Open Observatory of Network Interference

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The Open Observatory of Network Interference (OONI) is a free software, global observation network created to detect censorship, surveillance and traffic manipulation on the internet. It develops tests designed to examine blocking of websites, of instant messaging apps, of Tor and other circumvention tools, and detection of systems that could be responsible for censorship and/or surveillance.[1] It relies on volunteers living under authoritarian regimes to run code that checks for crackdowns and then upload the results to their servers.[2] As of March 2017 OONI has analyzed almost 11 millon network connections in 96 countries.[3]


OONI was Launched in 2012[4][5][6] It is a free software project under The Tor Project, a research-education nonprofit organization that declares being devoted to empower decentralized efforts in increasing transparency of internet censorship worldwide.[7] In 2017, OONI launched Ooniprobe, a mobile app developed to test network connectivity and let users know when a website is censored in their area.[8][7]

Notable cases[edit]

OONI has confirmed the blocking of 886 domains (and 1,019 URLs in total) in Iran over the course of three years between 2014 and 2017, most of which include news outlets and human rights sites.[9] It has also reported the blocking of (at least) 10 media websites in Egypt, including Mada Masr and Al Jazeera.[10] In 2018, OONI detected network disruptions in Sierra Leone right before and after the country's runoff elections.[11] On 24 February 2019, Cuban independent news outlet Tremenda Nota confirmed the blocking of its website a few hours before a referendum in Cuba. A new Constitution was voted in the country for the first time in decades. OONI network measurement data confirmed the blocking of the site along with several other independent media websites during the referendum.[12] The network had previously confirmed 41 websites blocked in the country in 2017.[13][14] Cases of internet censorship and network disruptions during elections have also been detected in Benin[15] and Zambia.[16] In May 2019, OONI reported on the Chinese Government blocking all language editions of Wikipedia.[17][18]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Open Observatory of Network Interference". Retrieved 2 June 2019.
  2. ^ Giles, Martin. "Online censorship in Saudi Arabia soared after Jamal Khashoggi's murder". Retrieved 12 June 2019.
  3. ^ "La cibercensura invisible, mapeada". Retrieved 2 June 2019.
  4. ^ Siegel, Rachel. "Search result not found: China bans Wikipedia in all languages". Retrieved 12 June 2019.
  5. ^ "Blog posts". Retrieved 12 June 2019.
  6. ^ "Open Observatory of Network Interference". Retrieved 12 June 2019.
  7. ^ a b "About". Retrieved 2 June 2019.
  8. ^ Larson, Selena. "New app helps people track internet censorship". Retrieved 12 June 2019.
  9. ^ "Internet Censorship in Iran: Findings from 2014-2017". Retrieved 2 June 2019.
  10. ^ "The State of Internet Censorship in Egypt". Retrieved 2 June 2019.
  11. ^ "Sierra Leone: Network disruptions amid 2018 runoff elections". Retrieved 2 June 2019.
  12. ^ "Cuba blocks independent media amid 2019 constitutional referendum". Retrieved 12 June 2019.
  13. ^ Matsakis, Louise. "Here Are the 41 Websites You Can't Access in Cuba". Retrieved 12 June 2019.
  14. ^ "Measuring Internet Censorship in Cuba's ParkNets". Retrieved 12 June 2019.
  15. ^ "Benin: Social media blocking and Internet blackout amid 2019 elections". Retrieved 12 June 2019.
  16. ^ "Zambia: Internet censorship during the 2016 general elections?". Retrieved 12 June 2019.
  17. ^ LEUNG, HILLARY. "Wikipedia Is Now Banned in China in All Languages". Retrieved 11 June 2019.
  18. ^ "China is now blocking all language editions of Wikipedia". Retrieved 11 June 2019.