Legislative Assembly of Ontario

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Legislative Assembly of Ontario

Assemblée législative de l'Ontario
42nd Parliament of Ontario
Type
Type
History
FoundedJuly 1, 1867 (1867-07-01)
Preceded byLegislative Assembly of the Province of Canada
Leadership
Elizabeth Dowdeswell
Since September 23, 2014
Ted Arnott, PC
Since July 11, 2018
Doug Ford, PC
Since June 29, 2018
Andrea Horwath, NDP
Since June 7, 2018
Todd Smith, PC
Since June 29, 2018
Gilles Bisson, NDP
Since June 7, 2018
Structure
Seats124
Legislative Assembly of Ontario -Party Layout Chart Nov. 2016.svg
Political groups
Government (74)

Official Opposition (40)

Other Parties (10)

Elections
Last election
June 7, 2018
Next election
On or before June 2, 2022
Meeting place
Ontario Provincial Parliament, Queens Park, Toronto -b.jpg
Ontario Legislative Building, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Website
www.ola.org
Legislative Assembly of Ontario

The Legislative Assembly of Ontario (French: Assemblée législative de l'Ontario) is one of two components of the Legislature of Ontario (also known as the Parliament of Ontario[1]), the other being the Lieutenant Governor of Ontario.[2] The Legislative Assembly is the second largest Canadian provincial deliberative assembly by number of members after the National Assembly of Quebec. The Assembly meets at the Ontario Legislative Building at Queen's Park in the provincial capital of Toronto.

The Legislative Assembly was established by the British North America Act, 1867 (later re-titled Constitution Act, 1867), which dissolved the Province of Canada into two new provinces, with the portion then called Canada West becoming Ontario. The Legislature has been unicameral since its inception, with the Assembly currently having 124 seats (increased from 107 as of the 42nd Ontario general election) representing electoral districts ("ridings") elected through a first-past-the-post electoral system across the province.

As at the federal level in Canada, Ontario uses a Westminster-style parliamentary government, in which members are elected to the Legislative Assembly through general elections, from which the Premier of Ontario and Executive Council of Ontario are appointed based on majority support. The premier is Ontario's head of government, while the Lieutenant Governor, as representative of the Queen, acts as head of state. The largest party not forming the government is known as the Official Opposition, its leader being recognized as Leader of the Opposition by the Speaker.

The Ontario Legislature is sometimes referred to as the "Ontario Provincial Parliament". Members of the assembly refer to themselves as "Members of the Provincial Parliament" (MPPs) as opposed to "Members of the Legislative Assembly" (MLAs) as in many other provinces. Ontario is the only province to do so, in accordance with a resolution passed in the Assembly on April 7, 1938. However, the Legislative Assembly Act refers only to "members of the Assembly".

The current assembly was elected on June 7, 2018, as part of the 42nd Parliament of Ontario.

Owing to the location of the Legislative Building on the grounds of Queen's Park, the metonym "Queen's Park" is often used to refer to both the Government of Ontario and the Legislative Assembly.[3]

Lawmaking[edit]

In accordance with the traditions of the Westminster system, most laws originate with the cabinet (Government bills), and are passed by the legislature after stages of debate and decision-making. Ordinary Members of the Legislature may introduce privately (Private Members' Bills), play an integral role in scrutinizing bills in debate and committee and amending bills presented to the legislature by cabinet.

Members are expected to be loyal to both their parliamentary party and to the interests of their constituents. In the event of conflict, however, duty to the parliamentary party takes precedence. Party loyalty is enforced by the chief government whip.

In the Ontario legislature this confrontation provides much of the material for Oral Questions and Members' Statements. Legislative scrutiny of the executive is also at the heart of much of the work carried out by the Legislature's Standing Committees, which are made up of ordinary backbenchers.

A Member's day will typically be divided among participating in the business of the House, attending caucus and committee meetings, speaking in various debates, or returning to his or her constituency to address the concerns, problems and grievances of constituents. Depending on personal inclination and political circumstances, some Members concentrate most of their attention on House matters while others focus on constituency problems, taking on something of an ombudsman's role in the process.

Finally, it is the task of the legislature to provide the personnel of the executive. As already noted, under responsible government, ministers of the Crown are expected to be Members of the Assembly. When a political party comes to power it will usually place its more experienced parliamentarians into the key cabinet positions, where their parliamentary experience may be the best preparation for the rough and tumble of political life in government.

Coat of arms[edit]

The Legislative Assembly of Ontario is the first and the only legislature in Canada to have a Coat of Arms separate from the provincial coat of arms.

Green and gold are the principal colours in the shield of arms of the province. The Mace is the traditional symbol of the authority of the Speaker. Shown on the left is the current Mace. On the right is the original Mace from the time of the first parliament in 1792. The crossed Maces are joined by the shield of arms of Ontario.

The crown on the wreath represents national and provincial loyalties; its rim is studded with the provincial gemstone, the amethyst. The griffin, an ancient symbol of justice and equity, holds a calumet, which symbolizes the meeting of spirit and discussion that Ontario's First Nations believe accompanies the use of the pipe.

The deer represent the natural riches of the province. The Loyalist coronets at their necks honour the original British settlers in Ontario who brought with them the British parliamentary form of government. The Royal Crowns, left 1992, right 1792, recognize the parliamentary bicentennial and represent Ontario's heritage as a constitutional monarchy. They were granted as a special honour by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II on the recommendation of the Governor General.

In the base, the maple leaves are for Canada, the trilliums for Ontario and the roses for York (now Toronto), the provincial capital.

Media[edit]

Proceedings of the Legislative Assembly are broadcast to Ontario cable television subscribers by the Ontario Parliament Network. A late-night rebroadcast of Question Period is also aired on the provincial public broadcaster TVOntario.

Timeline of the 42nd Parliament of Ontario[edit]

The following notable events occurred during the 2018–present period:

Summary of seat changes[edit]

Changes in seats held (2018–present)
Seat Before Change
Date Member Party Reason Date Member Party
Simcoe—Grey November 2, 2018[6] Jim Wilson  PC Resigned from cabinet and caucus due to allegations of sexual misconduct.  Independent
Glengarry—Prescott—Russell November 29, 2018[7] Amanda Simard  PC Resigned from caucus after opposing the government's cuts to francophone services.  Independent

Party standings[edit]

Election of the Legislative Assembly of the 42nd Ontario Parliament occurred June 7, 2018, as a result of which Doug Ford's Progressive Conservatives will form a majority government.

Affiliation Party
Leader
Status Seats
2018 election Current
Progressive Conservative Doug Ford Government 76 74
New Democratic Andrea Horwath Official Opposition 40 40
Liberal John Fraser
(Interim)
No party status 7 7
Green Mike Schreiner No party status 1 1
Independent 0 2
Total 124
Government Majority 28 26

Seating plan[edit]

The seating chamber was influenced by the British House of Commons layout and that of the original St. Stephen's Chapel in the Palace of Westminster.[8] The difference with the British layout is with the use of individual chairs and tables for members, absent in the British Commons' design.

view of the layout of the original Parliament of Ontario and that of the Upper Canada and the Province of Canada

Previous location of the legislature, once home of the legislature of Upper Canada and the United Provinces of Canada, had similar layout.

Membership changes[edit]

Number of members
per party by date
2018
Jun 7 Nov 2 Nov 29
Progressive Conservative 76 75 74
New Democratic 40
Liberal 7
Green 1
Independent 0 1 2
Total members 124
Vacant 0

List of members[edit]

Name Party Riding First Elected Left office Notes
  Rod Phillips Progressive Conservative Ajax June 7, 2018 Incumbent
  Michael Mantha New Democratic Algoma—Manitoulin October 6, 2011 Incumbent
  Michael Parsa Progressive Conservative Aurora—Oak Ridges—Richmond Hill June 7, 2018 Incumbent
  Andrea Khanjin Progressive Conservative Barrie—Innisfil June 7, 2018 Incumbent
  Doug Downey Progressive Conservative Barrie—Springwater—Oro-Medonte June 7, 2018 Incumbent
  Todd Smith Progressive Conservative Bay of Quinte October 6, 2011 Incumbent
  Rima Berns-McGown New Democratic Beaches—East York June 7, 2018 Incumbent
  Sara Singh New Democratic Brampton Centre June 7, 2018 Incumbent
  Gurratan Singh New Democratic Brampton East June 7, 2018 Incumbent
  Kevin Yarde New Democratic Brampton North June 7, 2018 Incumbent
  Prabmeet Sarkaria Progressive Conservative Brampton South June 7, 2018 Incumbent
  Amarjot Sandhu Progressive Conservative Brampton West June 7, 2018 Incumbent
  Will Bouma Progressive Conservative Brantford—Brant June 7, 2018 Incumbent
  Bill Walker Progressive Conservative Bruce—Grey—Owen Sound October 6, 2011 Incumbent
  Jane McKenna Progressive Conservative Burlington October 6, 2011 Incumbent Was defeated in the same riding during the 2014 Ontario general election. Regained her seat in 2018 general election.
  Belinda Karahalios Progressive Conservative Cambridge June 7, 2018 Incumbent
  Goldie Ghamari Progressive Conservative Carleton June 7, 2018 Incumbent
  Rick Nicholls Progressive Conservative Chatham-Kent—Leamington October 6, 2011 Incumbent
  Marit Stiles New Democratic Davenport June 7, 2018 Incumbent
  Michael Coteau Liberal Don Valley East October 6, 2011 Incumbent
  Vincent Ke Progressive Conservative Don Valley North June 7, 2018 Incumbent
  Kathleen Wynne Liberal Don Valley West October 2, 2003 Incumbent Currently the longest serving female member. Former Premier of Ontario.
  Sylvia Jones Progressive Conservative Dufferin—Caledon October 10, 2007 Incumbent
  Lindsey Park Progressive Conservative Durham June 7, 2018 Incumbent
  Robin Martin Progressive Conservative Eglinton—Lawrence June 7, 2018 Incumbent
  Jeff Yurek Progressive Conservative Elgin—Middlesex—London October 6, 2011 Incumbent
  Taras Natyshak New Democratic Essex October 6, 2011 Incumbent
  Kinga Surma Progressive Conservative Etobicoke Centre June 7, 2018 Incumbent
  Christine Hogarth Progressive Conservative Etobicoke—Lakeshore June 7, 2018 Incumbent
  Doug Ford Progressive Conservative Etobicoke North June 7, 2018 Incumbent
  Donna Skelly Progressive Conservative Flamborough—Glanbrook June 7, 2018 Incumbent
  Amanda Simard Independent Glengarry—Prescott—Russell June 7, 2018 Incumbent Progressive Conservative until November 29, 2018.
  Mike Schreiner Green Guelph June 7, 2018 Incumbent First Green Party member.
  Toby Barrett Progressive Conservative Haldimand—Norfolk June 8, 1995 Incumbent
  Laurie Scott Progressive Conservative Haliburton—Kawartha Lakes—Brock October 2, 2003 Incumbent Resigned seat on January 8, 2009 to allow PC leader John Tory to enter legislature. Regained seat in 2011 general election.
  Andrea Horwath New Democratic Hamilton Centre May 13, 2004 Incumbent
  Paul Miller New Democratic Hamilton East—Stoney Creek October 10, 2007 Incumbent
  Monique Taylor New Democratic Hamilton Mountain October 6, 2011 Incumbent
  Sandy Shaw New Democratic Hamilton West—Ancaster—Dundas June 7, 2018 Incumbent
  Daryl Kramp Progressive Conservative Hastings—Lennox and Addington June 7, 2018 Incumbent
  Tom Rakocevic New Democratic Humber River—Black Creek June 7, 2018 Incumbent
  Lisa Thompson Progressive Conservative Huron—Bruce October 6, 2011 Incumbent
  Merrilee Fullerton Progressive Conservative Kanata—Carleton June 7, 2018 Incumbent
  Greg Rickford Progressive Conservative Kenora—Rainy River June 7, 2018 Incumbent
  Sol Mamakwa New Democratic Kiiwetinoong June 7, 2018 Incumbent
  Stephen Lecce Progressive Conservative King—Vaughan June 7, 2018 Incumbent
  Ian Arthur New Democratic Kingston and the Islands June 7, 2018 Incumbent
  Laura Mae Lindo New Democratic Kitchener Centre June 7, 2018 Incumbent
  Mike Harris Jr. Progressive Conservative Kitchener—Conestoga June 7, 2018 Incumbent
  Amy Fee Progressive Conservative Kitchener South—Hespeler June 7, 2018 Incumbent
  Monte McNaughton Progressive Conservative Lambton—Kent—Middlesex October 6, 2011 Incumbent
  Randy Hillier Progressive Conservative Lanark—Frontenac—Kingston October 10, 2007 Incumbent
  Steve Clark Progressive Conservative Leeds—Grenville—Thousand Islands and Rideau Lakes March 4, 2010 Incumbent
  Teresa Armstrong New Democratic London—Fanshawe October 6, 2011 Incumbent
  Terence Kernaghan New Democratic London North Centre June 7, 2018 Incumbent
  Peggy Sattler New Democratic London West August 1, 2013 Incumbent
  Paul Calandra Progressive Conservative Markham—Stouffville June 7, 2018 Incumbent
  Logan Kanapathi Progressive Conservative Markham—Thornhill June 7, 2018 Incumbent
  Billy Pang Progressive Conservative Markham—Unionville June 7, 2018 Incumbent
  Parm Gill Progressive Conservative Milton June 7, 2018 Incumbent
  Natalia Kusendova Progressive Conservative Mississauga Centre June 7, 2018 Incumbent
  Kaleed Rasheed Progressive Conservative Mississauga East—Cooksville June 7, 2018 Incumbent
  Sheref Sabawy Progressive Conservative Mississauga—Erin Mills June 7, 2018 Incumbent
  Rudy Cuzzetto Progressive Conservative Mississauga—Lakeshore June 7, 2018 Incumbent
  Deepak Anand Progressive Conservative Mississauga—Malton June 7, 2018 Incumbent
  Nina Tangri Progressive Conservative Mississauga—Streetsville June 7, 2018 Incumbent
  Guy Bourgouin New Democratic Mushkegowuk—James Bay June 7, 2018 Incumbent
  Lisa MacLeod Progressive Conservative Nepean March 30, 2006 Incumbent
  Christine Elliott Progressive Conservative Newmarket—Aurora March 30, 2006 Incumbent Previously represented Whitby—Ajax and Whitby—Oshawa. Resigned seat on August 28, 2015. Regained a seat in 2018 general election.
  Jeff Burch New Democratic Niagara Centre June 7, 2018 Incumbent
  Wayne Gates New Democratic Niagara Falls February 13, 2014 Incumbent
  Sam Oosterhoff Progressive Conservative Niagara West November 17, 2016 Incumbent
  France Gélinas New Democratic Nickel Belt October 10, 2007 Incumbent
  Vic Fedeli Progressive Conservative Nipissing October 6, 2011 Incumbent
  David Piccini Progressive Conservative Northumberland—Peterborough South June 7, 2018 Incumbent
  Stephen Crawford Progressive Conservative Oakville June 7, 2018 Incumbent
  Effie Triantafilopoulos Progressive Conservative Oakville North—Burlington June 7, 2018 Incumbent
  Marie-France Lalonde Liberal Orléans June 12, 2014 Incumbent
  Jennifer French New Democratic Oshawa June 12, 2014 Incumbent
  Joel Harden New Democratic Ottawa Centre June 7, 2018 Incumbent
  John Fraser Liberal Ottawa South August 1, 2013 Incumbent
  Nathalie Des Rosiers Liberal Ottawa—Vanier November 17, 2016 Incumbent
  Jeremy Roberts Progressive Conservative Ottawa West—Nepean June 7, 2018 Incumbent
  Ernie Hardeman Progressive Conservative Oxford June 8, 1995 Incumbent
  Bhutila Karpoche New Democratic Parkdale—High Park June 7, 2018 Incumbent
  Norm Miller Progressive Conservative Parry Sound—Muskoka March 22, 2001 Incumbent
  Randy Pettapiece Progressive Conservative Perth—Wellington October 6, 2011 Incumbent
  Dave Smith Progressive Conservative Peterborough—Kawartha June 7, 2018 Incumbent
  Peter Bethlenfalvy Progressive Conservative Pickering—Uxbridge June 7, 2018 Incumbent
  John Yakabuski Progressive Conservative Renfrew—Nipissing—Pembroke October 2, 2003 Incumbent
  Daisy Wai Progressive Conservative Richmond Hill June 7, 2018 Incumbent
  Jennie Stevens New Democratic St. Catharines June 7, 2018 Incumbent
  Bob Bailey Progressive Conservative Sarnia—Lambton October 10, 2007 Incumbent
  Ross Romano Progressive Conservative Sault Ste. Marie June 1, 2017 Incumbent
  Aris Babikian Progressive Conservative Scarborough—Agincourt June 7, 2018 Incumbent
  Christina Mitas Progressive Conservative Scarborough Centre June 7, 2018 Incumbent
  Mitzie Hunter Liberal Scarborough—Guildwood August 1, 2013 Incumbent
  Raymond Cho Progressive Conservative Scarborough North September 1, 2016 Incumbent
  Vijay Thanigasalam Progressive Conservative Scarborough—Rouge Park June 7, 2018 Incumbent
  Doly Begum New Democratic Scarborough Southwest June 7, 2018 Incumbent
  Jim Wilson Independent Simcoe—Grey September 6, 1990 Incumbent Currently the longest serving member, alongside Ted Arnott and Gilles Bisson. Was Progressive Conservative until November 2, 2018
  Jill Dunlop Progressive Conservative Simcoe North June 7, 2018 Incumbent
  Chris Glover New Democratic Spadina—Fort York June 7, 2018 Incumbent
  Jim McDonell Progressive Conservative Stormont—Dundas—South Glengarry October 6, 2011 Incumbent
  Jamie West New Democratic Sudbury June 7, 2018 Incumbent
  Gila Martow Progressive Conservative Thornhill February 13, 2014 Incumbent
  Judith Monteith-Farrell New Democratic Thunder Bay—Atikokan June 7, 2018 Incumbent
  Michael Gravelle Liberal Thunder Bay—Superior North June 8, 1995 Incumbent Currently the longest serving Liberal member.
  John Vanthof New Democratic Timiskaming—Cochrane October 6, 2011 Incumbent
  Gilles Bisson New Democratic Timmins September 6, 1990 Incumbent Currently the longest serving member, alongside Ted Arnott and Jim Wilson, and the longest serving NDP member.
  Suze Morrison New Democratic Toronto Centre June 7, 2018 Incumbent
  Peter Tabuns New Democratic Toronto—Danforth March 30, 2006 Incumbent
  Jill Andrew New Democratic Toronto—St. Paul's June 7, 2018 Incumbent
  Jessica Bell New Democratic University—Rosedale June 7, 2018 Incumbent
  Michael Tibollo Progressive Conservative Vaughan—Woodbridge June 7, 2018 Incumbent
  Catherine Fife New Democratic Waterloo September 6, 2012 Incumbent
  Ted Arnott Progressive Conservative Wellington—Halton Hills September 6, 1990 Incumbent Currently the longest serving member, alongside Gilles Bisson and Jim Wilson, and the longest serving PC member.
  Lorne Coe Progressive Conservative Whitby February 11, 2016 Incumbent
  Stan Cho Progressive Conservative Willowdale June 7, 2018 Incumbent
  Percy Hatfield New Democratic Windsor—Tecumseh August 1, 2013 Incumbent
  Lisa Gretzky New Democratic Windsor West June 12, 2014 Incumbent
  Roman Baber Progressive Conservative York Centre June 7, 2018 Incumbent
  Caroline Mulroney Progressive Conservative York—Simcoe June 7, 2018 Incumbent
  Faisal Hassan New Democratic York South—Weston June 7, 2018 Incumbent

Officeholders[edit]

Speaker[edit]

Leaders[edit]

Floor leaders[edit]

Whips[edit]

Front benches[edit]

Committees[edit]

There are two forms which Committees can take. The first, standing committees, are struck for the duration of the Parliament pursuant to Standing Orders. The second, select committees, are struck usually by a Motion or an Order of the House to consider a specific bill or issue which would otherwise monopolize the time of the standing committees.

Standing committees[edit]

A committee which exists for the duration of a parliamentary session. This committee examines and reports on the general conduct of activities by government departments and agencies and reports on matters referred to it by the house, including proposed legislation.[9]

Standing Committees in the current Parliament:

Select committees[edit]

Select committees are set up specifically to study certain bills or issues and according to the Standing Orders, consists of not more than 11 members from all parties with representation reflecting the current standing in the house. In some cases, the committee must examine material by a specific date and then report its conclusion to the legislature. After its final report, the committee is dissolved.[9]

Select Committees in the 39th Parliament:

  • The Select Committee on Elections completed its work on June 30, 2009.
  • The Select Committee on Mental Health and Addictions completed its work on August 26, 2010.
  • The Select Committee on the proposed transaction of the TMX Group and the London Stock Exchange Group completed its work on April 19, 2011.

Mace[edit]

The ceremonial mace of the Legislature is the fourth mace to be used in Upper Canada or Ontario.

The first mace was used by the Chamber of Upper Canada's first Parliament in 1792 at Newark (now Niagara-on-the-Lake) and then moved to York (now Toronto).[10] The primitive wooden mace, painted red and gilt and surmounted by a crown of thin brass strips. It was stolen by American troops as a Prize of War during the Battle of York of the War of 1812 in 1813. The mace was stored at United States Naval Academy at Annapolis, Maryland, and remained in the United States until 1934 when it was returned to Ontario when President Franklin Roosevelt sent an order to Congress to return the mace.[11] It was stored at the Royal Ontario Museum for a time, and is now located in the Main Lobby of the Ontario Legislative Building.[10]

A second mace was introduced in 1813 and used until 1841.

The third mace was not purchased until 1845. In 1849, it was stolen by a riotous mob in Montreal, apparently intent upon destroying it in a public demonstration. However, it was rescued and returned to the Speaker, Sir Allan Macnab, the next day. Later, in 1854, the Mace was twice rescued when the Parliament Buildings in Quebec were ravaged by fire. The Mace continued to be used by the Union Parliament in Toronto and Quebec until Confederation in 1867, when it was taken to the Parliament of Canada in Ottawa, where it remained in the House of Commons until 1916. When the Parliament Buildings were gutted by fire during that year, the Mace could not be saved from Centre Block. All that remained was a tiny ball of silver and gold conglomerate.[10]

After Confederation, the current mace used in Legislative Assembly of Ontario was acquired in 1867. It was provided by Charles E. Zollikofer of Ottawa for $200. The Four-foot mace is made of copper and richly gilded, a flattened ball at the butt end. Initially the head of the mace bore the crown of Queen Victoria and in a cup with her monogram, V.R. When she was succeeded by Edward VII in 1901, her crown and cup were removed and a new one bearing Edward's initials on the cup was installed. Eventually it was replaced with the current cup which is adorned in gleaming brass leaves.[10]

Through some careful detective work on the part of Legislative Assembly staff, the original cup with Queen Victoria's monogram was recently found in the Royal Ontario Museum’s collection and returned to the Legislature. It is now on display in the Ontario Legislative Building.[10]

In 2009, two diamonds were installed in the Mace. The diamonds were a gift to the people of Ontario from De Beers Canada to mark the opening of the Victor Mine near Attawapiskat in northern Ontario. Three diamonds were selected from the first run of the mine. Two stones, one rough and one polished, were set in platinum in the crown of the Mace while the third stone, also polished, was put on exhibit in the lobby of the Legislative Building as part of a display about the history of the Mace.[10]

Officers[edit]

Like the Parliament of Canada, the Legislature has procedural officers:

The Clerk of the Legislative Assembly of Ontario is the chief permanent officer of the Legislative Assembly, with the rank and status of a Deputy Minister. He or she is the principal procedural adviser and senior officer of the House. The Clerk's responsibilities include advising the Speaker and Members of the Legislature on questions of procedure and interpretation of the rules and practices of the House. The Clerk is also responsible for the overall direction and administration of the Legislative Assembly and is Secretary of the Board of Internal Economy. As Chief Executive Officer, the Clerk is accountable to the Speaker for the administrative and operational functions of the Office of the Assembly.

The other key officer is the Sergeant-at-Arms, whose role is to keep order during meetings in the Legislature. The Sergeant-at-Arms is also charged with control of the Ceremonial mace in the Legislature in session.

Other officers of the legislature include the Ontario Ombudsman, the Environmental Commissioner, the Integrity Commissioner, the Auditor General, the Chief Electoral Officer, the Information and Privacy Commissioner, the Financial Accountability Officer,[12] the French Language Services Commissioner[13] and the Provincial Advocate for Children and Youth.[14]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Origins of "MPP"". The Speaker of the Legislative Assembly of Ontario. Retrieved 2016-04-05.
  2. ^ Constitution Act, 1867, 30 & 31 Victoria 1867, c. 3 (U.K.), s. 69 (Constitution Act, 1867 at Department of Justice Canada) .
  3. ^ "Legacy of a People's Park". Education Portal. Legislative Assembly of Ontario. Retrieved 21 January 2015.
  4. ^ "Ted Arnott, Wellington-Halton Hills MPP, elected Speaker at Queen's Park". CBC News. The Canadian Press. 11 July 2018. Retrieved 7 November 2018.
  5. ^ "Doug Ford's government lays out agenda in Ontario throne speech". CBC News. July 12, 2018. Retrieved July 13, 2018.
  6. ^ a b Goodfield, Kayla (November 7, 2018). "Ford confirms PC MPP Jim Wilson resigned over sexual misconduct allegation". CP24. Retrieved November 7, 2018.
  7. ^ a b "MPP Amanda Simard leaving PCs, will sit as an independent". CBC News. November 29, 2018. Retrieved November 29, 2018.
  8. ^ "The Commons Chamber in the 16th Century". UK Parliament. Retrieved 2016-09-28.
  9. ^ a b Legislative Assembly of Ontario: Glossary retrieved 10 February 2010
  10. ^ a b c d e f "The Mace". speaker.ontla.on.ca. Retrieved 2017-05-16.
  11. ^ "Franklin D. Roosevelt: Message to Congress Requesting Authority to Return a Mace to Canada". www.presidency.ucsb.edu. Retrieved 2016-09-28.
  12. ^ http://www.fao-on.org/en/
  13. ^ http://csfontario.ca/en/
  14. ^ http://www.provincialadvocate.on.ca/

External links[edit]