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Industry Telecommunications
Founded 2006
Headquarters London, United Kingdom
Key people
Joe Garner (Chief Executive)[1]
Revenue Increase £ 5.061 billion (2014)
Increase £ 1.195 billion (2014)
Parent BT Group

Openreach is a natural monopoly which owns the pipes and telephone cables that connect nearly all businesses and homes in the UK to the national broadband and telephone network. It is a subsidiary of BT Group. Since 2005, Openreach has become highly controversial[2] on account of the UK's slow broadband speeds[3] and the decreasing competitiveness of the UK's internet infrastructure.[4] It has also suffered an extremely high number of customer complaints[5] relating to poor service,[6] although it does not communicate directly with its customers.[7]

Openreach was established in 2006 following an agreement between BT and Ofcom to implement certain undertakings, pursuant to the Enterprise Act 2002, to ensure that rival telecom operators have equality of access to BT's local network.[8][9] Openreach manages BT's local access network which connects customers to their local telephone exchange, starting at the Main Distribution Frame (MDF) in the exchange and ending at the network termination point (NTP) at the end user's premises. Openreach also manages the connections between the MDF and the BT Wholesale/Local Loop Unbundling (LLU) termination points located in the exchange, often referred to as jumper connections.

BT have been accused of abusing their control of Openreach,[10] which generates most of BT's profits,[11] particularly by underinvesting in the UK's broadband infrastructure,[12] charging high prices and providing poor customer service.[13] The UK's telecoms regulator Ofcom is currently investigating whether to order BT to sell Openreach, and is expected to report in January 2016.

In 2009, BT announced Openreach would connect 2.5 million British homes to ultra-fast FTTP by 2012 and 25% of the UK. However, by the end of September 2015 only 250,000 homes were connected.[14] Instead, BT offered an 'FTTP on Demand' product,[15] but in January 2015, BT stopped taking orders for the on-demand product as the costs for FTTP on Demand were deemed "excessive" and unreasonable. The native Wholesale Broadband Connect version of FTTP has been rolled out to some parts of the UK, though the rollout is very slow and patchy.


Following the Telecommunications Strategic Review (TSR), in September 2005 British Telecom signed Undertakings with Ofcom to create a separate division, for the purpose of providing equal access to BT’s local access network and backhaul products.[16] Ofcom previously argued that BT had significant market power in the British telecommunications market, specifically in residential voice services, business retail services, leased lines, wholesale international services, and wholesale broadband and fixed narrowband services.[17] The resulting organisation, Openreach, opened for business in January 2006 and reports directly into the BT chief executive.

The functional separation of Openreach from BT has had mixed results, according to economists J. Gregory Sidak and Andrew Vassallo, who have argued that while Openreach’s creation produced the short-run benefit of lower prices, it also led to long-run costs, such as declines in telecommunications investment, customer satisfaction, and measures of the United Kingdom’s global competitiveness in telecommunications.[18]

Today, the company is structured such that it is a wholly owned subsidiary of British Telecommunications plc (BT), which itself includes the four separately managed businesses and virtually all other assets of the BT Group.

In July 2010 Openreach signed an £800 million contract with ECI Telecom to help it service and create a fibre-optic network serving 18 million households in the UK.[19] The deal was the largest in ECI's history.


Openreach van
Openreach Engineer

Field engineers install and maintain the physical network wiring from the telephone exchange into end customers' premises on behalf of 537 communication providers (CPs) which sell services directly to end customers.

Openreach engineers visit around 29,500 homes and offices every weekday on behalf of its customers, the CPs, make 80,800 provision visits on copper, fibre and TV, and manage 90,000 repairs to its copper, fibre and broadband networks every week, remove around 40,000 unused cable connections from its exchanges and provide another 75,000 every day.

Every week they also deal with 650 Network break downs due to damage, theft and weather, test 12,000 poles and replace 920, replace 85 cables and street cabinets, fix 100 low wires and connect another 3,000 newsite plots to its network.[20]

Calls for split from BT Group[edit]

Telecoms provider customers who have problems cannot directly contact Openreach and have to go indirectly through their reseller. Openreach are accountable to each of the telecoms providers, as well as Ofcom. In July 2014, Ofcom completed a review of Openreach's service, resulting in mandated performance levels on key services.[21]

In August 2015, Labour MP Chris Bryant called for Openreach to be split from BT, criticising the infrastructure and stating that it is too slow to fix faults and install new lines.[22]

BT have been accused of using their Openreach monopoly as a source of billions of pounds in profits whilst underinvesting in the UK's broadband infrastructure, charging high prices and providing poor customer service.


  1. ^ BT Press Releases: Joe Garner to be CEO of Openreach
  2. ^ "GLA Conservatives - London is One of the Slowest EU Capitals for Broadband - ISPreview UK". Retrieved 2015-11-06. 
  3. ^ Garside, Juliette. "Why Britain's broadband is heading for the slow lane". the Guardian. Retrieved 2015-11-06. 
  4. ^ "BT Abandons Original Rollout Target for Native UK FTTP Broadband - ISPreview UK". Retrieved 2015-11-06. 
  5. ^ "BBC Watchdog Scalds BT Openreach for New Home Install Delays - ISPreview UK". Retrieved 2015-11-06. 
  6. ^ Tims, Anna. "BT’s Openreach slammed for phone and broadband connection delays". the Guardian. Retrieved 2015-11-06. 
  7. ^ Tims, Anna. "BT Openreach seems to be penalising us for being Sky customers". the Guardian. Retrieved 2015-11-06. 
  8. ^ "Implementation of BT's Undertakings". 30 April 2010. Retrieved 16 November 2015. 
  9. ^ "Introduction to the Telecoms Review". Retrieved 16 November 2015. 
  10. ^ "UPDATE Sky Demand Ofcom Open UK Competition Inquiry into BT Openreach - ISPreview UK". Retrieved 2015-10-13. 
  11. ^ "Broadband firms protest against BT's monopoly position - Telcos - News -". Retrieved 2015-10-13. 
  12. ^ "Ofcom seeks views on splitting BT and Openreach". BBC News. Retrieved 2015-10-13. 
  13. ^ Tims, Anna. "BT’s Openreach slammed for phone and broadband connection delays". the Guardian. Retrieved 2015-10-13. 
  14. ^ "BT aimed to get true fibre to 25% of UK. The actual figure? 0.7%". Alphr. Retrieved 2015-10-13. 
  15. ^ "BT Fibre On Demand: What is it and what will it cost?". Recombu. Retrieved 2015-10-13. 
  16. ^ "Openreach Establishment – An Overview" (PDF). UK: Ofcom. 21 February 2006. Retrieved 16 November 2015. 
  18. ^ J. Gregory Sidak; Andrew P. Vassallo (2015). "Did Separating Openreach from British Telecom Benefit Consumers?" (PDF). Criterion Economics. Retrieved 16 November 2015. 
  19. ^ ECI's BT contract (Yedioth Ahronoth)
  20. ^ "Our organisation". Retrieved 16 November 2015. 
  21. ^ "Fixed access market reviews 2014". 19 February 2014. Retrieved 16 November 2015. 
  22. ^ "Labour MP calls for Ofcom to force BT split from Openreach". eCall. 25 August 2015. Retrieved 26 August 2015. 

External links[edit]