Open-mid central unrounded vowel

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Open-mid central unrounded vowel
ɜ
ɛ̈
ə̞
IPA Number326
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ɜ
Unicode (hex)U+025C
X-SAMPA3
Braille⠲ (braille pattern dots-256)⠜ (braille pattern dots-345)
Audio sample

The open-mid central unrounded vowel, or low-mid central unrounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɜ⟩. The IPA symbol is not the digit ⟨3⟩ or the Cyrillic small letter Ze (з). The symbol is instead a reversed Latinized variant of the lowercase epsilon, ɛ. The value was specified only in 1993; until then, it had been transcribed ⟨ɛ̈⟩.

The ⟨ɜ⟩ letter may be used with a raising diacriticɜ̝⟩, to denote the mid central unrounded vowel. It may also be used with a lowering diacritic ⟨ɜ̞⟩, to denote the near-open central unrounded vowel.

Conversely, ⟨ə⟩, the symbol for the mid central vowel may be used with a lowering diacritic ⟨ə̞⟩ to denote the open-mid central unrounded vowel, although that is more accurately written with an additional unrounding diacritic ⟨ə̞͑⟩ to explicitly denote the lack of rounding (the canonical value of IPA ⟨ə⟩ is undefined for rounding).

Features[edit]

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Afrikaans Standard[2] lig [lə̞χ] 'light' Also described as mid [ə],[3] typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ə⟩. See Afrikaans phonology
Cotabato Manobo[4] [bätɜʔ] 'child' Allophone of /a/ before glottal consonants; may be transcribed in IPA with ⟨ʌ⟩.[4]
Dutch[5] grappig [ˈχɾɑpə̞χ] 'funny' Possible realization of /ə/.[5] See Dutch phonology
English Received Pronunciation[6] bird [bɜːd] 'bird' Sulcalized (the tongue is grooved like in [ɹ]). "Upper Crust RP" speakers pronounce a more open vowel [ɐː], but for most other speakers it is actually mid ([ɜ̝ː]). This vowel corresponds to rhotacized [ɝ] in rhotic dialects.
General American[7][8] bust [bɜst] 'bust' The most common realization of the vowel transcribed in IPA with ⟨ʌ⟩ in American English. Nevertheless, it is not a standard pronunciation throughout the whole country.[6][9]
Ohio[9]
Most of Texas[9]
Northern Welsh[10] Some speakers.[10] Corresponds to /ə/ or /ʌ/ in other Welsh dialects.[11]
Scottish[12] [bɜ̠st] Somewhat retracted; may be more back /ʌ/ instead.
German Chemnitz dialect[13] passe [ˈb̥ɜsə] '[I] pass' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨a⟩.
Many speakers[14] herrlich [ˈhɜːlɪç] 'fantastic' Common alternative to the diphthong [ɛɐ̯].[14] See Standard German phonology
Hausa[15] [example needed] Possible allophone of /a/, which can be as close as [ə] and as open as [ä].[15]
Jebero[16] [ˈkɘnmɜʔ] 'indigenous person' Allophone of /a/ in closed syllables.[16]
Kaingang[17] [ˈɾɜ] 'mark' Varies between central [ɜ] and back [ʌ].[18]
Kalagan Kaagan[19] [mɜˈt̪äs] 'tall' Allophone of /a/; may be transcribed in IPA with ⟨ʌ⟩.[19]
Kallahan[20] [example needed]
Li'o Ke'o[21] [mə̞re] 'dark' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ə⟩.[21]
Paicî[22] rë [ɾɜ] 'they' (prefix) May be transcribed in IPA with ⟨ʌ⟩.
Romanian Standard[23] măr [mə̞r] 'apple' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ə⟩. See Romanian phonology
Transylvanian dialects[24] a [aˈʂɜ] 'such' Corresponds to [ä] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology
Sama Sibutu[25] [ˈsäpɜw] 'roof' Allophone of /a/; may be transcribed in IPA with ⟨ʌ⟩.[25]
Sindhi[26] [sə̞rə̞] 'funeral' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ə⟩.
Temne[27] pȧs [pɜ́s] 'brew' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ʌ⟩.[27]
Yiddish Standard[28] ענלעך [ˈɛnlɜχ] 'similar' Unstressed vowel.[28] See Yiddish phonology

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ While the International Phonetic Association prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowel height, many linguists use "high" and "low".
  2. ^ Wissing (2012), p. 711.
  3. ^ Wissing (2016), section "The rounded and unrounded mid-central vowels".
  4. ^ a b Kerr (1988), pp. 110, 113.
  5. ^ a b Collins & Mees (2003), p. 129.
  6. ^ a b Ladefoged (1993), p. 82.
  7. ^ Gordon (2004b), p. 340.
  8. ^ Tillery & Bailey (2004), p. 333.
  9. ^ a b c Thomas (2001), pp. 27–28.
  10. ^ a b Tench (1990), p. 135.
  11. ^ Wells (1982), pp. 380–381.
  12. ^ Lodge (2009), p. 167.
  13. ^ Khan & Weise (2013), p. 236.
  14. ^ a b Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), p. 52.
  15. ^ a b Schuh & Yalwa (1999), pp. 90–91.
  16. ^ a b Valenzuela & Gussenhoven (2013), p. 101.
  17. ^ Jolkesky (2009), pp. 676–677, 682.
  18. ^ Jolkesky (2009), pp. 676, 682.
  19. ^ a b Wendel & Wendel (1978), p. 198.
  20. ^ Santiago (2010), pp. 1, 8–10.
  21. ^ a b Baird (2002), p. 94.
  22. ^ Gordon & Maddieson (1996), p. 118.
  23. ^ Sarlin (2014), p. 18.
  24. ^ Pop (1938), p. 30.
  25. ^ a b Allison (1979), p. 82.
  26. ^ Nihalani (1999), p. 132.
  27. ^ a b Kanu & Tucker (2010), p. 249.
  28. ^ a b Kleine (2003), p. 263.

References[edit]

  • Allison, E. Joseph (1979), "The phonology of Sibutu Sama: A language of the southern Philippines" (PDF), Studies in Philippine Linguistics, 3 (2): 63–104, archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-05-11
  • Baird, Louise (2002), "Kéo", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 32 (1): 93–97, doi:10.1017/S0025100302000178
  • Collins, Beverley; Mees, Inger M. (2003) [First published 1981], The Phonetics of English and Dutch (PDF) (5th ed.), Leiden: Brill Publishers, ISBN 9004103406
  • Dudenredaktion; Kleiner, Stefan; Knöbl, Ralf (2015) [First published 1962], Das Aussprachewörterbuch (in German) (7th ed.), Berlin: Dudenverlag, ISBN 978-3-411-04067-4
  • Gordon, Matthew J.; Maddieson, Ian (1996), "The phonetics of Paici", in Maddieson, Ian (ed.), UCLA working papers in phonetics: Fieldwork studies of targeted languages IV, 93, Los Angeles: The UCLA Phonetics Laboratory Group, pp. 111–124
  • Gordon, Matthew (2004b), "The West and Midwest: phonology", in Kortmann, Bernd; Schneider, Edgar W. (eds.), A Handbook of Varieties of English: Volume 1: Phonology, Walter de Gruyter, p. 340, ISBN 3-11-017532-0
  • Jolkesky, Marcelo Pinho de Valhery (2009), "Fonologia e prosódia do Kaingáng falado em Cacique Doble", Anais do SETA, Campinas: Editora do IEL-UNICAMP, 3: 675–685
  • Kanu, Sullay M.; Tucker, Benjamin V. (2010), "Temne", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 40 (2): 247–253, doi:10.1017/S002510031000006X
  • Kerr, Harland (1988), "Cotabato Manobo Grammar" (PDF), Studies in Philippine Linguistics, 7 (1): 1–123, archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-05-11
  • Khan, Sameer ud Dowla; Weise, Constanze (2013), "Upper Saxon (Chemnitz dialect)" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (2): 231–241, doi:10.1017/S0025100313000145
  • Kleine, Ane (2003), "Standard Yiddish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (2): 261–265, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001385
  • Ladefoged, Peter (1993), A course in phonetics (3rd ed.), Fort Worth: Harcourt College Publishers
  • Lodge, Ken (2009), A Critical Introduction to Phonetics, Continuum International Publishing Group, ISBN 978-0-8264-8873-2
  • Nihalani, Paroo (1999), "Sindhi", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, Cambridge University Press, pp. 131–134, ISBN 0-521-63751-1
  • Pop, Sever (1938), Micul Atlas Linguistic Român, Muzeul Limbii Române Cluj
  • Roach, Peter (2004), "British English: Received Pronunciation", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (2): 239–245, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001768
  • Santiago, Paul Julian (2010), The Phonetic Structures of Kalanguya
  • Sarlin, Mika (2014) [First published 2013], "Sounds of Romanian and their spelling", Romanian Grammar (2nd ed.), Helsinki: Books on Demand GmbH, pp. 16–37, ISBN 978-952-286-898-5
  • Schuh, Russell G.; Yalwa, Lawan D. (1999), "Hausa", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, Cambridge University Press, pp. 90–95, ISBN 0-521-63751-1
  • Tench, Paul (1990), "The Pronunciation of English in Abercrave", in Coupland, Nikolas; Thomas, Alan Richard (eds.), English in Wales: Diversity, Conflict, and Change, Multilingual Matters Ltd., pp. 130–141, ISBN 1-85359-032-0
  • Thomas, Erik R. (2001), An acoustic analysis of vowel variation in New World English, Publication of the American Dialect Society, 85, Duke University Press for the American Dialect Society, ISSN 0002-8207
  • Tillery, Jan; Bailey, Guy (2004), "The urban South: phonology", in Kortmann, Bernd; Schneider, Edgar W. (eds.), A Handbook of Varieties of English: Volume 1: Phonology, Walter de Gruyter, p. 333, ISBN 3-11-017532-0
  • Valenzuela, Pilar M.; Gussenhoven, Carlos (2013), "Shiwilu (Jebero)" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (1): 97–106, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000370
  • Wendel, Åsa; Wendel, Dag (1978), "Kaagan-Kalagan phonemic statement" (PDF), Studies in Philippine Linguistics, 2 (1): 191–203, archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-05-11
  • Wells, John C. (1982), Accents of English, 2: The British Isles, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
  • Wissing, Daan (2012), "Integrasie van artikulatoriese en akoestiese eienskappe van vokale: 'n beskrywingsraamwerk", LitNet Akademies (in Afrikaans), Stellenbosch: LitNet, 9 (2): 701–743, ISSN 1995-5928, archived from the original on 15 April 2017, retrieved 16 April 2017
  • Wissing, Daan (2016). "Afrikaans phonology – segment inventory". Taalportaal. Archived from the original on 15 April 2017. Retrieved 16 April 2017.

External links[edit]