Open-source robotics

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An open source iCub robot mounted on a supporting frame. The robot is 104 cm high and weighs around 22 kg

Open-source robotics (OSR) is where the physical artifacts of the subject are offered by the open design movement. This branch of robotics makes use of open-source hardware and free and open-source software providing blueprints, schematics, and source code. The term usually means that information about the hardware is easily discerned so that others can make it from standard commodity components and tools—coupling it closely to the maker movement[1] and open science.


  • Long-term availability. Many non-open robots and components, especially at the hobbyist level, are designed and sold by tiny startups which can disappear overnight, leaving customers without support. Open-source systems are guaranteed to have their designs available forever so communities of users can, and do, continue support after the manufacturer has disappeared.[citation needed]
  • Avoiding lock-in. A company relying on any particular non-open component exposes itself to business risk that the supplier could ratchet up prices after they have invested time and technology building on it. Open hardware can be manufacturered by anyone, creating competition or at least the potential for competition, which both remove this risk.
  • Interchangeable software and/or hardware with common interfaces.
  • Ability to modify and fork designs more easily for customisation, innovation, collaboration and extension.
  • Higher independence, sovereignty and security as well as lower risks for unknown built-in backdoors or surveillance compared to closed-source robots.
  • Scientific reproducibility - guarantees that other labs can replicate and extend work, leading to increased impact, citations and reputation for the designer.
  • Lower-cost. Costs of a robot can be decreased dramatically when all components and tools are commodities. No component seller can hold a project to ransom by ratcheting the price of a critical component, as competing suppliers can easily be interchanged.


  • For commercial organisations, open-sourcing their own designs obviously means they can no longer make large profits through the traditional engineering business model of acting as the monopoly manufacturer or seller, because the open design can be manufactured and sold by anyone including direct competitors. Profit from engineering can come from three main sources: design, manufacturing, and support. As with other open source business models, commercial designers typically make profit via their association with the brand, which may still be trademarked. A valuable brand allows them to command a premium for their own manufactured products, as it can be associated with high quality and provide a quality guarantee to customers. The same brand is also used to command a premium on associated services, such as providing installation, maintenance, and integration support for the product. Again customers will typically pay more for the knowledge that this support is provided directly by the original designer, who therefore knows the product better than competitors.[citation needed]
  • Some customers associate open source with amateurism, the hacker community, low quality and poor support. Serious companies using this business model may need to work harder to overcome this perception by emphasising their professionalism and brand to differentiate themselves from amateur efforts.[citation needed]
  • ...


This is a non-exhaustive list of open source robots: Plen2 Eiro robot Poppy Complete humanoïd robot inmoov Molecubes, 'Quad-SDK' for large agile four-legged robots (compatible with the ROS),[2][3][better source needed][4] and the quadcopter-drone system Agilicious[5][6]

Ros logo.svg

Robot Operating System (ROS or ros) is an open-source robotics middleware suite. Although ROS is not an operating system (OS) but a set of software frameworks for robot software development, it provides services designed for a heterogeneous computer cluster such as hardware abstraction, low-level device control, implementation of commonly used functionality, message-passing between processes, and package management. Running sets of ROS-based processes are represented in a graph architecture where processing takes place in nodes that may receive, post, and multiplex sensor data, control, state, planning, actuator, and other messages. Despite the importance of reactivity and low latency in robot control, ROS is not a real-time operating system (RTOS). However, it is possible to integrate ROS with real-time computing code.[7] The lack of support for real-time systems has been addressed in the creation of ROS 2,[8][9][10] a major revision of the ROS API which will take advantage of modern libraries and technologies for core ROS functions and add support for real-time code and embedded system hardware.

  • language-and platform-independent tools used for building and distributing ROS-based software;
  • ROS client library implementations such as roscpp,[11] rospy,[12] and roslisp;[13]
  • packages containing application-related code which uses one or more ROS client libraries.[14]


A first sign of the increasing popularity of building robots yourself can be found with the DIY community. What began with small competitions for remote operated vehicles (e.g. Robot combat), soon developed to the building of autonomous telepresence robots as Sparky and then true robots (being able to take decisions themselves) as the Open Automaton Project and Leaf Project. Certain commercial companies now also produce kits for making simple robots.

A recurring problem in the community has been projects, especially on Kickstarter, promising to fully open-source their hardware and then reneging on this promise once funded, in order to profit from being the sole manufacturer and seller.


Popular[citation needed] applications to date include:

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Gibb, Alicia (2015). Building Open Source Hardware: DIY Manufacturing for Hackers and Makers. New York. pp. 253–277.
  2. ^ Verrengia, Giordana. "Open-source software gives a leg up to robot research". Carnegie Mellon University Mechanical Engineering via Retrieved 18 September 2022.
  3. ^ "Video Friday: Grip Anything". IEEE Spectrum. 29 July 2022. Retrieved 18 September 2022.
  4. ^ Norby, Joseph; Yang, Yanhao; Tajbakhsh, Ardalan; Ren, Jiming; Yim, Justin K.; Stutt, Alexandra; Yu, Qishun; Flowers, Nikolai; Johnson, Aaron M. (May 2022). "Quad-SDK: Full Stack Software Framework for Agile Quadrupedal Locomotion" (PDF). Retrieved 18 September 2022.
  5. ^ Yirka, Bob. "Open-source and open hardware autonomous quadrotor flies fast and avoids obstacles". Retrieved 20 July 2022.
  6. ^ Foehn, Philipp; Kaufmann, Elia; Romero, Angel; Penicka, Robert; Sun, Sihao; Bauersfeld, Leonard; Laengle, Thomas; Cioffi, Giovanni; Song, Yunlong; Loquercio, Antonio; Scaramuzza, Davide (22 June 2022). "Agilicious: Open-source and open-hardware agile quadrotor for vision-based flight". Science Robotics. 7 (67): eabl6259. doi:10.1126/scirobotics.abl6259. ISSN 2470-9476. PMID 35731886. S2CID 249955269.
  7. ^ "ROS/Introduction – ROS Wiki". Open Robotics. Retrieved 30 July 2021.
  8. ^ Kay, Jackie (January 2016). "Proposal for Implementation of Real-time Systems in ROS 2". Open Robotics. Retrieved 23 January 2023.
  9. ^ Kay, Jackie (January 2016). "Realtime Design Guidelines For ROS 2". Open Robotics. Retrieved 23 January 2023.
  10. ^ "ROS 2 For Realtime Applications". Open Robotics. 17 October 2018. Retrieved 22 November 2018.
  11. ^ "Package Summary". Open Robotics. Retrieved 21 February 2016.
  12. ^ "Package SUmmary". Open Robotics. Retrieved 21 February 2016.
  13. ^ "Package Summary". Open Robotics. Retrieved 21 February 2016.
  14. ^ "client libraries". Open Robotics. Retrieved 12 December 2017.
  15. ^ "DIY commercial vacuum robot". The Red Ferret Journal. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
  16. ^ "DIY Roomba preposition on Arduino motherboard". Archived from the original on 3 December 2010. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
  17. ^ Vrochidou, Eleni; Manios, Michail; Papakostas, George A.; Aitsidis, Charalabos N.; Panagiotopoulos, Fotis (September 2018). "Open-Source Robotics: Investigation on Existing Platforms and Their Application in Education". 2018 26th International Conference on Software, Telecommunications and Computer Networks (SoftCOM): 1–6. doi:10.23919/SOFTCOM.2018.8555860. ISBN 978-9-5329-0087-3. S2CID 54438146.
  18. ^ Jensen, Austin M.; Morgan, Daniel; Chen, YangQuan; Clemens, Shannon; Hardy, Thomas (1 January 2009). "Using Multiple Open-Source Low-Cost Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) for 3D Photogrammetry and Distributed Wind Measurement". Volume 3: ASME/IEEE 2009 International Conference on Mechatronic and Embedded Systems and Applications; 20th Reliability, Stress Analysis, and Failure Prevention Conference: 629–634. doi:10.1115/DETC2009-87586. ISBN 978-0-7918-4900-2.