Oogenesis, ovogenesis, or oögenesis // is the differentiation of the ovum (egg cell) into a cell competent to further development when fertilized. It is developed from the primary oocyte by maturation. Oogenesis is initiated in the embryonic stage.
- 1 Oogenesis in mammals
- 2 Human oogenesis
- 3 Oogenesis in non-mammals
- 4 See also
- 5 References
- 6 External links
Oogenesis in mammals
Oogenesis consists of several sub-processes: oocytogenesis, ootidogenesis, and finally maturation to form an ovum (oogenesis proper). Folliculogenesis is a separate sub-process that accompanies and supports all three oogenetic sub-processes.
|Cell type||ploidy/chromosomes||chromatids||Process||Time of completion|
|Oogonium||diploid/46(2N)||2C||Oocytogenesis (mitosis)||Third trimester|
|primary oocyte||diploid/46(2N)||4C||Ootidogenesis (meiosis I) (Folliculogenesis)||Dictyate in prophase I for up to 50 years|
|secondary oocyte||haploid/23(1N)||2C||Ootidogenesis (meiosis II)||Halted in metaphase II until fertilization|
|Ootid||haploid/23(1N)||1C||Ootidogenesis (meiosis II)||Minutes after fertilization|
Oogonium —(Oocytogenesis)—> Primary Oocyte —(Meiosis I)—> First Polar Body (Discarded afterward) + Secondary oocyte —(Meiosis II)—> Second Polar Body (Discarded afterward) + Ovum
The creation of oogonia
The creation of oogonia traditionally doesn't belong to oogenesis proper, but, instead, to the common process of gametogenesis, which, in the female human, begins with the processes of folliculogenesis, oocytogenesis, and ootidogenesis.
Oogenesis starts with the process of developing primary oocytes, which occurs via the transformation of oogonia into primary oocytes, a process called oocytogenesis. Oocytogenesis is complete either before or shortly after birth.
Number of primary oocytes
It is commonly believed that, when oocytogenesis is complete, no additional primary oocytes are created, in contrast to the male process of spermatogenesis, where gametocytes are continuously created. In other words, primary oocytes reach their maximum development at ~20 weeks of gestational age, when approximately seven million primary oocytes have been created; however, at birth, this number has already been reduced to approximately 1-2 million.
Recently, however, two publications have challenged the belief that a finite number of oocytes are set around the time of birth. The renewal of ovarian follicles from germline stem cells (originating from bone marrow and peripheral blood) has been reported in the postnatal mouse ovary. In contrast, DNA clock measurements do not indicate ongoing oogenesis during human females' lifetimes. Thus, further experiments are required to determine the true dynamics of small follicle formation.
The succeeding phase of ootidogenesis occurs when the primary oocyte develops into an ootid. This is achieved by the process of meiosis. In fact, a primary oocyte is, by its biological definition, a cell whose primary function is to divide by the process of meiosis.
However, although this process begins at prenatal age, it stops at prophase I. In late fetal life, all oocytes, still primary oocytes, have halted at this stage of development, called the dictyate. After menarche, these cells then continue to develop, although only a few do so every menstrual cycle.
Meiosis I of ootidogenesis begins during embryonic development, but halts in the diplotene stage of prophase I until puberty. The mouse oocyte in the dictyate (prolonged diplotene) stage actively repairs DNA damage, whereas DNA repair is not detectable in the pre-dictyate (leptotene, zygotene and pachytene) stages of meiosis. For those primary oocytes that continue to develop in each menstrual cycle, however, synapsis occurs and tetrads form, enabling chromosomal crossover to occur. As a result of meiosis I, the primary oocyte has now developed into the secondary oocyte and the first polar body.
Immediately after meiosis I, the haploid secondary oocyte initiates meiosis II. However, this process is also halted at the metaphase II stage until fertilization, if such should ever occur. If the egg is not fertilized, it is disintegrated and released (menstruation) and the secondary oocyte does not complete meiosis II (and doesn't become an ovum). When meiosis II has completed, an ootid and another polar body have now been created.
Synchronously with ootidogenesis, the ovarian follicle surrounding the ootid has developed from a primordial follicle to a preovulatory one.
Maturation into ovum
Both polar bodies disintegrate at the end of Meiosis II, leaving only the ootid, which then eventually undergoes maturation into a mature ovum.
The function of forming polar bodies is to discard the extra haploid sets of chromosomes that have resulted as a consequence of meiosis.
In vitro maturation
In vitro maturation (IVM) is the technique of letting ovarian follicles mature in vitro. It can potentially be performed before an IVF. In such cases, ovarian hyperstimulation isn't essential. Rather, oocytes can mature outside the body prior to IVF. Hence, no (or at least a lower dose of) gonadotropins have to be injected in the body. Immature eggs have been grown until maturation in vitro at a 10% survival rate, but the technique is not yet clinically available. With this technique, cryopreserved ovarian tissue could possibly be used to make oocytes that can directly undergo in vitro fertilization.
Oogenesis in non-mammals
Some algae and the oomycetes produce eggs in oogonia. In the brown alga Fucus, all four egg cells survive oogenesis, which is an exception to the rule that generally only one product of female meiosis survives to maturity.
In plants, oogenesis occurs inside the female gametophyte via mitosis. In many plants such as bryophytes, ferns, and gymnosperms, egg cells are formed in archegonia. In flowering plants, the female gametophyte has been reduced to an eight-celled embryo sac within the ovule inside the ovary of the flower. Oogenesis occurs within the embryo sac and leads to the formation of a single egg cell per ovule.
- Evolution of sexual reproduction
- Female infertility
- Female reproductive system
- Origin and function of meiosis
- Sexual reproduction
- Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary Definition: Oogenesis
- Gilbert, Scott F. (2000-01-01). "Oogenesis".
- Szollosi D, Calarco P, Donahue RP (1972). "Absence of centrioles in the first and second meiotic spindles of mouse oocytes". J Cell Sci. 11 (2): 521–541. PMID 5076360.
- Manandhar G, Schatten H, Sutovsky P (January 2005). "Centrosome reduction during gametogenesis and its significance". Biol. Reprod. 72 (1): 2–13. doi:10.1095/biolreprod.104.031245. PMID 15385423.
- NCBI - The saga of the germ line
- Lobo RA (September 2003). "Early ovarian ageing: a hypothesis. What is early ovarian ageing?". Hum. Reprod. 18 (9): 1762–4. doi:10.1093/humrep/deg377. PMID 12923124.
- Johnson J, Bagley J, Skaznik-Wikiel M, et al. (July 2005). "Oocyte generation in adult mammalian ovaries by putative germ cells in bone marrow and peripheral blood". Cell. 122 (2): 303–15. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.06.031. PMID 16051153.
- Johnson J, Canning J, Kaneko T, Pru J, Tilly J (2004). "Germline stem cells and follicular renewal in the postnatal mammalian ovary". Nature. 428 (6979): 145–50. doi:10.1038/nature02316. PMID 15014492.
- Forster P, Hohoff C, Dunkelmann B, Schürenkamp M, Pfeiffer H, Neuhuber F, Brinkmann B (2015). "Elevated germline mutation rate in teenage fathers". Proc R Soc B. 282 (1803): 20142898. doi:10.1098/rspb.2014.2898. PMC 4345458. PMID 25694621.
- Guli CL, Smyth DR (1988). "UV-induced DNA repair is not detectable in pre-dictyate oocytes of the mouse". Mutat Res. 208 (2): 115–119. doi:10.1016/s0165-7992(98)90010-0. PMID 3380109.
- Vejledning om kunstig befrugtning 2006 (Danish)
- McLaughlin, M; Albertini, D F; Wallace, W H B; Anderson, R A; Telfer, E E (2018). "Metaphase II oocytes from human unilaminar follicles grown in a multi-step culture system". MHR: Basic Science of Reproductive Medicine. 24 (3): 135–142. doi:10.1093/molehr/gay002. ISSN 1360-9947. PMID 29390119.
- Further comments in BBC news article: James Gallagher (2018-02-09). "First human eggs grown in laboratory". BBC News.
- Manandhar G, Schatten H and Sutovsky P (2005). Centrosome reduction during gametogenesis and its significance. Biol Reprod, 72(1)2-13.