||The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. (June 2012)|
OpenCourseWare (OCW) are course lessons created at universities and published for free via the Internet. OCW projects first appeared in the late 1990s, and after gaining traction in Europe and then the United States have become a worldwide means of delivering educational content.
The OpenCourseWare movement started in 1999 when the University of Tübingen in Germany published videos of lectures online for its timms initiative (Tübinger Internet Multimedia Server). The OCW movement only took off, however, with the launch of MIT OpenCourseWare at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the Open Learning Initiative at Carnegie Mellon University in October 2002. The movement was soon reinforced by the launch of similar projects at Yale, the University of Michigan, and the University of California Berkeley.
MIT's reasoning behind OCW was to "enhance human learning worldwide by the availability of a web of knowledge". MIT also stated that it would allow students (including, but not limited to its own) to become better prepared for classes so that they may be more engaged during a class. Since then, a number of universities have created OCW, some of which have been funded by the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation.
According to the website of the OCW Consortium, an OCW project:
- is a free and open digital publication of high quality educational materials, organized as courses.
- is available for use and adaptation under an open license, such as certain Creative Commons licenses.
- does not typically provide certification or access to faculty.
Ten years after the US debut of OCW, in 2012 MIT and Harvard University announced the formation of edX, a massive open online course (MOOC) platform to offer online university-level courses in a wide range of disciplines to a worldwide audience at no charge. This new initiative was based on MIT's "MITx" project, announced in 2011, and extends the concepts of OCW by offering more structured formal courses to online students, including in some cases the possibility of earning academic credit or certificates based on supervised examinations. A major new feature of the edX platform is the ability for students to interact with each other and with teachers in online forums. In some cases, students will help evaluate each other's work, and may even participate in some of the teaching online.
In addition, edX is being used as an experimental research platform to support and evaluate a variety of other new concepts in online learning.
A problem is that the creation and maintenance of comprehensive OCW requires substantial initial and ongoing investments of human labor. Effective translation into other languages and cultural contexts requires even more investment by knowledgeable personnel. This is one of the reasons why English is still the dominant language, and fewer open courseware options are available in other languages. The OCW platform SlideWiki addresses these issues through a crowdsourcing approach.
- Universidad Icesi, OpenCourseWare de la Universidad Icesi
This listing is roughly in the order of adoption of OCW principles.
- Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), 2002
- Carnegie Mellon University, 2002 
- University of California, Berkeley
- Stanford University
- Princeton University
- University of Pennsylvania
- University of Michigan
- Harvard University
- Yale University
- Caltech
The following are not directly affiliated with a specific university:
- Academic Earth - privately owned
- Khan Academy - non-profit
- Students Circle Network - peer to peer
- Coursera - venture capital financed
- Udacity - venture capital financed
- edX - non-profit
OpenCourseWare originally initiated by MIT and the Hewlett Foundation, began movement in China in September, 2003, when MIT and the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) joined together with the Beijing Jiaotong University to organize an OpenCourseWare conference in Beijing. As a result of this conference, 12 universities petitioned the government to institute a program of OpenCourseWare in China. This group included both some of the most prestigious universities in China, as well as the Central Radio and Television University, which is China’s central open university, covering more than 2 million students.
As a result of this petition, the Chinese government approved to institute the CORE(China Open Resources for Education) to promote the OpenCourseWare in Chinese Universities, with Fun-Den Wang (the head of IETF) as chairman. The CORE is an NGO supported by Hewlett Foundation, Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and other foundations. According to CORE's website, it has nearly 100 Chinese universities as members, including the most prestigious universities in China, such as Tsinghua University, Peking University and Shanghai Jiaotong University. This organization organized volunteers to translate foreign OpenCourseWare, mainly MIT OpenCourseWare into Chinese and to promote the application of OpenCourseWare in Chinese universities. At February, 2008, 347 courses had been translated into Chinese and 245 of them were used by 200 professors in courses involving a total of 8,000 students. It also tried to translate some Chinese courses into English, but the number is not too much and some are only title translated. There have also been produced 148 comparative studies comparing MIT curriculum with Chinese curriculum using the MIT OpenCourseWare material. CORE's offices are hosted within the China Central Radio and Television University, and they receive partial funding from the IETF and the Hewlett foundation. They also host annual conferences on open education, and the 2008 conference was co-located with the international OpenCourseWare Consortium conference, which brought a large amount of foreign participants.
But before the OpenCourseWare conference in Beijing and the establishment of CORE, at April 8, 2003, the Ministry of Education had published a policy to launch the China Quality Course (精品课程) program. This program accepts applications for university lecturers that wish to put their courses online, and gives grants of between $10,000 – 15,000 CAD per course that is put online, and made available free of charge to the general public (ibid.). The most prestigious award is for the “national level CQOCW”, then there is “provincial level” and “school level”. From 2003 to 2010, there have produced 3862 courses at the national level by 746 universities. According to the official website for the China Quality Course, the total number of the courses available online is more than 20,000. These typically include syllabus, course notes, overheads, assignments, and in many cases audio or video of the entire lectures. The scale of this project has also spurred a large research activity, and over 3,000 journal articles have been written in Chinese about the topic of OpenCourseWare.
The Virtual University (Urdu:ورچوئل یونیورسٹی; Vu), is a public university located in urban area of Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. Its additional campus is also located in residential area of Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.
Established in 2002 by the Government of Pakistan to promote distance education in modern information and communication sciences as its primary objectives, the university is noted for its online lectures and broadcasting rigorous programs regardless of their students' physical locations. The university offers undergraduate and post-graduate courses in business administration, economics, computer science, and information technology. Due to its heavy reliance on serving lectures through the internet, Pakistani students residing overseas in several other countries of the region are also enrolled in the University's programs.
The National Programme on Technology Enhanced Learning (NPTEL) is a Government of India sponsored collaborative educational programme. By developing curriculum-based video and web courses the programme aims to enhance the quality of engineering education in India. It is being jointly carried out by 7 IITs and IISc Bangalore, and is funded by the Ministry of Human Resources Development of the Government of India.
Flexilearn is a very useful open course portal. It was initiated by Indira Gandhi National Open University, and apart from providing free course materials, flexilearn also provides opportunities to enroll oneself for a course and appear for exam conducted by university and thereby get certification.
To provide open access to the resources for school education, Department of School Education and Literacy, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India and the Central Institute of Educational Technology, National Council of Educational Research and Training launch National Repository of Open Educational Resources" (NROER) Anyone can participate in, contribute, curate and organise resources and activities, growing it to reach every teacher and every student in all languages. TARGET AUDIENCE
Teachers: The repository is primarily for teachers so that they can have access to variety of resources available in different subject areas. The idea is to introduce teachers to a bouquet of resources and provide them with an opportunity to pick and choose the resources which suits their requirement in classroom transaction. In addition to accessing resources and using them in their classroom, teacher can also create and contribute resources.
Teacher Educators: The repository aims to house various policy documents for example copy of National Curriculum Frameworks, National Focus Group papers on all the subjects and other policy documents which will be helpful for teacher educators.
Students/ Parents: Students can access variety of resources. They should be able to access the resources grade wise, subject wise and language wise.
Photographers: Photographs and images which can be mapped to school curriculum are invited. Photographers or any individual who has an access to such photographs/images can contribute to the repository making it relevant for school students and teachers by appropriately tagging them and by providing relevant keywords.
Producers: Documentary filmmakers/ audio producers/ video producers who have produced films/ video/ audio programmes can contribute to the repository. Also by having a look at spectrum of content which the repository plans to offer they can create content and contribute.
Other government and non-government organizations: As far as e-content is concerned, it is available in abundance. Many organisations have been creating such content for many years. The NROER aims to bring all such organisations on board so that the content created by all these organisations can be mapped to school curriculum and can be made available to teachers and students.
In 2002, researchers from the National Institute of Multimedia Education (NIME) and Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech) studied the MIT OpenCourseWare, leading them to develop an OCW pilot plan with 50 courses at Tokyo Institute of Technology in September. Later, in July 2004, MIT gave a lecture about MIT OpenCourseWare at Tokyo Tech that prompted the first meeting of the Japan OCW Alliance. The meeting was held with four Japanese universities that had mainly been recruited through the efforts of MIT professor Miyagawa, and his personal contacts. In one case, the connection was the former president of the University of Tokyo being an acquintance of Charles Vest, the former president of MIT.
In 2006, the OCW International Conference was held at Kyoto University wherein the Japanese OCW Association was reorganized into the Japan OCW Consortium. At that time, Japan OCW Consortium had over 600 courses; currently they have 18 university members, including the United Nations University (JOCW, n.d.). On Japanese university campuses there are few experts in content production, which makes it difficult to get support locally, and many of the universities have had to out-source their production of OCW. In example, the University of Tokyo has had to mainly employ students to create OCW.
The motivation for joining the OCW movement seems to be to create positive change among Japanese universities, including modernizing presentation style among lecturers, as well as sharing learning material. Japanese researchers have been particularly interested in the technical aspects of OCW, for example in creating semantic search engines. There is currently a growing interest for Open Educational Resources (OER) among Japanese universities, and more universities are expected to join the consortium.
“In order to become an integral institution that contributes to OER, the JOCW Consortium needs to forge solidarity among the member universities and build a rational for OER on its own, different from that of MIT, which would support the international deployment of Japanese universities and also Japanese style e-Learning.”
- France Universite Numerique: The Mooc portal for French Universities, founded in 2013 with state support.
In the United Arab Emirates, a discussion, led by Dr. Linzi J. Kemp, American University of Sharjah, has begun about sharing teaching and learning materials (‘open course ware’) through a community of educators and practitioners in the GCC. There is growing availability of high quality and free open access materials shared between universities e.g. MIT (USA). Resource sharing also takes place on the ‘Open University (UK), OpenLearn’ platform. Kemp (2013) proposes that teaching and learning will be enhanced when teachers across institutions of higher education work together to bring their shared knowledge into classrooms. Furthermore, when the platform is opened up to include practitioners - e.g. employers - then the relationship with the industry will further ensure that the teaching and learning is available and beneficial for a wider community.
- Berkeley Webcast
- China Open Resources for Education
- Education in Japan
- Khan Academy
- MIT OpenCourseWare
- National Programme on Technology Enhanced Learning
- Notre Dame OpenCourseWare
- Open educational resources
- Open Yale Courses
- Saylor Foundation
- Tufts OpenCourseWare
- Virtual University of Pakistan
- Tübinger Internet Multimedia Server
- "Learn More About OLI". cmu.edu.
- Vest, C. M. (2004). "Why MIT decided to give away all its course materials via the Internet". The Chronicle of Higher Education, 50(21), B20.
- "Benefits of Membership". oeconsortium.org.
- Tarasowa, Darya; Darya Tarasowa; Ali Khalili; Sören Auer; Jörg Unbehauen (2013). "CrowdLearn: Crowd-sourcing the Creation of Highly-structured E-Learning Content". 5th International Conference on Computer Supported Education CSEDU 2013.
- Auer, Sören. "First Public Beta of SlideWiki.org". Retrieved 22 February 2013.
- "OCW". icesi.edu.co.
- "OCW: Proposta". Ocw.unicamp.br. Retrieved 2014-01-01.
- udem.edu.mx - Acerca de OCW — UDEM OpenCourseWare, 2007-02-20
- OpenCourseWare - Universidad Anáhuac México Norte , 2010
- "Colleges with Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs)". campusexplorer.com.
- "Open Yale Courses". yale.edu.
- Thrun on the Udacity model
- http://www.core.org.cn/cn/coredes.html Retrieved on April 11, 2013.
- CORE (2007). 2007 "Annual Report". CORE. Retrieved on December 18, 2008.
- Wang, F. (2008). "Open Education Resources—Concept, Status and Frontier". 22nd Annual Conference of the Asian Association of Open Universities (AAOU). Tianjin, China. Retrieved on December 18, 2008.
- CORE (2008) Open Education Conference 2008 held in April in Dalian, China. CORE. Retrieved on December 18, 2008.
- "教育部关于启动高等学校教学质量与教学改革工程精品课程建设工作的通知_教育部门户网站_MOE.GOV.CN" (in Chinese). Moe.gov.cn. 2003-04-14. Retrieved 2014-01-01.
- "精品课程介绍 - 首页 - 国家精品课程资源网 - Home Page" (in Chinese). Jingpinke.com. Retrieved 2014-01-01.
- http://www.jingpinke.com/ Retrieved on April 11, 2013.
- CAJ (2008) "Search for “精品课程” across all categories". China Academic Journals. Retrieved on December 18, 2008.
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- Makoshi, N. (2006). "TokyoTech OCW WG and Japan OCW Consortium". Paper given to joint OECD/AIDE conference. Retrieved on December 19, 2008.
- Kobayashi, T. & Kawafuchi, A. (2006). "Recent Moves in Promoting e-Learning in Japanese Higher Education with a Focus upon OER". Paper presented at European Association of Distance Teaching Universities, Tallinn, Estonia. Retrieved on December 18, 2008
- tudelft.nl - TU Delft: 1. About TU Delft OpenCourseWare, read 2012-05-11
- "Open CourseWare". pub.ro. 26 April 2015.
- "American University of Sharjah". Aus.edu. 2005-04-01. Retrieved 2014-01-01.