Only Angels Have Wings
|Only Angels Have Wings|
|Directed by||Howard Hawks|
|Produced by||Howard Hawks|
|Written by||Howard Hawks (story)
|Music by||Dimitri Tiomkin|
Paul Mantz aerial scenes
|Edited by||Viola Lawrence|
|Distributed by||Columbia Pictures|
Only Angels Have Wings is a 1939 American drama film directed by Howard Hawks, and starring Cary Grant and Jean Arthur, based on a story written by Hawks. The film also marked the first major screen appearance of Rita Hayworth. It is generally regarded as being among Hawks' finest films, particularly in its portrayal of the professionalism of the pilots of the film, its atmosphere, and the flying sequences.
Only Angels Have Wings was based on a number of real incidents witnessed by Hawks, and although Air Mail (1932), Night Flight (1933) and Flight From Glory (1937) have similar stories, they are not related. The film inspired the 1983 television series Tales of the Gold Monkey, which in turn, inspired the 1990 television series TaleSpin.
Geoff Carter (Grant) is a pilot and the manager of Barranca Airways, a small, barely solvent company owned by "Dutchy" Van Ruyter (Sig Ruman) carrying airmail from the fictional South American port town of Barranca through a high pass in the Andes Mountains. Bonnie Lee (Arthur), a piano-playing entertainer, arrives one day and becomes infatuated with Carter, despite his fatalistic attitude about the dangerous mountain flying, and stays on in Barranca (not at Carter's invitation, as he insists on telling her). One of the characters dies due to irresponsible flying.
The situation is complicated by the appearance of pilot Bat MacPherson (Richard Barthelmess) and his wife (and Geoff's old flame) Judy (Rita Hayworth). MacPherson is revealed to be an alias and his real surname is Kilgallen. He is infamous among the pilots for having once bailed out of a plane, leaving his mechanic — the brother of "Kid" Dabb (Thomas Mitchell), Carter's best friend — to be killed in the resulting crash. When Geoff is forced to ground Kid because of failing eyesight, he is short on pilots and agrees to hire MacPherson on the condition that he fly the most dangerous missions. MacPherson understands and accepts the setup: none of the other pilots would shed a tear if he were lost.
Dutchy will secure a lucrative government mail contract that would put the airline on a solid financial footing if he can provide reliable service during a trial period. On the last day of the trial, bad weather closes the mountain pass. Geoff plans to fly a new Ford Trimotor over the mountains at an altitude of 17,000 feet. Kid asks to go with him, as co-pilot. When Geoff refuses him, Kid suggests letting the toss of a coin decide the matter. Geoff tries to grab the coin in mid-air. However, it lands on the floor, and he picks it up and finds that it has two heads — which would insure Kid’s being on board the Trimotor flight. Realizing how important it is to Kid, Geoff agrees to take him along. Just before leaving, Bonnie tries to talk Geoff out of going. As they hug, she takes his gun out of his holster, points it at him and tells Geoff that she won't let him go. Knowing that she really can't stop him, she lowers the gun. However, when she drops the gun down on a table, it accidentally fires, hitting Geoff in the shoulder. Unable to fly, Geoff agrees to let Bat and Kid try flying over the mountains instead. However, they are unable to climb above 15,600 feet before the plane takes an unexpected dive. Kid radios Geoff and tells him that the plane could not make it high enough to go over mountains. Although Geoff tells them to turn around and return, Kid and Bat decide to try to fly through the fogged-in pass. On the way through, they encounter a flock of condors with one crashing through the wind-shield, injuring Kid and another starting one of their engines on fire. Kid tells Bat to bail out, but Bat refuses, turns the plane around and manages to land the burning plane back in Barranca. Kid dies from a broken neck, but not before telling Geoff of Bat's heroism. As a result, Bat is finally welcomed by the others.
Bonnie is torn between leaving and staying, and confronts Geoff in hopes that he will ask her to stay. However, Geoff is quoted earlier as saying that "he would never ask a women for anything", and doesn't make the request she is hoping for. Then the weather clears and Geoff is about to rush out to secure the all-important contract. Before he goes, he offers to toss a coin to decide: heads, she stays; tails, she leaves. Bonnie is unwilling to decide her life so haphazardly, saying with tears "I'm hard to get, Geoff -- all you have to do is ask me!" As he leaves, Geoff gives her the coin as a "souvenir". At first she is distraught, but then she is thrilled when she discovers that the coin has heads on both sides and was Geoff's way of asking her to stay.
As appearing in Only Angels Have Wings, (main roles and screen credits identified):
- Cary Grant as Geoff Carter
- Jean Arthur as Bonnie Lee
- Richard Barthelmess as Bat MacPherson
- Rita Hayworth as Judy MacPherson
- Thomas Mitchell as "Kid" Dabb
- Allyn Joslyn as Les Peters
- Sig Ruman as John "Dutchy" Van Ruyter
- Victor Kilian as "Sparks" Reynolds
- John Carroll as "Gent" Shelton
- Don Barry as "Tex" Gordon
- Noah Beery, Jr. as Joe Souther
- Pat Flaherty as Mike
- Pedro Regas as Pancho
Pre-production and casting
The film's original script outline was written by Anne Wigton; the working title originally was Plane No. 4. Howard Hawks re-wrote the film's scenario himself, based on a story that he wrote in 1938 entitled Plane from Barranca. While he was scouting locations several years earlier, for the filming of Viva Villa!, Hawks had been especially inspired by the stoic aviation personnel that he had met in Mexico. The film's final script was written and re-written throughout the film's production, mostly by Hawks and Jules Furthman, but also with contributions by Eleanore Griffin and William Rankin.
Hawks had previously worked with Cary Grant the year before on Bringing up Baby and this was the second of five collaborations between the director and star. He cast Jean Arthur in the leading role of Bonnie Lee after apprising her acting in several films made by Frank Capra. Hawks then hired silent film star Richard Barthelmess for the role of Bat MacPherson. Barthelmess's career had gradually diminished since sound films became popular in the late 1920s and was a controversial choice, mainly because he had recently had a botched plastic surgery operation on the skin under his eyes that resulted in permanent X-shaped scars under both of his eyes. Barthelmess usually wore heavy make-up to hide the scars, but Hawks wanted to use the scars for the character. Hawks had originally cast Dorothy Comingore in the role of Judy MacPherson, but studio head Harry Cohn had been grooming a young starlet that would be advanced for the role. With backing from Cohn, her agent then insisted that Hawks give Rita Hayworth a screen test, which eventually resulted in Hayworth being cast in the role.[N 1]
Shooting of Only Angels Have Wings began on December 19, 1938 at the Columbia Studio Ranch and Hawks shot the film in chronological sequence whenever possible. Hawks and Arthur initially found working together difficult and Arthur would often argue with Hawks on set. Hawks was attempting to coach Arthur to play a variation of the classical "Hawksian Woman Archetype", but Arthur often felt uncomfortable with his direction. Eventually, she unhappily agreed to play the role as he directed her. Years later after Arthur saw Lauren Bacall's performance in To Have and Have Not, Arthur apologized to Hawks and told him that she finally understood what he had wanted from her (epitomized in Bacall's repetition and emphasis on the paradoxical line "I'm hard to get...all you have to do is ask.") Hawks later said that he considered Arthur to have been good in the film.
Initial shooting was completed on March 24, 1939, 31 days over its shooting schedule. This was followed with several weeks of second unit shooting of aircraft flying in various locations in the western United States. A few re-takes were shot in April with Cary Grant and Victor Kilian. Two days of re-shoots with Rita Hayworth were also shot, but were directed by Charles Vidor.
Aircraft used in the production
The "cast" also starred a 1929 Hamilton Metalplane, Ford Trimotor and Pilgrim Model 100-B single engine monoplane. All of these types accurately represented the types of aircraft flying in the period depicted by the film. The Hamilton was "Joe's"[clarification needed] aircraft and was only used for ground shots although in 2008, one of the movie prop Hamiltons used in the simulated flying scenes for this aircraft was discovered to still exist. The Pilgrim was used in the exciting mine rescue flying scene while the Ford Trimotor also features in another dramatic rescue sequence that ends in a fiery crash. Later in the film, Paul Mantz flying a Boeing Model 100 biplane, flies a spirited aerobatic performance, reprising his earlier scene in Flight From Glory. Only Angels Have Wings has become very popular among enthusiasts of the aircraft of the golden age of aviation.
Release and reception
Twelve days after the film's final re-shoots were completed, Only Angels Have Wings premiered in Los Angeles at the Pantages Theater on May 10, 1939. Its official world premiere occurred the next day at Radio City Music Hall. It was heavily promoted by Columbia Studios and ended up making $143,000 on its initial two-week run at radio City Music Hall, and earned over one million dollars overall. It was the third-highest grossing film of 1939. The film was also Rita Hayworth's breakthrough role and helped make her a major Hollywood star, with Hayworth appearing on the cover of Look magazine after the film's success.
Only Angels Have Wings received good reviews on its release, with Abel Green of Variety comparing it favorably to Flight From Glory and praised Barthelmess's performance. Frank S. Nugent in his review for The New York Times focused on the excitement found in the aerial scenes, also recognizing the talents of the star-studded cast, "Mr. Hawks has staged his flying sequences brilliantly ... He has made proper use of the amiable performing talents of Mr. Grant, Miss Arthur, Thomas Mitchell, Mr. Barthelmess, Sig Rumann and the rest." Only Angels have Wings was later selected as one of 12 films representing the U.S. at the first Cannes Film Festival, however, the festival was canceled due to events leading up to World War II.
Awards and honors
Only Angels Have Wings was nominated for two Academy Awards: Joseph Walker for Best Cinematography, Black-and-white, Roy Davidson and Edwin C. Hahn for the first-time Best Effects, Special Effects.
Only Angels Have Wings has become thought of as one of Hawks's best films, with Dave Kehr calling it the "equilibrium point" of Hawks's career, bridging themes developed in his early films of the 1930s to some of his darker films of the 1940s and 1950s. Film critics at Cahiers du Cinema also praised the film in the 1950s as a quintessential support of the auteur theory.
In a 1972 interview, Arthur remarked of her reaction to her co-star on Only Angels Have Wings, "I loved sinking my head into Cary Grant's chest".
- List of misquotations: In one scene, Cary Grant calls after Hayworth's character by saying, "Judy, Judy"; this is the closest he ever came in film to the misquotation associated with him: "Judy, Judy, Judy".
- List of films with a 100% rating on Rotten Tomatoes, a film review aggregator website
- Frankel, Mark. "Articles: Only Angels Have Wings (1939)." Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved: October 22, 2012.
- "Credits: Only Angels Have Wings (1939)." Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved: October 22, 2012.
- "Notes: Only Angels Have Wings (1939)." Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved: October 22, 2012.
- McCarthy 1997, pp. 266–267.
- McCarthy 1997, p. 268.
- McCann 1997, p. 149.
- Eliot 2005, p. 196.
- McCarthy 1997, p. 270.
- McCarthy 1997, p. 271.
- McCarthy 1997, p. 272.
- Oller 1997, p. 112.
- McCarthy 1997, p. 274.
- " 'Only Angels Have Wings' Model Plane." Roadshow Archive, 2008. Retrieved: October 22, 2012.
- Harwick and Schnepf 1989, p. 60.
- McCarthy. p. 275.
- Nugent, Frank S. "Howard Hawks's 'Only Angels Have Wings'." The New York Times, May 12, 1939.
- McCarthy. pp. 275.
- "The Mercury Theatre on the Air." Mercury Theatre. Retrieved: October 22, 2012.
- "The 12th Academy Awards (1940) Nominees and Winners." oscars.org. Retrieved: June 16, 2013.
- McCarthy 1997, p. 276.
- Flatley, Guy. "From Mr. Deeds Goes to Town to Miss Arthur Goes to Vassar; Miss Arthur Goes to Vassar." The New York Times, May 14, 1972.
- Eliot 2005, p. 197.
- Eliot, Marc. Cary Grant: The Biography. New York: Aurum Press, 2005. ISBN 1-84513-073-1.
- Harwick, Jack and Ed Schnepf. "A Viewer's Guide to Aviation Movies". The Making of the Great Aviation Films, General Aviation Series, Volume 2, 1989.
- McCann, Graham. Cary Grant: A Class Apart. London: Fourth Estate, 1997. ISBN 1-85702-574-1.
- McCarthy, Todd. Howard Hawks: The Grey Fox of Hollywood. New York: Grove Press, 1997. ISBN 0-8021-1598-5.
- Oller, John. Jean Arthur: The Actress Nobody Knew. New York: Limelight Editions, 1997. ISBN 0-87910-278-0.
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- "Judy, Judy, Judy" FAQ