Legislative Assembly of Ontario

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Ontario Legislature)
Jump to: navigation, search
Legislative Assembly of Ontario
Assemblée législative de l'Ontario
41st Parliament of Ontario
Coat of arms or logo
Founded July 1, 1867 (1867-07-01)
Preceded by Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada
Hon. Elizabeth Dowdeswell
Since September 23, 2014
Hon. Dave Levac, Liberal
Since November 21, 2011
Hon. Kathleen Wynne, Liberal
Since February 11, 2013
Vic Fedeli, PC[a]
Since January 26, 2018
Hon. Yasir Naqvi, Liberal
Since June 24, 2014
Jim Wilson, PC
Since September 11, 2015
Seats 107
Legislative Assembly of Ontario -Party Layout Chart Nov. 2016.svg
Political groups

Government (56)

Opposition (27)

  •   PC (27)

Other parties (20)

  •   NDP (18)
  •   Trillium (1)
  •   Independent (2)
  •   Vacant (3)
Last election
June 12, 2014
Next election
June 7, 2018 (scheduled)
Meeting place
Ontario Provincial Parliament, Queens Park, Toronto -b.jpg
Ontario Legislative Building, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Legislative Assembly of Ontario

The Legislative Assembly of Ontario is one of two components of the Legislature of Ontario (also known as the Parliament of Ontario[2]), the other being the Lieutenant Governor of Ontario.[3] The Legislative Assembly is the second largest Canadian provincial deliberative assembly by number of members after the National Assembly of Quebec. The Assembly meets at the Ontario Legislative Building at Queen's Park in the provincial capital of Toronto.

The Legislative Assembly was established by the British North America Act, 1867 (later re-titled Constitution Act, 1867), which dissolved the Province of Canada into two new provinces, with the portion then called Canada West becoming Ontario. The Legislature has been unicameral since its inception, with the Assembly currently having 107 seats (increased to 124 as of the 42nd Ontario general election) representing electoral districts ("ridings") elected through a first-past-the-post electoral system across the province.

Like at the federal level in Canada, Ontario uses a Westminster-style parliamentary government, in which members are elected to the Legislative Assembly through general elections, from which the Premier of Ontario and Executive Council of Ontario are appointed based on majority support. The premier is Ontario's head of government, while the Lieutenant Governor, as representative of the Queen, acts as head of state. The largest party not forming the government is known as the Official Opposition, its leader being recognized as Leader of the Opposition by the Speaker.

The Ontario Legislature is sometimes referred to as the "Ontario Provincial Parliament". Members of the assembly refer to themselves as "Members of the Provincial Parliament" (MPPs) as opposed to "Members of the Legislative Assembly" (MLAs) as in many other provinces. Ontario is the only province to do so, in accordance with a resolution passed in the Assembly on April 7, 1938. However, the Legislative Assembly Act refers only to "members of the Assembly".

The current assembly was elected on June 12, 2014, as part of the 41st Parliament of Ontario. The first session of the 41st Parliament opened on July 2, 2014. On Friday May 2, 2014, the 40th Parliament of Ontario was dissolved by Lieutenant Governor David C. Onley on the advice of Premier Kathleen Wynne after the NDP and Progressive Conservative leaders said they would not support the Liberal minority government's budget.[4] The election was held on June 12, 2014, as a result of which Kathleen Wynne's Liberal Party formed a majority government.[5]

Owing to the location of the Legislative Building on the grounds of Queen's Park, the metonym "Queen's Park" is often used to refer to both the Government of Ontario and the Legislative Assembly.[6]


In accordance with the traditions of the Westminster system, most laws originate with the cabinet (Government bills), and are passed by the legislature after stages of debate and decision-making. Ordinary Members of the Legislature may introduce privately (Private Members' Bills), play an integral role in scrutinizing bills in debate and committee and amending bills presented to the legislature by cabinet.

Members are expected to be loyal to both their parliamentary party and to the interests of their constituents.

In the Ontario legislature this confrontation provides much of the material for Oral Questions and Members' Statements. Legislative scrutiny of the executive is also at the heart of much of the work carried out by the Legislature's Standing Committees, which are made up of ordinary backbenchers.

A Member's day will typically be divided among participating in the business of the House, attending caucus and committee meetings, speaking in various debates, or returning to his or her constituency to address the concerns, problems and grievances of constituents. Depending on personal inclination and political circumstances, some Members concentrate most of their attention on House matters while others focus on constituency problems, taking on something of an ombudsman's role in the process.

Finally, it is the task of the legislature to provide the personnel of the executive. As already noted, under responsible government, ministers of the Crown are expected to be Members of the Assembly. When a political party comes to power it will usually place its more experienced parliamentarians into the key cabinet positions, where their parliamentary experience may be the best preparation for the rough and tumble of political life in government.

Coat of arms[edit]

The Legislative Assembly of Ontario is the first and the only legislature in Canada to have a Coat of Arms separate from the provincial coat of arms.

Green and gold are the principal colours in the shield of arms of the province. The Mace is the traditional symbol of the authority of the Speaker. Shown on the left is the current Mace. On the right is the original Mace from the time of the first parliament in 1792. The crossed Maces are joined by the shield of arms of Ontario.

The crown on the wreath represents national and provincial loyalties; its rim is studded with the provincial gemstone, the amethyst. The griffin, an ancient symbol of justice and equity, holds a calumet, which symbolizes the meeting of spirit and discussion that Ontario's First Nations believe accompanies the use of the pipe.

The deer represent the natural riches of the province. The Loyalist coronets at their necks honour the original British settlers in Ontario who brought with them the British parliamentary form of government. The Royal Crowns, left 1992, right 1792, recognize the parliamentary bicentennial and represent Ontario's heritage as a constitutional monarchy. They were granted as a special honour by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II on the recommendation of the Governor General.

In the base, the maple leaves are for Canada, the trilliums for Ontario and the roses for York (now Toronto), the provincial capital.

The motto "Audi Alteram Partem" is one of a series of Latin phrases carved in the Chamber of the Legislative Building. It challenges Members of Provincial Parliament to "Hear the Other Side".


Proceedings of the Legislative Assembly are broadcast to Ontario cable television subscribers as the Ontario Parliament Network.

Timeline of the 41st Parliament of Ontario[edit]

Party standings[edit]

Election of the Legislative Assembly of the 41st Ontario Parliament occurred June 12, 2014, as a result of which Kathleen Wynne's Liberals formed a majority government.

Affiliation Party
Status Seats
2014 election Current
Liberal Kathleen Wynne Government 58 55
Progressive Conservative Doug Ford
(No seat in legislature)
Official Opposition 28 27
New Democratic Andrea Horwath Third Party 21 18
Trillium Bob Yaciuk
(No seat in legislature)
Third Party (unofficial) 0 1
Independent 0 2
Vacant 4
Total 107
Government Majority 9 7

Seating plan[edit]


******** Brown Harris * Bailey Romano * Oosterhoff Nicholls * Munro McDonell * Pettapiece Coe * Cho * Hatfield Gretzky * Gates French * Campbell Vacant *
MacLaren * * Walker Yurek * Martow Barrett * Thompson Scott * McNaughton Miller * Hillier * Forster Taylor * Armstrong Natyshak * Sattler Mantha * Vacant
* Arnott Hardeman * MacLeod Wilson * Jones FEDELI * Clark Smith * Yakabuski * Bisson HORWATH * Vanthof Gélinas * Fife Tabuns * Miller
* * Bradley Naqvi * Del Duca McMahon * Sousa WYNNE * Naidoo-Harris Jaczek * Chiarelli Chan * MacCharles McMeekin * Takhar Kwinter *
Colle Rinaldi Albanese Thibeault Flynn Leal Coteau Hunter Moridi Lalonde Ballard Gravelle Matthews Sandals Duguid Sergio
Berardinetti Delaney Dhillon Damerla Vernile Milczyn Zimmer McGarry Mauro Malhi Des Rosiers Qaadri Dickson Mangat Crack Wong
* Vacant Potts Martins Kiwala Hoggarth Dong Baker Anderson Fraser Vacant

The seating chamber was influenced by the British House of Commons layout and that of the original St. Stephen's Chapel in the Palace of Westminster.[19] The difference with the British layout is with the use of individual chairs and tables for members, absent in the British Commons' design.

view of the layout of the original Parliament of Ontario and that of the Upper Canada and the Province of Canada

Previous location of the legislature, once home of the legislature of Upper Canada and the United Provinces of Canada, had similar layout.

Membership changes[edit]

Number of members
per party by date
2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Jun 12 Nov 20 Feb 5 Aug 1 Aug 28 Sep 3 Feb 11 Mar 22 Jun 30 Sep 1 Sep 16 Nov 17 Jan 1 May 28 Jun 1 Sep 1 Oct 20 Dec 31 Feb 16 Feb 26 Apr 9
Liberal 58 59 58 57 58 57 56 55
Progressive Conservative 28 27 26 27 28 29 28 29 28 29 28 27
New Democratic 21 20 19 18
Trillium 0 1
Independent 0 1 2
Total members 107 106 107 106 105 106 107 106 105 106 105 107 106 107 106 105 104 103
Vacant 0 1 0 1 2 1 0 1 2 1 2 0 1 0 1 2 3 4
Government majority 9 10 11 12 13 12 11 10 9 8 9 8 7 6 7 8 7

List of members[edit]

Name Party Riding First Elected Notes
  Joe Dickson Liberal Ajax—Pickering 2007-10-10 (GE)
  Michael Mantha New Democratic Algoma—Manitoulin 2011-10-06 (GE)
  Ted McMeekin Liberal Ancaster—Dundas—Flamborough—Westdale 2000-09-07 (By-election)
  Ann Hoggarth Liberal Barrie 2014-06-12 (GE)
  Arthur Potts Liberal Beaches—East York 2014-06-12 (GE)
Vacant Bramalea—Gore—Malton No by-election will be called prior to the general election.[20]
  Harinder Malhi Liberal Brampton—Springdale 2014-06-12 (GE)
  Vic Dhillon Liberal Brampton West 2003-10-02 (GE)
  Dave Levac Liberal Brant 1999-06-03 (GE)
  Bill Walker Progressive Conservative Bruce—Grey—Owen Sound 2011-10-06 (GE)
  Eleanor McMahon Liberal Burlington 2014-06-12 (GE)
  Kathryn McGarry Liberal Cambridge 2014-06-12 (GE)
  Jack MacLaren Trillium Carleton—Mississippi Mills 2011-10-06 (GE) Progressive Conservative until May 28, 2017.
  Rick Nicholls Progressive Conservative Chatham-Kent—Essex 2011-10-06 (GE)
  Cristina Martins Liberal Davenport 2014-06-12 (GE)
  Michael Coteau Liberal Don Valley East 2011-10-06 (GE)
  Kathleen Wynne Liberal Don Valley West 2003-10-02 (GE)
  Sylvia Jones Progressive Conservative Dufferin—Caledon 2007-10-10 (GE)
  Granville Anderson Liberal Durham 2014-06-12 (GE)
  Mike Colle Liberal Eglinton—Lawrence 1995-06-08 (GE)
  Jeff Yurek Progressive Conservative Elgin—Middlesex—London 2011-10-06 (GE)
  Taras Natyshak New Democratic Essex 2011-10-06 (GE)
  Yvan Baker Liberal Etobicoke Centre 2014-06-12 (GE)
  Peter Milczyn Liberal Etobicoke—Lakeshore 2014-06-12 (GE)
  Shafiq Qaadri Liberal Etobicoke North 2003-10-02 (GE)
  Grant Crack Liberal Glengarry—Prescott—Russell 2011-10-06 (GE)
  Liz Sandals Liberal Guelph 2003-10-02 (GE)
  Toby Barrett Progressive Conservative Haldimand—Norfolk 1995-06-08 (GE)
  Laurie Scott Progressive Conservative Haliburton—Kawartha Lakes—Brock 2003-10-02 (GE) Resigned seat on January 8, 2009 to allow PC leader John Tory to enter legislature. Regained seat in 2011 general election.
  Indira Naidoo-Harris Liberal Halton 2014-06-12 (GE)
  Andrea Horwath New Democratic Hamilton Centre 2004-05-13 (by-election)
  Paul Miller New Democratic Hamilton East—Stoney Creek 2007-10-10 (GE)
  Monique Taylor New Democratic Hamilton Mountain 2011-10-06 (GE)
  Lisa Thompson Progressive Conservative Huron—Bruce 2011-10-06 (GE)
  Sarah Campbell New Democratic Kenora—Rainy River 2011-10-06 (GE)
  Sophie Kiwala Liberal Kingston and the Islands 2014-06-12 (GE)
  Daiene Vernile Liberal Kitchener Centre 2014-06-12 (GE)
  Michael Harris Independent Kitchener—Conestoga 2011-10-06 (GE) Ejected from PC caucus on April 9, 2018 following sexual misconduct allegations.[21]
  Catherine Fife New Democratic Kitchener—Waterloo 2012-09-06 (by-election)
  Monte McNaughton Progressive Conservative Lambton—Kent—Middlesex 2011-10-06 (GE)
  Randy Hillier Progressive Conservative Lanark—Frontenac—Lennox and Addington 2007-10-10 (GE)
  Steve Clark Progressive Conservative Leeds—Grenville 2010-03-04 (by-election)
  Teresa Armstrong New Democratic London—Fanshawe 2011-10-06 (GE)
  Deb Matthews Liberal London North Centre 2003-10-02 (GE)
  Peggy Sattler New Democratic London West 2013-08-01 (byelection)
  Michael Chan Liberal Markham—Unionville 2007-02-08 (byelection)
  Amrit Mangat Liberal Mississauga—Brampton South 2007-10-10 (GE)
  Dipika Damerla Liberal Mississauga East—Cooksville 2011-10-06 (GE)
  Harinder Takhar Liberal Mississauga—Erindale 2003-10-02 (GE)
  Charles Sousa Liberal Mississauga South 2007-10-10 (GE)
  Bob Delaney Liberal Mississauga—Streetsville 2003-10-02 (GE)
  Lisa MacLeod Progressive Conservative Nepean—Carleton 2006-03-30 (by-election)
  Chris Ballard Liberal Newmarket—Aurora 2014-06-12 (GE)
  Wayne Gates New Democratic Niagara Falls 2014-02-13 (by-election)
  Sam Oosterhoff Progressive Conservative Niagara West—Glanbrook 2016-11-17 (by-election) By-election on November 17, 2016
  France Gélinas New Democratic Nickel Belt 2007-10-10 (GE)
  Vic Fedeli Progressive Conservative Nipissing 2011-10-06 (GE) Leader of the Opposition in Ontario and Interim Leader of the Ontario PC Party
  Lou Rinaldi Liberal Northumberland—Quinte West 2003-10-02 (GE) Defeated in 2011, regained seat in 2014.
  Helena Jaczek Liberal Oak Ridges—Markham 2007-10-10 (GE)
  Kevin Flynn Liberal Oakville 2003-10-02 (GE)
  Jennifer French New Democratic Oshawa 2014-06-12 (GE)
  Yasir Naqvi Liberal Ottawa Centre 2007-10-10 (GE)
  Marie-France Lalonde Liberal Ottawa—Orléans 2014-06-12 (GE)
  John Fraser Liberal Ottawa South 2013-08-01 (byelection)
  Nathalie Des Rosiers Liberal Ottawa—Vanier 2016-11-17 (by-election) By-election on November 17, 2016
  Bob Chiarelli Liberal Ottawa West—Nepean 1987-09-10 (GE) Resigned seat in 1997 to contest (and subsequently elected) Regional Chair of Ottawa-Carleton. Re-entered legislature on 2010-03-04 through a by-election.
  Ernie Hardeman Progressive Conservative Oxford 1995-06-08 (GE)
Vacant Parkdale—High Park No by-election will be called prior to the general election.
  Norm Miller Progressive Conservative Parry Sound—Muskoka 2011-03-22 (by-election)
  Randy Pettapiece Progressive Conservative Perth—Wellington 2011-10-06 (GE)
  Jeff Leal Liberal Peterborough 2003-10-02 (GE)
  Tracy MacCharles Liberal Pickering—Scarborough East 2011-10-06 (GE)
  Todd Smith Progressive Conservative Prince Edward—Hastings 2011-10-06 (GE)
  John Yakabuski Progressive Conservative Renfrew—Nipissing—Pembroke 2003-10-02 (GE)
  Reza Moridi Liberal Richmond Hill 2007-10-10 (GE)
  Jim Bradley Liberal St. Catharines 1977-06-09 (GE) Currently the longest serving member in legislature
  Vacant St. Paul's There will be no by-election to fill the seat prior to the general election.
  Bob Bailey Progressive Conservative Sarnia—Lambton 2007-10-10 (GE)
  Ross Romano Progressive Conservative Sault Ste. Marie 2017-06-01 (by-election) By-election on June 1, 2017
  Soo Wong Liberal Scarborough—Agincourt 2011-10-06 (GE)
  Brad Duguid Liberal Scarborough Centre 2003-10-02 (GE)
  Mitzie Hunter Liberal Scarborough—Guildwood 2013-08-01 (byelection)
  Raymond Cho Progressive Conservative Scarborough—Rouge River 2016-09-01 (by-election) By-election on September 1, 2016
  Lorenzo Berardinetti Liberal Scarborough Southwest 2003-10-02 (GE)
  Jim Wilson Progressive Conservative Simcoe—Grey 1990-09-06 (GE) Currently the longest serving PC member, along with Ted Arnott
  Patrick Brown Independent Simcoe North 2015-09-03 (by-election) By-election on September 3, 2015. Brown resigned as PC party leader on January 25, 2018 and was ejected from the PC caucus on February 16, 2018.
  Jim McDonell Progressive Conservative Stormont—Dundas—South Glengarry 2011-10-06 (GE)
  Glenn Thibeault Liberal Sudbury 2015-02-05 (by-election) By-election on February 5, 2015
  Gila Martow Progressive Conservative Thornhill 2014-02-13 (by-election)
  Bill Mauro Liberal Thunder Bay—Atikokan 2003-10-02 (GE)
  Michael Gravelle Liberal Thunder Bay—Superior North 1995-06-08 (GE)
  John Vanthof New Democratic Timiskaming—Cochrane 2011-10-06 (GE)
  Gilles Bisson New Democratic Timmins—James Bay 1990-09-06 (GE) Currently the longest serving NDP member
Vacant Toronto Centre There will be no by-election to fill the seat prior to the general election.[22]
  Peter Tabuns New Democratic Toronto—Danforth 2006-03-30 (by-election)
  Han Dong Liberal Trinity—Spadina 2014-06-12 (GE)
  Steven Del Duca Liberal Vaughan 2012-09-06 (by-election)
  Cindy Forster New Democratic Welland 2011-10-06 (GE)
  Ted Arnott Progressive Conservative Wellington—Halton Hills 1990-09-06 (GE) Currently the longest serving PC member, along with Jim Wilson
  Lorne Coe Progressive Conservative Whitby—Oshawa 2016-02-11 (by-election) By-election on February 11, 2016
  David Zimmer Liberal Willowdale 2003-10-02 (GE)
  Percy Hatfield New Democratic Windsor—Tecumseh 2013-08-01 (by-election)
  Lisa Gretzky New Democratic Windsor West 2014-06-12 (GE)
  Monte Kwinter Liberal York Centre 1985-05-02 (GE) On January 26, 2013, became the oldest person to ever serve in the Ontario legislature at the age of 81 years 310 days.
  Julia Munro Progressive Conservative York—Simcoe 1999-06-03 (GE) Currently the longest serving female member in legislature
  Laura Albanese Liberal York South—Weston 2007-10-10 (GE)
  Mario Sergio Liberal York West 1995-06-08 (GE)
  • Party leaders' names are in italics, with the Premier's in bold-italics.




Floor leaders[edit]


Front benches[edit]


There are two forms which Committees can take. The first, standing committees, are struck for the duration of the Parliament pursuant to Standing Orders. The second, select committees, are struck usually by a Motion or an Order of the House to consider a specific bill or issue which would otherwise monopolize the time of the standing committees.

Standing committees[edit]

A committee which exists for the duration of a parliamentary session. This committee examines and reports on the general conduct of activities by government departments and agencies and reports on matters referred to it by the house, including proposed legislation.[23]

Standing Committees in the current Parliament:

Select committees[edit]

Select committees are set up specifically to study certain bills or issues and according to the Standing Orders, consists of not more than 11 members from all parties with representation reflecting the current standing in the house. In some cases, the committee must examine material by a specific date and then report its conclusion to the legislature. After its final report, the committee is dissolved.[23]

Select Committees in the 39th Parliament:

  • The Select Committee on Elections completed its work on June 30, 2009.
  • The Select Committee on Mental Health and Addictions completed its work on August 26, 2010.
  • The Select Committee on the proposed transaction of the TMX Group and the London Stock Exchange Group completed its work on April 19, 2011.


The ceremonial mace of the Legislature is the fourth mace to be used in Upper Canada or Ontario.

The first mace was used by the Chamber of Upper Canada's first Parliament in 1792 at Newark (now Niagara-on-the-Lake) and then moved to York (now Toronto). [24] The primitive wooden mace, painted red and gilt and surmounted by a crown of thin brass strips. It was stolen by American troops as a Prize of War during the Battle of York of the War of 1812 in 1813. The mace was stored at United States Naval Academy at Annapolis, Maryland, and remained in the United States until 1934 when it was returned to Ontario when President Franklin Roosevelt sent an order to Congress to return the mace.[25] It was stored at the Royal Ontario Museum for a time, and is now located in the Main Lobby of the Ontario Legislative Building.[24]

A second mace was introduced in 1813 and used until 1841.

The third mace was not purchased until 1845. In 1849, it was stolen by a riotous mob in Montreal, apparently intent upon destroying it in a public demonstration. Fortunately it was rescued and returned to the Speaker, Sir Allan Macnab, the next day. Later, in 1854, the Mace was twice rescued when the Parliament Buildings in Quebec were ravaged by fire. The Mace continued to be used by the Union Parliament in Toronto and Quebec until Confederation in 1867, when it was taken to the Parliament of Canada in Ottawa, where it remained in the House of Commons until 1916. When the Parliament Buildings were gutted by fire during that year, the Mace could not be saved from Centre Block. All that remained was a tiny ball of silver and gold conglomerate.[24]

After Confederation, where the third mace moved with the new Parliament of the Dominion of Canada to Ottawa. The current mace used in Legislative Assembly of Ontario was acquired in 1867. It was provided by Charles E. Zollikofer of Ottawa for $200. The Four-foot mace is made of copper and richly gilded, a flattened ball at the butt end. Initially the head of the mace bore the crown of Queen Victoria and in a cup with her monogram, V.R.. When she was succeeded by Edward VII in 1901, her crown and cup were removed and a new one bearing Edward's initials on the cup was installed. Eventually it was replaced with the current cup which is adorned in gleaming brass leaves.[24]

Through some careful detective work on the part of Legislative Assembly staff, the original cup with Queen Victoria's monogram was recently found in the Royal Ontario Museum’s collection and returned to the Legislature. It is now on display in the Ontario Legislative Building.[24]

In 2009, two diamonds were installed in the Mace. The diamonds were a gift to the people of Ontario from De Beers Canada to mark the opening of the Victor Mine near Attawapiskat in northern Ontario. Three diamonds were selected from the first run of the mine. Two stones, one rough and one polished, were set in platinum in the crown of the Mace while the third stone, also polished, was put on exhibit in the lobby of the Legislative Building as part of a display about the history of the Mace.[24]


Like the Parliament of Canada, the Legislature has procedural officers:

The Clerk of the Legislative Assembly of Ontario is the chief permanent officer of the Legislative Assembly, with the rank and status of a Deputy Minister. He or she is the principal procedural adviser and senior officer of the House. The Clerk's responsibilities include advising the Speaker and Members of the Legislature on questions of procedure and interpretation of the rules and practices of the House. The Clerk is also responsible for the overall direction and administration of the Legislative Assembly and is Secretary of the Board of Internal Economy. As Chief Executive Officer, the Clerk is accountable to the Speaker for the administrative and operational functions of the Office of the Assembly.

The other key officer is the Sergeant-at-Arms, whose role is to keep order during meetings in the Legislature. The Sergeant-at-Arms is also charged with control of the Ceremonial mace in the Legislature in session.

Other officers of the legislature include the Ontario Ombudsman, the Environmental Commissioner, the Integrity Commissioner, the Auditor General, the Chief Electoral Officer, the Information and Privacy Commissioner, the Financial Accountability Officer[26], the French Language Services Commissioner[27] and the Provincial Advocate for Children and Youth[28].

See also[edit]


  1. ^ PC leader Doug Ford does not currently have a seat in the Legislature so former interim leader Vic Fedeli will be treated as opposition leader for legislative purposes until the next election.[1]


  1. ^ "Ford 'the boss': Fedeli". Sudbury Star. Postmedia Network. March 11, 2018. Retrieved March 14, 2018. Fedeli, who has served as interim party leader since the resignation of Patrick Brown amid allegations of sexual misconduct several weeks ago, will remain opposition leader for parliamentary purposes because Ford does not have a seat in the Ontario legislature 
  2. ^ "Origins of "MPP"". The Speaker of the Legislative Assembly of Ontario. Retrieved 2016-04-05. 
  3. ^ Constitution Act, 1867, 30 & 31 Victoria 1867, c. 3 (U.K.), s. 69 (Constitution Act, 1867 at Department of Justice Canada) .
  4. ^ "Ontario Election On June 12, 2014". Retrieved 2016-09-28. 
  5. ^ "Kathleen Wynne's Liberals win majority government | Toronto Star". thestar.com. Retrieved 2016-09-28. 
  6. ^ "Legacy of a People's Park". Education Portal. Legislative Assembly of Ontario. Retrieved 21 January 2015. 
  7. ^ Brown, Patrick (2015-05-10). "Patrick Brown wins Ontario PC leadership race". CBC News. Retrieved 2016-03-28. 
  8. ^ "Tory Lorne Coe wins Whitby-Oshawa byelection". Toronto Star. 11 February 2016. Retrieved 27 March 2016. 
  9. ^ The Canadian Press (March 22, 2016). "Liberal Bas Balkissoon resigns his Scarborough-Rouge River seat in legislature". CBC News. Retrieved 27 March 2016. 
  10. ^ The Canadian Press (November 17, 2016). "Youngest ever MPP elected in Niagara byelection on Thursday". Citynews.ca. Rogers Digital Media. Retrieved 18 November 2016. 
  11. ^ "MPP Jack MacLaren booted from PC caucus over 'unacceptable' comments". CBC News. Retrieved 2017-06-14. 
  12. ^ MacLaren, Jack (2017-05-28). "pic.twitter.com/SiYiTHdhiy". @jackmaclaren1. Retrieved 2017-06-14. 
  13. ^ McCarthy, Shawn (July 31, 2017). "Environment Minister Glen Murray resigns from Kathleen Wynne's cabinet". The Globe and Mail. 
  14. ^ https://www.ontariopc.ca/statement_from_ontario_pc_leader_patrick_brown
  15. ^ "Vic Fedeli chosen as interim leader of Ontario PCs with election looming". CBC News. January 26, 2018. Retrieved January 26, 2018. 
  16. ^ "Patrick Brown removed from Ontario PC caucus". CBC News. February 16, 2018. Retrieved February 16, 2018. 
  17. ^ Grant, Kelly; Giovannetti, Justin (February 26, 2018). "Eric Hoskins resigns as Ontario Health Minister to lead national pharmacare project". The Globe and Mail. 
  18. ^ https://www.theglobeandmail.com/canada/article-michael-harris-kicked-out-of-ontario-pc-caucus-over-sexual-harassment/
  19. ^ "The Commons Chamber in the 16th Century". UK Parliament. Retrieved 2016-09-28. 
  20. ^ "Jagmeet Singh quits as MPP for Bramalea-Gore-Malton". thestar.com. Retrieved October 23, 2014. 
  21. ^ http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/kitchener-waterloo/sarah-michael-harris-pc-kitchener-conestoga-election-1.4611090
  22. ^ "Andrea Horwath slams Kathleen Wynne for not calling a Toronto Centre byelection". thestar.com. Retrieved October 18, 2014. 
  23. ^ a b Legislative Assembly of Ontario: Glossary retrieved 10 February 2010
  24. ^ a b c d e f "The Mace". speaker.ontla.on.ca. Retrieved 2017-05-16. 
  25. ^ "Franklin D. Roosevelt: Message to Congress Requesting Authority to Return a Mace to Canada". www.presidency.ucsb.edu. Retrieved 2016-09-28. 
  26. ^ http://www.fao-on.org/en/
  27. ^ http://csfontario.ca/en/
  28. ^ http://www.provincialadvocate.on.ca/

External links[edit]