Oowekyala dialect

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Oowekyala
Wuikyala
Region Northern Central Coast Regional District, British Columbia, Canada
Ethnicity Wuikinuxv people
Native speakers
(no estimate available)
Wakashan
Language codes
ISO 639-3
Glottolog oowe1239[1]

Oowekyala /ˈwkjələ/,[2] also Ooweekeeno and Wuikyala in the language itself, is a dialect (or a sublanguage) of Heiltsuk-Oowekyala, a Northern Wakashan language spoken around Rivers Inlet and Owikeno Lake in the Central Coast region of the Canadian province of British Columbia, spoken by the Wuikinuxv, whose government is the Wuikinuxv Nation.

The name is also spelled Wuikala, Wuikenukv, Oweekeno, Wikeno, Owikeno, Oowekeeno, Oweekano, Awikenox, Oowek'yala, Oweek'ala.

Sounds[edit]

Consonants[edit]

The 45 consonants of Oowekyala:

Labial Alveolar Velar Uvular Glottal
central lateral sibilant plain labial plain labial
Plosive voiced b d dz ɡ ɡʷ ɢ ɢʷ
aspirated tɬʰ tsʰ kʷʰ qʷʰ
ejective tɬʼ tsʼ kʷʼ qʷʼ
Fricative ɬ s x χ χʷ
Sonorant short m n l j w ɦ
long
glottalized ʔ

Phonologically, affricates are treated as stops, and nasals and approximants are treated as sonorants. Additionally, /ɦ/ and /ʔ/ are treated as sonorants.

Vowels[edit]

Oowekyala has phonemic short, long, and glottalized vowels.:

  Front Central Back
short long glottalized short long glottalized short long glottalized
Close i       u
Mid       ə          
Open       a      

Syllables[edit]

Oowekyala, like Nuxálk (Bella Coola), allows long sequences of obstruents, as in the following 7-obstruent word:

[t͡sʼkʷʼχtʰt͡ɬʰkʰt͡sʰ]  'the invisible one here-with-me will be short'   (Howe 2000: 5)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Oowekyala". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  2. ^ William C. Sturtevant, 1978. Handbook of North American Indians: Northwest Coast

External links[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Boas, Franz. (1928). Bella Bella texts. Columbia University contributions to anthropology (No. 5).
  • Boas, Franz. (1932). Bella Bella tales. Memoirs of the American Folklore Society (No. 25).
  • Hanuse, R., Sr.; Smith, H.; & Stevenson, D. (Eds.) (1983?). The Adjee and the Little Girl. Rivers Inlet, BC: Oowekyala Language Project.
  • Hilton, Suzanne; & Rath, John C. (1982). Oowekeeno oral traditions. Ottawa: National Museums of Canada.
  • Howe, Darin. (1998). Aspects of Heiltsuk laryngeal phonology. Ms., University of British Columbia.
  • Howe, Darin M. (2000). Oowekyala segmental phonology. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Ottawa). [1]
  • Johnson, S.; Smith, H.; & Stevenson, D. (1983?). What time is it? Rivers Inlet, BC: Oowekyala Language Project.
  • Johnson, S.; Smith, H.; & Stevenson, D. (1983?). Fishing at Rivers Inlet. Rivers Inlet, BC: Oowekyala Language Project.
  • Johnson, S.; Smith, H.; & Stevenson, D. (1983?). Qaquthanugva uikala. Rivers Inlet, BC: Oowekyala Language Project.
  • Johnson, S.; Smith, H.; & Stevenson, D. (1983?). Sisa'kvimas. Rivers Inlet, BC: Oowekyala Language Project.
  • Johnson, S.; Smith, H.; & Stevenson, D. (1983?). ’Katemxvs ’Wuik’ala. Rivers Inlet, BC: Oowekyala Language Project.
  • Johnson, S.; Smith, H.; & Stevenson, D. (1984?). Oowekyala words. Rivers Inlet, BC: Oowekyala Language Project.
  • Lincoln, Neville J.; & Rath, John C. (1980). North Wakashan comparative root list. Ottawa: National Museums of Canada.
  • Poser, William J. (2003). The status of documentation for British Columbia native languages. Yinka Dene Language Institute Technical Report (No. 2). Vanderhoof, British Columbia: Yinka Dene Language Institute.
  • Rath, John C. (1981). A practical Heiltsuk-English dictionary. Canadian Ethnology Service, Mercury Series paper (No. 75). Ottawa: National Museum of Man.
  • Stevenson, David. (1980). The Oowekeeno people: A cultural history. Ottawa, Ontario: National Museum of Man (now Hull, Quebec: Museum of Civilization). (Unpublished).
  • Stevenson, David. (1982). The ceremonial names of the Oowekeeno people of Rivers Inlet. Ottawa, Ontario: National Museum of Man (now Hull, Quebec: Museum of Civilization). (Unpublished).
  • Storie, Susanne. (Ed.). (1973). Oweekano Stories. (Special Collections: E99). Victoria: British Columbia Indian Advisory Committee.
  • Windsor, Evelyn W. (1982). Oowekeeno oral traditions as told by the late chief Simon Walkus, Sr. Hilton, S.; & Rath, J. C. (Eds.). Mercury series (No. 84). Ottawa: National Museum of Man.