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Comma Two running the Openpilot software
Comma Two running the Openpilot software
Initial release30 November 2016; 4 years ago (2016-11-30)
Stable release
0.8 (28 November 2020; 2 months ago (2020-11-28))
Written inPython and C
TypeComputer vision
LicenseMIT License
Toyota Prius with openpilot installed
Car specification editor
A user annotating a drive

openpilot is an open source, semi-automated driving system developed by openpilot operates as a replacement for OEM Advanced driver-assistance systems with the objective of improving visual perception and electromechanical actuator control. It allows users to modify their existing car with increased computing power, enhanced sensors, and continuously-updated driver assistance features that improve with user-submitted data.

There have been over 30,000,000 miles[1] driven by users of openpilot.[2]

History[edit] was founded in September 2015 by George Hotz.[3] The first version of openpilot was revealed a few months later in a Bloomberg article, showing functionality on a 2016 Acura ILX.[4] The video and article instigated a cease and desist letter from the California Department of Motor Vehicles, claiming was testing a self driving car without a license.

openpilot was packaged into a small, shippable device called the "comma one", announced at TechCrunch Disrupt.[5] On October 27, 2016, NHTSA issued a Special Order to demanding detailed information about the comma one, to determine if the device complies with legally required Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards.[6] responded in a tweet from Shenzhen, China, announcing the cancellation of the comma one.[7] open-sourced openpilot a month later, on November 30, 2016, emphasizing its intended use for research, without any warranty.[8][9]

On January 7, 2020, introduced the $999 "comma two" device at CES in Las Vegas.[10][11][12]


Automated lane centering[edit]

openpilot uses machine learning, trained with user driver data, to determine the safest path on the road. This improves perception on roads without lane markings vs. lane centering by tracking current lane lines.

Adaptive cruise control[edit]

openpilot maintains a safe following distance from the vehicle ahead. It is capable of driving in stop-and-go traffic with no user intervention. It uses OpenStreetMap's road curvature and speed limit data to allow slowing on sharp turns and setting the vehicle's desired speed to the current speed limit.

Driver monitoring[edit]

openpilot recognizes the driver's face; if the driver is distracted, openpilot warns the driver. If the driver is distracted for more than six seconds, openpilot decelerates the vehicle to a stop, and audibly alerts the user.

Assisted lane change[edit]

Openpilot uses the model to change lanes when the user engages the turn signal, a nudge is required on the steering wheel to confirm the lane change. Openpilot also interacts with the blind spot monitor on certain makes and models to block the lane change in the event a car is detected by the blind spot monitor.

Software updates[edit]

openpilot receives over-the-air software updates via WiFi or a cellular phone network.

Supported cars[edit]

At launch, openpilot supported the Honda Civic and the Acura ILX. Support for more vehicles and makes has been added through open source contribution.[13]

Make Model[13] Year (earliest) Year (latest)
Acura ILX 2016 2018
RDX 2016 2018
Buick Regal 2018 2018
Chevrolet Malibu 2017 2017
Volt 2017 2018
Cadillac ATS 2018 2018
Chrysler Pacifica 2017 2020
Pacifica Hybrid 2017 2020
GMC Acadia Denali 2018 2018
Holden Astra 2017 2017
Honda Accord 2018 2019
Civic 2016 2020
Civic Hatchback 2017 2019
CR-V 2015 2020
CR-V Hybrid 2017 2019
Fit 2018 2018
HR-V 2019 2019
Insight 2019 2021
Odyssey 2018 2020
Passport 2019 2019
Pilot 2016 2019
Ridgeline 2017 2020
Hyundai Elantra 2017 2019
Genesis 2018 2018
Kona 2017 2019
Kona EV 2019 2019
Palisade 2020 2020
Santa Fe 2019 2019
Sonata 2019 2020
Jeep Grand Cherokee 2016 2019
Kia Forte 2018 2019
Optima 2017 2019
Sorento 2018 2018
Stinger 2018 2018
Lexus CT Hybrid 2017 2018
ES Hybrid 2019 2019
IS 2017 2019
NX 300h[13] 2018 2018
RX 2016 2017
RX 2020 2020
RX Hybrid 2016 2020
Subaru Crosstrek 2018 2019
Forester 2019 2019
Impreza 2017 2019
Toyota Avalon 2016 2018
Camry 2018 2021
C-HR 2017 2019
C-HR Hybrid 2018 2019
Corolla 2017 2020
Corolla Hybrid 2020 2020
Corolla Hatchback 2019 2020
Highlander 2017 2020
Highlander Hybrid 2017 2020
Prius 2016 2020
Prius Prime 2017 2020
Rav4 2016 2020
Rav4 Hybrid 2016 2021
Sienna 2018 2020
Volkswagen Golf 2016 2019


Development is supported by an open-source community using Discord[14] and GitHub. has released tools and guides to help developers port their cars.[15] In addition, they released tools to let users review their drives.[16]

Forks[edit] maintains the openpilot codebase and releases, and there is a growing community that maintains various forks of openpilot. These forks consist of experimental features such as stop light detection.

Pre-Autopilot Tesla models have been retrofitted with openpilot through a community fork.[17] Chrysler and Jeep models have also gained support through community contributions.[18][19]

There are over 4,200 forks of the openpilot GitHub repository.[9]


  1. ^ "And... here we go. We collected 10MM miles in 288k driving hours!". May 2, 2019.
  2. ^ " – Introducing openpilot". – Introducing openpilot.
  3. ^ " founder George Hotz wants to free humanity from the AI simulation". 2019-03-09. Retrieved 2020-03-10.
  4. ^ Missing or empty |title= (help)
  5. ^ "George "Geohot" Hotz Presents the Comma One at Disrupt SF". YouTube. 2016-09-13. Retrieved 2020-03-02.
  6. ^ "NHTSA Special Order".
  7. ^ "The comma one is cancelled. will be exploring other products and markets. Hello from Shenzhen, China. -GH 3/3". October 28, 2016.
  8. ^ "George Hotz is giving away the code behind his self-driving car project". Retrieved May 13, 2017.
  9. ^ a b "commaai/openpilot". March 2, 2020 – via GitHub.
  10. ^ Hall, Emme (2020-01-09). "We hit the road with's assisted-driving tech at CES 2020". Roadshow. Retrieved 2020-01-19.
  11. ^ Baldwin, Roberto (2020-01-13). "Comma Ai continues to impress with its aftermarket driver assistance tech". Engadget. Retrieved 2020-01-19.
  12. ^ "Available for purchase now". January 7, 2020.
  13. ^ a b c "commaai/openpilot". GitHub.
  14. ^ "comma ai on Twitter: "Moving from Slack to Discord""., Inc. Retrieved 27 February 2019.
  15. ^ ai, comma (August 4, 2018). "How to write a car port for openpilot". Medium.
  16. ^ ai, comma (July 13, 2018). "The Half Way Point". Medium.
  17. ^ "Tesla - comma wiki".
  18. ^ "Giraffe for FCA group released! openpilot now officially supports only the Chrysler Pacifica Hybrid, but it will soon spread to all Chrysler, Jeep and Fiat with ACC and LaneSense! …". February 1, 2019.
  19. ^ "adhintz/openpilot". GitHub.