se (in Swedish). Retrieved 2017-12-18. 
  41. ^ "1:1 Tech Initiative iPads Project Examples - 1:1 Tech Initiative iPad | OLCHS.org". www.olchs.org. Retrieved 2017-12-18. 
  42. ^ "200 invalid-request". www.kimbolton.cambs.sch.uk. Retrieved 2017-12-18. 
  43. ^ http://rsfschool.net/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/iPad-Auction-Rancho-Santa-Fe-School-District.docx
  44. ^ BILLING, KAREN. "RSF School to purchase new iPads to replace Chromebooks". ranchosantafereview.com. Retrieved 2017-12-18. 

Further reading[edit]