Open-mid central unrounded vowel
|Open-mid central unrounded vowel|
The open-mid central unrounded vowel, or low-mid central unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɜ⟩. Note that the IPA symbol is not the digit ⟨3⟩ nor Cyrillic small letter Ze (which is arose from the Greek letter zeta, Ζ ζ), but a reversed Latinized variant of the lowercase epsilon, ɛ. The value of this letter was only specified in 1993; before that, it was transcribed ⟨ɛ̈⟩.
The IPA prefers terms "close" and "open" for vowels, and the name of the article follows this. However, a large number of linguists, perhaps a majority, prefer the terms "high" and "low".
|IPA vowel chart|
|Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded|
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- Its vowel height is open-mid, also known as low-mid, which means the tongue is positioned halfway between an open vowel (a low vowel) and a mid vowel.
- Its vowel backness is central, which means the tongue is positioned halfway between a front vowel and a back vowel.
- It is unrounded, which means that the lips are not rounded.
|English||Received Pronunciation||bird||[bɜːd]||'bird'||Sulcalized (the tongue is grooved like in [ɹ]). 'Upper Crust RP' speakers pronounce a more open vowel [ɐː], but for most other speakers it's actually mid ([ɜ̝ː]). This vowel corresponds to rhotacized [ɝ] in rhotic dialects.|
|Norfolk||bet||[bɜ̟ʔ]||'bet'||Somewhat fronted, corresponds to /ɛ/ in other dialects.|
|Great Lakes region||[bɜ̟ˀt]||Corresponds to /ɛ/ in other dialects, may be near-open central [ɐ] instead. See Northern Cities Vowel Shift|
|Ohio||bust||[bɜst]||'bust'||The most common realization of the vowel transcribed as ⟨ʌ⟩ in American English. Nevertheless, it is not a standard pronunciation throughout the whole country.|
|Most of Texas|
|Northern Welsh||Some speakers. Corresponds to [ə] (or a further back vowel) in other Welsh dialects.|
|Scottish||[bɜ̠st]||Somewhat retracted; may be more back [ʌ] instead.|
|German||Chemnitz dialect||passe||[ˈpɜsə]||'I pass'||Typically transcribed in IPA as ⟨ʌ⟩. See Chemnitz dialect phonology|
|Kaingang||[ˈɾɜ]||'mark'||Varies between central [ɜ] and back [ʌ].|
|Romanian||Transylvanian dialects||așa||[aʂɜ][stress?]||'such'||Corresponds to [ä] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology|
|Vietnamese||Southern||bên||[ˀɓɜːn˧˥]||'side'||Allophone of /e/ before /t, n/. See Vietnamese phonology|
- Ladefoged (1993:82)
- Lodge (2009:168)
- Thomas (2001:27–28)
- Tench, Paul (1990). "The Pronunciation of English in Abercrave". In Coupland, Nikolas. English in Wales: Diversity, Conflict, and Change. Multilingual Matters. ISBN 9781853590313.
- Wells (1982:380–381)
- Lodge (2009:167)
- Khan & Weise (2013:236)
- Jolkesky (2009:676–677 and 682)
- Jolkesky (2009:676 and 682)
- Pop (1938), p. 30.
- Jolkesky, Marcelo Pinho de Valhery (2009), "Fonologia e prosódia do Kaingáng falado em Cacique Doble", Anais do SETA (Campinas: Editora do IEL-UNICAMP) 3: 675–685
- Khan, Sameer ud Dowla; Weise, Constanze (2013), "Upper Saxon (Chemnitz dialect)" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association 43 (2): 231–241, doi:10.1017/S0025100313000145
- Ladefoged, Peter (1993), A course in phonetics (3rd ed.), Fort Worth: Harcourt College Publishers
- Lodge, Ken (2009), A Critical Introduction to Phonetics, ISBN 978-0-8264-8873-2
- Pop, Sever (1938), Micul Atlas Linguistic Român, Muzeul Limbii Române Cluj
- Roach, Peter (2004), "British English: Received Pronunciation", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (2): 239–245, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001768
- Thomas, Erik R. (2001), An acoustic analysis of vowel variation in New World English, Publication of the American Dialect Society 85, Duke University Press for the American Dialect Society, ISSN 0002-8207
- Wells, John C. (1982), Accents of English, 2: The British Isles, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.