Open design is the development of physical products, machines and systems through use of publicly shared design information. Open design involves the making of both free and open-source software (FOSS) as well as open-source hardware. The process is generally facilitated by the Internet and often performed without monetary compensation. The goals and philosophy are identical to that of the open-source movement, but are implemented for the development of physical products rather than software. Open design is a form of co-creation, where the final product is designed by the users, rather than an external stakeholder such as a private company.
Sources of the open-design movement
Sharing of manufacturing information can be traced back to the 18th and 19th century. Aggressive patenting put an end to that period of extensive knowledge sharing. More recently, principles of open design have been related to the free software and open source movements. In 1997 Eric S. Raymond, Tim O'Reilly and Larry Augustin established "open source" as an alternative expression to "free software," and in 1997 Bruce Perens published the Open Source Definition. In late 1998, Dr. Sepehr Kiani (a PhD in mechanical engineering from MIT) realized that designers could benefit from open source policies, and in early 1999 he convinced Dr. Ryan Vallance and Dr. Samir Nayfeh of the potential benefits of open design in machine design applications. Together they established the Open Design Foundation (ODF) as a non-profit corporation, and set out to develop an Open Design Definition.
The idea of open design was taken up, either simultaneously or subsequently, by several other groups and individuals. The principles of open design are closely similar to those of open-source hardware design, which emerged in March 1998 when Reinoud Lamberts of the Delft University of Technology proposed on his “Open Design Circuits” website the creation of a hardware design community in the spirit of free software.
Ronen Kadushin coined the title "Open Design" in his 2004 Master’s thesis, and the term was later formalized in the 2010 Open Design Manifesto.
Current directions of the open-design movement
The open-design movement currently unites two trends. On one hand, people apply their skills and time on projects for the common good, perhaps where funding or commercial interest is lacking, for developing countries or to help spread ecological or cheaper technologies. On the other hand, open design may provide a framework for developing advanced projects and technologies that might be beyond the resource of any single company or country and involve people who, without the copyleft mechanism, might not collaborate otherwise. There is now also a third trend, where these two methods come together to use high-tech open-source (e.g. 3D printing) but customized local solutions for sustainable development. Open Design holds great potential in driving future innovation as resent research has proven that stakeholder users working together produce more innovative designs than designers consulting users through more traditional means.
Open machine design as compared to open-source software
The open-design movement is currently fairly nascent but holds great potential for the future. In some respects design and engineering are even more suited to open collaborative development than the increasingly common open-source software projects, because with 3D models and photographs the concept can often be understood visually. It is not even necessary that the project members speak the same languages to usefully collaborate.
However, there are certain barriers to overcome for open design when compared to software development where there are mature and widely used tools available and the duplication and distribution of code cost next to nothing. Creating, testing and modifying physical designs is not quite so straightforward because of the effort, time and cost required to create the physical artefact; although with access to emerging flexible computer-controlled manufacturing techniques the complexity and effort of construction can be significantly reduced (see tools mentioned in the fab lab article).
Open design is currently a fledgling movement consisting of several unrelated or loosely related initiatives. Many of these organizations are single, funded projects, while a few organizations are focusing on an area needing development. In some cases (e.g. Thingiverse for 3D printable designs or Appropedia for open source appropriate technology) organizations are making an effort to create a centralized open source design repository as this enables innovation. Notable organizations include:
- AguaClara, an open-source engineering group at Cornell University publishing a design tool and CAD designs for water treatment plants
- Elektor: electronics
- Instructables : miscellaneous
- Local Motors : methods of transport, vehicles
- One Laptop Per Child, a project to give every child in developing territories a laptop computer with open hardware and software
- OpenCores : digital electronic hardware
- Open Architecture Network : places. to shelter
- Open Design Alliance : CAD software
- Open Hardware and Design Alliance (OHANDA)
- OpenStructures (OSP), a modular construction model where everyone designs on the basis of one shared geometrical grid.
- Open Source Ecology, including solar cells.
- Sensorica  A collaborative open source hardware Open Value Network (virtual organisation)
- Thingiverse : miscellaneous
- VIA OpenBook netbook has CAD files for the design licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 Unported License
- Wikispeed, open-source modular vehicles
- Zoetrope, open design low cost wind turbine.
- 3D printing services
- Commons-based peer production
- Knowledge commons
- Modular design
- Open manufacturing
- Open-source appropriate technology
- Open-source architecture
- Open-source hardware
- Open Source Initiative
- Open-source software
- Open standard and Open standardization
- "Evaluation + Tools + Best Practices: BugLabs and Open-Source Hardware Innovation". Worldchanging. Retrieved 2013-06-16.
- Thursday, November 1st, 2007 (2007-11-01). "First Pics of Bug Labs Open-Source Hardware". TechCrunch. Retrieved 2013-06-16.
- Sorrel, Charlie (2013-03-28). "Zoybar | Gadget Lab". Wired.com. Retrieved 2013-06-16.
- "Open collaborative design". AdCiv. 2010-07-29. Retrieved 2013-06-16.
- Nuvolari, Alessandro 2004. Collective Invention during the British Industrial Revolution: The Case of the Cornish Pumping Engine. Cambridge Journal of Economics, 28, nr. 3: 347–363.
- Allen, Robert C. 1983. Collective Invention. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 4, no. 1: 1–24.
- Bessen, James E. and Nuvolari, Alessandro, Knowledge Sharing Among Inventors: Some Historical Perspectives (2012, forthcoming). In: Dietmar Harhoff and Karim Lakhani eds., Revolutionizing Innovation: Users, Communities and Open Innovation. Cambridge: MIT Press. Pre-Print: Boston Univ. School of Law, Law and Economics Research Paper No. 11-51; LEM Working Paper 2011/21. Available at http://www.bu.edu/law/faculty/scholarship/workingpapers/documents/BessenJ-NuvolariA101411fin.pdf
- Vallance, Kiani and Nayfeh, Open Design of Manufacturing Equipment, CIRP 1st Int. Conference on Agile, 2001
- R. Ryan Vallance, Bazaar Design of Nano and Micro Manufacturing Equipment, 2000
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-08-12. Retrieved 2007-10-05.
- Alexander Vittouris, Mark Richardson. "Designing for Velomobile Diversity: Alternative opportunities for sustainable personal mobility". 2012.
- J. M Pearce, C. Morris Blair, K. J. Laciak, R. Andrews, A. Nosrat and I. Zelenika-Zovko, “3-D Printing of Open Source Appropriate Technologies for Self-Directed Sustainable Development”, Journal of Sustainable Development 3(4), pp. 17-29 (2010). 
- Mitchell, Val; Ross, Tracy; Sims, Ruth; Parker, Christopher J. (2015). "Empirical investigation of the impact of using co-design methods when generating proposals for sustainable travel solutions". CoDesign. 12 (4): 205–220. doi:10.1080/15710882.2015.1091894.
- Thomas J. Howard, Sofiane Achiche, Ali Özkil and Tim C. McAloone, Open Design And Crowdsourcing: Maturity, Methodology And Business Models, International Design Conference - Design 2012, Dubrovnik - Croatia, May 21–24, 2012.open access
- Pearce J., Albritton S., Grant G., Steed G., & Zelenika I. 2012. A new model for enabling innovation in appropriate technology for sustainable development Archived 2012-11-22 at the Wayback Machine.. Sustainability: Science, Practice, & Policy 8(2) Published online Aug 20, 2012. open access
- "Elektor FAQ Elektor". Retrieved 16 April 2015.
- "littleBits: DIY Electronics For Prototyping and Learning". Retrieved 16 April 2015.
- "Home". Retrieved 16 April 2015.
- "Open Source Ecology". Open Source Ecology. Retrieved 16 April 2015.
- "Solar cells". Retrieved 16 April 2015.
- "Wind Turbine". Retrieved 16 April 2015.
|Wikiversity has learning resources about Open design|
|Wikiversity has learning resources about Topic:Engineering/Free or open source design tools|
- Episodes of Collective Invention (Peter B. Meyer, August 2003) An article on several historical examples of what could be called "open design."
- The Political Economy of Open Source Software (Steven Weber, June 2000) An article outlining the development of Linux Operating System from a political-science perspective. The conclusion suggests that the open-source development model is suited to disciplines besides software development.
- worldchanging archives (Alex Steffen, November 2006) An interview with Lawrence Lessig on the use of the Developing Nations License by Architecture for Humanity to create a global open design network.
- The Emergence of Open Design and Open Manufacturing Michel Bauwens, We Magazine Volume 2
- designbreak - open science, engineering and design non-profit, with a focus on interdisciplinary collaboration to address issues of health and poverty.
- In the Next Industrial Revolution, Atoms Are the New Bits Chris Anderson, Wired February 2010
- Open Design Now (June 2011)
- Open Hardware and Design Alliance (OHANDA)