|Original author(s)||Intel, Willow Garage, Itseez|
|Initial release||June 2000|
4.8.1 / 27 September 2023
|Written in||C, C++, Python, Java, assembly language|
|Operating system||Cross-platform: Windows, Linux, macOS, FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD; Android, iOS, Maemo, BlackBerry 10|
OpenCV (Open Source Computer Vision Library) is a library of programming functions mainly for real-time computer vision. Originally developed by Intel, it was later supported by Willow Garage, then Itseez (which was later acquired by Intel). The library is cross-platform and licensed as free and open-source software under Apache License 2. Starting in 2011, OpenCV features GPU acceleration for real-time operations.
Officially launched in 1999 the OpenCV project was initially an Intel Research initiative to advance CPU-intensive applications, part of a series of projects including real-time ray tracing and 3D display walls. The main contributors to the project included a number of optimization experts in Intel Russia, as well as Intel's Performance Library Team. In the early days of OpenCV, the goals of the project were described as:
- Advance vision research by providing not only open but also optimized code for basic vision infrastructure. No more reinventing the wheel.
- Disseminate vision knowledge by providing a common infrastructure that developers could build on, so that code would be more readily readable and transferable.
- Advance vision-based commercial applications by making portable, performance-optimized code available for free – with a license that did not require code to be open or free itself.
The first alpha version of OpenCV was released to the public at the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition in 2000, and five betas were released between 2001 and 2005. The first 1.0 version was released in 2006. A version 1.1 "pre-release" was released in October 2008.
The second major release of the OpenCV was in October 2009. OpenCV 2 includes major changes to the C++ interface, aiming at easier, more type-safe patterns, new functions, and better implementations for existing ones in terms of performance (especially on multi-core systems). Official releases now occur every six months and development is now done by an independent Russian team supported by commercial corporations.
In July 2020, OpenCV announced and began a Kickstarter campaign for the OpenCV AI Kit, a series of hardware modules and additions to OpenCV supporting Spatial AI.
In August 2020, OpenCV launched OpenCV.ai – the professional consulting arm. The team of developers provides consulting services and delivers Computer Vision, Machine Learning, and Artificial intelligence solutions.
OpenCV's application areas include:
- 2D and 3D feature toolkits
- Egomotion estimation
- Facial recognition system
- Gesture recognition
- Human–computer interaction (HCI)
- Mobile robotics
- Motion understanding
- Object detection
- Segmentation and recognition
- Stereopsis stereo vision: depth perception from 2 cameras
- Structure from motion (SFM)
- Motion video tracking
- Augmented reality
To support some of the above areas, OpenCV includes a statistical machine learning library that contains:
- Decision tree learning
- Gradient boosting trees
- Expectation-maximization algorithm
- k-nearest neighbor algorithm
- Naive Bayes classifier
- Artificial neural networks
- Random forest
- Support vector machine (SVM)
- Deep neural networks (DNN)
If the library finds Intel's Integrated Performance Primitives on the system, it will use these proprietary optimized routines to accelerate itself.
Operating system support
OpenCV runs on the desktop operating systems: Windows, Linux, macOS, FreeBSD, NetBSD and OpenBSD as well as mobile operating systems: Android, iOS, Maemo, BlackBerry 10 and QNX. The user can get official releases from SourceForge or take the latest sources from GitHub. OpenCV uses CMake.
- AForge.NET – computer vision library for the Common Language Runtime of .NET Framework and Mono
- Robot Operating System (ROS) – uses OpenCV as main vision package
- VXL – alternative library written in C++
- CVIPtools – complete graphical user interface (GUI) based computer-vision and image-processing software environment, with C function libraries, a Component Object Model (COM) based dynamic-link library (DLL), and two utility programs for algorithm development and batch processing
- OpenNN – artificial neural network library written in C++, open-source
- List of free and open-source software packages
- Pulli, Kari; Baksheev, Anatoly; Kornyakov, Kirill; Eruhimov, Victor (1 April 2012). "Realtime Computer Vision with OpenCV". Queue. 10 (4): 40:40–40:56. doi:10.1145/2181796.2206309.
- Intel acquires Itseez: https://opencv.org/intel-acquires-itseez.html Archived 2019-02-14 at the Wayback Machine
- "CUDA". opencv.org. Retrieved 2020-10-15.
- Adrian Kaehler; Gary Bradski (14 December 2016). Learning OpenCV 3: Computer Vision in C++ with the OpenCV Library. O'Reilly Media. pp. 26ff. ISBN 978-1-4919-3800-3.
- Bradski, Gary; Kaehler, Adrian (2008). Learning OpenCV: Computer vision with the OpenCV library. O'Reilly Media, Inc. p. 6.
- OpenCV change logs: http://code.opencv.org/projects/opencv/wiki/ChangeLog Archived 2013-01-15 at the Wayback Machine
- OpenCV Developer Site: http://code.opencv.org Archived 2013-01-13 at archive.today
- OpenCV User Site: http://opencv.org/
- "Intel Acquires Computer Vision for IOT, Automotive | Intel Newsroom". Intel Newsroom. Retrieved 2018-11-26.
- "Intel acquires Russian computer vision company Itseez". East-West Digital News. 2016-05-31. Retrieved 2018-11-26.
- OpenCV Consulting Site: http://opencv.ai/
- OpenCV: http://opencv.org/opencv-3-3.html Archived 2019-02-14 at the Wayback Machine
- OpenCV C interface: http://docs.opencv.org
- Introduction to OpenCV.js and Tutorials
- "Cuda GPU port". Archived from the original on 2016-05-21.
- OpenCL Announcement: http://opencv.org/opencv-v2-4-3rc-is-under-way.html Archived 2019-02-17 at the Wayback Machine
- OpenCL-accelerated Computer Vision API Reference: http://docs.opencv.org/modules/ocl/doc/ocl.html
- "Port of Intel's Open Source Computer Vision Library (OpenCV) to Maemo". Maemo Garage. 10 August 2011. Retrieved 2023-01-30.
- hungc (4 September 2019). "Blackberry Port of OpenCV [partial]". GitHub.
- "opencv/Opencv: Open Source Computer Vision Library". GitHub. 21 May 2020.