Open-mid back unrounded vowel

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Open-mid back unrounded vowel
ʌ
IPA number 314
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ʌ
Unicode (hex) U+028C
X-SAMPA V
Kirshenbaum V
Braille ⠬ (braille pattern dots-346)
Sound

The open-mid back unrounded vowel, or low-mid back unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. Acoustically it is an open-mid back-central unrounded vowel.[1] The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ʌ, graphically a rotated lowercase vee (called a turned V, though it was created as a small-capital without the crossbar), and both the symbol and the sound are commonly referred to as either a wedge, a caret, or a hat. In transcriptions for English, this symbol is commonly used for the near-open central unrounded vowel, whereas in transcriptions for Danish, it is used for the (somewhat mid-centralized) open back rounded vowel.

The IPA prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowels, and the name of the article follows this. However, linguists[who?] are known to use the terms "high" and "low".

Features[edit]

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
ɪʏ
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
æ
aɶ
ɑɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
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IPA help • IPA key • chart • Loudspeaker.svg chart with audio • view

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
English Cape Town[2] lot [lʌ̟t] 'lot' Near-back.[2] It corresponds to a weakly rounded [ɒ̈] in all other South African dialects.
Natal[2]
Cardiff[3] thought [θʌ̟ːt] 'thought' Near-back,[3] for some speakers it may be rounded and closer. See English phonology
Cockney[4] no [nʌ̟ː] 'no, nah' Near-back,[4] often a diphthong. It corresponds to /əʊ̯/ in other dialects. See English phonology
General South African[5] [nʌː] May be a diphthong [ʌʊ̯] instead.[6]
Inland Northern American[7] gut About this sound [ɡʌt]  'gut' In most dialects, fronted to [ɜ], or fronted and lowered to [ɐ]. See English phonology and Northern Cities Vowel Shift
Multicultural London[8]
Newfoundland[9]
Older Received Pronunciation
Philadelphia[10]
Scottish[11]
Some Estuary English speakers[12]
French Picardy[13] alors [aˈlʌʀ̥] 'so' Corresponding to /ɔ/ in standard French.
German Chemnitz dialect[14] machen [ˈmʌχɴ̩] 'to do' Allophone of /ʌ, ʌː/ (which phonetically are central [ɜ, ɜː])[15] before and after /ŋ, kʰ, k, χ, ʁ/. Exact backness varies; it is most posterior before /χ, ʁ/.[16] See Chemnitz dialect phonology
Haida[17] [qʰwʌʔáːj] 'the rock' Allophone of /a/ (sometimes also /aː/) after uvular and epiglottal consonants.[18]
Irish Ulster dialect[19] ola [ʌl̪ˠə] 'oil' See Irish phonology
Kaingang[20] [ˈɾʌ] 'mark' Varies between back [ʌ] and central [ɜ].[21]
Kensiu[22] [hʌ̟ʎ] 'stream' Near-back.[22]
Korean[23] /byeol [pjʌl] 'star' See Korean phonology
Lillooet [example needed] Retracted counterpart of /ə/.
Tamil[24] [example needed] Nasalized. Phonetic realization of the sequence /am/, may be [õ] or [ã] instead.[24] See Tamil phonology

Before World War II, the /ʌ/ of Received Pronunciation was phonetically close to a back vowel [ʌ]; this sound has since shifted forward towards [ɐ] (a near-open central unrounded vowel). Daniel Jones reports his speech (southern British), as having an advanced back vowel [ʌ̟] between his central /ə/ and back /ɔ/; however, he also reports that other southern speakers had a lower and even more advanced vowel approaching cardinal [a].[25] In American English varieties, e.g. the West and Midwest, and the urban South, the typical phonetic realization of the phoneme /ʌ/ is an open-mid central unrounded vowel [ɜ].[26][27] Truly backed variants of /ʌ/ that are phonetically [ʌ] can occur in Inland Northern American English, Newfoundland English, Philadelphia English, some African-American Englishes, and (old-fashioned) white Southern English in coastal plain and Piedmont areas.[28][29] Despite this, the letter ʌ is still commonly used to indicate this phoneme, even in the more common varieties with central variants [ɐ] or [ɜ]. This may be due to both tradition as well as the fact that some other dialects retain the older pronunciation.[30]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Geoff Lindsey (2013) The vowel space, Speech Talk
  2. ^ a b c Lass (2002), p. 115.
  3. ^ a b Coupland (1990), p. 95.
  4. ^ a b Wells (1982a), p. 309.
  5. ^ Wells (1982b), pp. 614, 621.
  6. ^ Wells (1982b), p. 614.
  7. ^ W. Labov, S. Ash and C. Boberg (1997), A national map of the regional dialects of American English, Department of Linguistics, University of Pennsylvania, retrieved May 27, 2013 
  8. ^ Gimson (2014), p. 91.
  9. ^ Thomas (2001), pp. 27–28, 61–63.
  10. ^ Thomas (2001), pp. 27–28, 73–74.
  11. ^ Scobbie, Gordeeva & Matthews (2006), p. 7.
  12. ^ Altendorf & Watt (2004), p. 188.
  13. ^ "Picardie : phonétique". Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  14. ^ Khan & Weise (2013), pp. 235, 238.
  15. ^ Khan & Weise (2013), p. 236.
  16. ^ Khan & Weise (2013), p. 238.
  17. ^ Lawrence (1977), pp. 32–33.
  18. ^ Lawrence (1977), pp. 32–33, 36.
  19. ^ Ní Chasaide (1999), pp. 114–115.
  20. ^ Jolkesky (2009), pp. 676–677, 682.
  21. ^ Jolkesky (2009), pp. 676, 682.
  22. ^ a b Bishop (1996), p. 230.
  23. ^ Lee (1999).
  24. ^ a b Keane (2004), p. 114.
  25. ^ Jones (1972), pp. 86–88.
  26. ^ Gordon (2004b), p. 340.
  27. ^ Tillery & Bailey (2004), p. 333.
  28. ^ Thomas (2001), pp. 27–28, 112–115, 121, 134, 174.
  29. ^ Gordon (2004a), pp. 294–296.
  30. ^ Roca & Johnson (1999), p. 135.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Altendorf, Ulrike; Watt, Dominik (2004), "The dialects in the South of England: phonology", in Schneider, Edgar W.; Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd; Mesthrie, Rajend; Upton, Clive, A handbook of varieties of English, 1: Phonology, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 181–196, ISBN 3-11-017532-0 
  • Bishop, Nancy (1996), "A preliminary description of Kensiu (Maniq) phonology" (PDF), Mon–Khmer Studies Journal 25 
  • Coupland, Nikolas (1990), English in Wales: Diversity, Conflict, and Change, ISBN 1-85359-032-0 
  • Gimson, Alfred Charles (2014), Cruttenden, Alan, ed., Gimson's Pronunciation of English (8th ed.), Routledge, ISBN 9781444183092 
  • Gordon, Matthew (2004a), "New York, Philadelphia and other Northern Cities", in Kortmann, Bernd; Schneider, Edgar W., A Handbook of Varieties of English: Volume 1: Phonology, Walter de Gruyter, pp. 294–296, ISBN 3-11-017532-0 
  • Gordon, Matthew (2004b), "The West and Midwest: phonology", in Kortmann, Bernd; Schneider, Edgar W., A Handbook of Varieties of English: Volume 1: Phonology, Walter de Gruyter, p. 340, ISBN 3-11-017532-0 
  • Jolkesky, Marcelo Pinho de Valhery (2009), "Fonologia e prosódia do Kaingáng falado em Cacique Doble", Anais do SETA (Campinas: Editora do IEL-UNICAMP) 3: 675–685 
  • Jones, Daniel (1972), An outline of English phonetics (9th ed.), Cambridge: W. Heffer & Sons Ltd. 
  • Keane, Elinor (2004), "Tamil", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (1): 111–116, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001549 
  • Khan, Sameer ud Dowla; Weise, Constanze (2013), "Upper Saxon (Chemnitz dialect)" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association 43 (2): 231–241, doi:10.1017/S0025100313000145 
  • Lass, Roger (2002), "South African English", in Mesthrie, Rajend, Language in South Africa, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 9780521791052 
  • Lawrence, Erma (1977), Haida dictionary, Fairbanks: Alaska Native Language Center 
  • Lee, Hyun Bok (1999), "Korean", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, Cambridge University Press, pp. 120–122, ISBN 0-521-63751-1 
  • Ní Chasaide, Ailbhe (1999). "Irish". Handbook of the International Phonetic Association. Cambridge University Press. pp. 111–116. ISBN 0-521-63751-1. 
  • Roca, Iggy; Johnson, Wyn (1999), Course in Phonology, Blackwell Publishing 
  • Scobbie, James M; Gordeeva, Olga B.; Matthews, Benjamin (2006), Acquisition of Scottish English Phonology: an overview, Edinburgh: QMU Speech Science Research Centre Working Papers 
  • Thomas, Erik R. (2001), "An acoustic analysis of vowel variation in New World English", Publication of the American Dialect Society (Duke University Press for the American Dialect Society) 85, ISSN 0002-8207 
  • Tillery, Jan; Bailey, Guy (2004), "The urban South: phonology", in Kortmann, Bernd; Schneider, Edgar W., A Handbook of Varieties of English: Volume 1: Phonology, Walter de Gruyter, p. 333, ISBN 3-11-017532-0 
  • Wells, J.C. (1982a). "Accents of English 2: The British Isles". Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 
  • Wells, J.C. (1982b). Accents of English 3: Beyond the British Isles. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-28541-0.