Operación Triunfo (Spanish TV series)

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Operación Triunfo
Created by
  • Toni Cruz
  • Josep Maria Mainat
  • Joan Ramon Mainat
Presented by
Country of originSpain
No. of series12
Running time160–180 minutes
Production companyGestmusic Endemol
Original release
Release22 October 2001 (2001-10-22) –

Operación Triunfo (English: Operation Triumph) is a reality television talent show which first aired on Spain's TVE network in 2001. A music talent contest with viewer voting and reality show elements that originated Endemol's Star Academy franchise, the show aims to find the country's next solo singing sensation.

Operación Triunfo (also known as OT) first aired in 2001. On its first run between 2001 and 2004, three series were aired on TVE, which also served as the national final to select the Spanish entry for the Eurovision Song Contest. The first series of OT was particularly successful in ratings, becoming one of the most popular shows in the history of Spanish television and featuring singers that went on to enjoy long-term recognition from the public: notably Rosa López, David Bisbal, David Bustamante or Chenoa. After the third series, TVE decided not to renew the show and its rights were acquired by Telecinco, which aired series 5–8 of the series. Series 8 in 2011 was cancelled due to poor ratings and its finale was rushed as a result.

On 26 April 2017, RTVE approved a new series of the talent show produced by Gestmusic Endemol, returning to TVE after 13 years. The total cost of the series was €10.2 million.[1] Due to its ratings success, it was renewed for a further series.[2] This was the second most successful edition of the program to date,[3][4] artists like Aitana, Ana Guerra, Amaia, Alfred García, Luis Cepeda, Agoney, Miriam Rodríguez or Lola Índigo have emerged from this edition.[5]

In 2023, Amazon Prime Video acquired the rights to air the twelfth series.[6]


A selection of hopefuls is boarded in "The Academy", managed by a headmaster, where they are coached by various professionals in several artistic disciplines and are filmed with cameras (an idea borrowed from another of Endemol's major reality shows Big Brother). Once a week, the contestants have to face a prime time show, where they sing a cover version of a popular song they have prepared during the week before, as well as recapping their trials and tribulations at The Academy from the past week. The live show will often feature special guest stars, with whom some of the contestants have the opportunity to sing. Based on the judges' verdicts and viewer voting, the weakest contestant is dropped. The eventual winner is awarded a record deal and/or some amount of money.

Series overview[edit]

Series Year Winner Runner-up Third place Fourth place Fifth place Sixth place Host Headmaster Network
1 2001–02 Rosa López David Bisbal David Bustamante Chenoa Manu Tenorio Verónica Romero Carlos Lozano Nina La 1
2 2002–03 Ainhoa Cantalapiedra Manuel Carrasco Beth Rodergas Miguel Nández Hugo Salazar Joan Tena
3 2003–04 Vicente Seguí Ramón del Castillo Miguel Cadenas Davinia Cuevas Mario Martínez Leticia Pérez
4 2005 Sergio Rivero Soraya Arnelas Víctor Estévez Idaira Fran Dieli Edurne Jesús Vázquez Kike Santander Telecinco
5 2006–07 Lorena Gómez Daniel Zueras Leo Segarra Saray Ramírez Moritz Weisskopf José Galisteo
6 2008 Virginia Maestro Pablo López Chipper Cooke Manu Castellano Sandra Criado Mimi Segura Àngel Llàcer
7 2009 Mario Álvarez Brenda Mau Jon Allende Ángel Capel Patricia Navarro Sylvia Parejo
8 2011 Nahuel Sachak Álex Forriols Mario Jefferson Alexandra Masangkay Niccó Josh Prada Pilar Rubio Nina
9 2017–18 Amaia Romero Aitana Ocaña Miriam Rodríguez Alfred García Ana Guerra Agoney Hernández Roberto Leal Noemí Galera La 1
10 2018 Famous Oberogo Alba Reche Natalia Lacunza Sabela Ramil Julia Medina Miki Núñez
11 2020 Nía Correia Flavio Fernández Eva Barreiro Anaju Calavia Hugo Cobo Maialen Gurbindo
12 2023–24 Chenoa Amazon Prime Video

All contestants appearing above (1st to 6th) were born in Spain, except for Chenoa who is Argentinian-born (from series 1), Moritz Weisskopf who is German (series 5), Chipper Cooke who is from the United States (series 6), Brenda Mau who is from Peru (series 7), Alexandra Masangkay who is from the Philippines (series 8), winner of series 8 Nahuel Sachak who is from Paraguay, and winner of series 10 Famous Oberogo who is Nigerian-born.

Series 1 (2001–02)[edit]

All three finalists of the inaugural series released debut albums, but while Rosa (accompanied by some fellow contenders as backing singers) scored seventh place in the Eurovision Song Contest 2002 with the song "Europe's Living a Celebration", and had notable success with her albums, it was Bisbal who went on to international success, even winning a Latin Grammy Award for Best Newcomer for his album Corazón Latino.

Other participants of this first edition (Chenoa, Nuria Fergó and Manu Tenorio) also launched successful solo careers. In addition, Gisela was hired by Disney Spain and started a career in musical theater; and represented Andorra in the Eurovision Song Contest 2008.

Contestant Age Residence Episode of elimination Place finished
Rosa 20 Armilla Gala Final Winner
Bisbal 22 Almería Runner-up
Bustamante 19 San Vicente de la Barquera 3rd
Chenoa 26 Palma 4th
Manu 26 Seville 5th
Verónica 23 Elche 6th
Nuria 22 Nerja Gala 13 7th
Gisela 22 El Bruc Gala 12 8th
Naím 21 Premià de Mar Gala 11 9th
Àlex 20 Vilassar de Mar Gala 5 / Gala 10 10th
Alejandro 23 Valencia Gala 8 11th
Juan 28 Laredo Gala 7 12th
Natalia 18 Sanlúcar de Barrameda Gala 6 13th
Javián 27 Dos Hermanas Gala 4 14th
Mireia 19 Vila-seca Gala 3 15th
Geno 19 Gran Canaria Gala 2 16th

Series 2 (2002–03)[edit]

The second series of Operación Triunfo became an anomaly in the category of popular reality TV music shows. First of all, the winner had very little success after the show. Second of all, many contestants who did not do well had massive success across Europe and Latin America, not just in Spain:

Beth was chosen to represent Spain in the Eurovision Song Contest 2003. She scored 8th place with the song "Dime".

The first person out of the show, Mai Meneses, rose to prominence in 2006 when herself and a childhood friend formed the band Nena Daconte. They released an album, He Perdido Los Zapatos, which was highly praised by critics. The album sold over 200,000 copies in Spain alone, an amazing feat as an average album to get to number 1 in Spain needs around 20,000 sales.

Vega, who came 9th, managed to release the best selling single of 2003 in Spain with her own composition, "iGrita!", with over one million copies sold.

Contestant Age Residence Episode of elimination Place finished
Ainhoa 22 Galdakao Gala Final Winner
Manuel 21 Isla Cristina Runner-up
Beth 20 Súria 3rd
Nández 24 Cádiz 4th
Hugo 24 Seville 5th
Joan 25 Barcelona 6th
Tony 21 Tenerife Gala 13 7th
Nika 22 Torrejón de Ardoz Gala 12 8th
Vega 23 Córdoba Gala 11 9th
Danni 20 Jaén Gala 10 10th
Elena 19 Barcelona Gala 9 11th
Tessa 20 Valencia Gala 8 12th
Marey 18 Cádiz Gala 7 13th
Cristie 24 Fuengirola Gala 6 14th
Enrique 27 Navarra Gala 5 15th
Miguel 25 Ibiza Gala 4 16th
Mai 24 Madrid Gala 3 17th
Saray 18 Alicante Gala 0 Not selected
Marcos 26 Barcelona
Jano 25 Palma

Series 3 (2003–04)[edit]

Series three runner-up Ramón was chosen to represent Spain in the Eurovision Song Contest 2004. He scored 10th place with the song "Para llenarme de ti".

This was the last series aired by TVE until 2017, and the one with the lowest ratings until 2011.

Contestant Age Residence Episode of elimination Place finished
Vicente 24 Vilamarxant Gala Final Winner
Ramón 19 Gran Canaria Runner-up
Miguel 22 Huelva 3rd
Davinia 18 Cádiz 4th
Mario 19 Zaragoza 5th
Leticia 26 Seville 6th
Noelia 18 Lugo Gala 11 7th
Beatriz 18 Pontevedra Gala 10 8th (Quit)
Nur 20 Barcelona 9th
Borja 19 Madrid Gala 9 10th
Israel 23 Murcia Gala 8 11th
Jorge 25 Zaragoza Gala 7 12th
Sonia 29 Barcelona Gala 6 13th
Miriam 22 Pontevedra Gala 5 14th
José 25 Castellón de la Plana Gala 4 15th
Sonny 23 Madrid Gala 3 16th
Isabel 20 Cádiz Gala 2 17th

Series 4 (2005)[edit]

TVE refused a fourth series, choosing to select its Eurovision Song Contest entry using a multi-artist national final. The show was then offered to Telecinco, who bought its rights. This fourth series started airing in June 2005 and got better ratings than the third one, but it never reached the results that the first series achieved. Runner-up Soraya Arnelas would represent Spain at the Eurovision Song Contest 2009 and sixth-placed Edurne would represent Spain at the Eurovision Song Contest 2015.

Contestant Age Residence Episode of elimination Place finished
Sergio 19 Gran Canaria Gala Final Winner
Soraya 23 Valencia Runner-up
Víctor 22 Barcelona 3rd
Idaira 20 San Cristóbal de La Laguna Gala 14 4th
Fran 24 Granada Gala 13 5th
Edurne 20 Madrid Gala 12 6th
Lidia 20 Córdoba Gala 11 7th
Sandra 17 Valencia Gala 10 8th
Guille B. 26 Cádiz Gala 9 9th
Guille M. 28 Valencia Gala 8 10th
Mónica 21 Gijón Gala 7 11th
Dani 28 Seville Gala 6 12th
Héctor 16 Alicante Gala 5 13th
Jesús 24 Puertollano Gala 4 14th
Trizia 22 Seville Gala 3 15th
Janina 20 Gran Canaria Gala 2 16th
Migue 23 Cuenca Gala 0 Not selected

Series 5 (2006–07)[edit]

Telecinco announced in May 2006 that the fifth series of the program was to be released in October 2006.

In July, 25 Telecinco aired a special show titled Operación Triunfo 2006: Otra Vez en Marcha. In this show some former OT artists (among them, Rosa, Soraya Arnelas, Sergio Rivero, Natalia, Beth) performed and the new selection of contestants was introduced.

The fifth series started on Sunday 8 October 2006 with 18 finalists, but two finalists had to leave and they didn't enter the academy. It created some controversy as one of the first two people out that night was the first black person, Claritzel, ever to be on the show (she had to pull out of the previous year's show). She had to leave the show because of a heart intervention.

Contestant Age Residence Episode of elimination Place finished
Lorena 20 Lleida Gala Final Winner
Daniel 26 Zaragoza Runner-up
Leo 25 Valencia Gala 15 3rd
Saray 25 Tuineje Gala 14 4th
Mortiz 29 Málaga Gala 13 5th
José 28 Viladecans Gala 12 6th
Ismael 18 Mataró Gala 11 7th
Jorge 18 Villarejo de Salvanés Gala 10 8th
Eva 26 Vigo Gala 9 9th
Vanessa 28 Bigues i Riells Gala 8 10th
Mayte 22 Murcia Gala 7 11th
Mercedes 24 Chiclana Gala 6 12th
Cristina 16 Cuenca Gala 5 13th
José Antonio 22 Mérida Gala 4 14th
Xavier 20 Vinaròs Gala 3 15th
Encarna 22 Almería Gala 2 16th
Claritzell 24 Tenerife Gala 0 Not selected
Melissa 18 San Miguel de Salinas

Series 6 (2008)[edit]

Castings started in Barcelona for the new series on 18 February 2008. The sixth series began on 8 April 2008, with 18 candidates to enter the academy (two of them didn't). This series has been the most controversial because many critics pointed that the series centered more on the reality show aspect than on the contestants' performing talent. Runner-up Pablo López went on to launch a successful recording career in 2014.

Contestant Age Residence Episode of elimination Place finished
Virginia 25 Jaén Gala Final Winner
Pablo 24 Málaga Runner-up
Chipper 34 New York City 3rd
Manu 17 Córdoba Gala 14 4th
Sandra 24 Córdoba Gala 13 5th
Mimi 26 Melilla Gala 12 6th
Iván 24 Madrid Gala 11 7th
Noelia 23 Valencia Gala 10 8th
Anabel 22 Córdoba Gala 9 9th
Tania S. 18 Seville Gala 8 10th
Reke 22 Murcia Gala 7 11th
Esther 20 Málaga Gala 6 12th
Tania G. 25 Barcelona Gala 5 13th
Rubén 21 Barcelona Gala 4 14th
Paula 23 Seville Gala 3 15th
Ros 16 Barcelona Gala 2 16th
Patty 24 Santander Gala 1 17th (Quit)
Jorge 23 Valencia Gala 0 Not selected
Juanjo 28 Murcia

Series 7 (2009)[edit]

The castings were made in March and April 2009 in all Spain. The first gala from OT 2009 was televised on 29 April 2009. Once again, Risto Mejide was a part of the jury panel, along with Noemí Galera, Coco Comín and Ramoncín.

Contestant Age Residence Episode of elimination Place finished
Mario 23 Oviedo Gala Final Winner
Brenda 20 Barcelona Runner-up
Jon 23 Baracaldo 3rd
Ángel 22 Albox Gala 12 4th
Patricia 21 Leganés 5th
Silvia 17 Barcelona Gala 11 6th
Cristina 16 Marbella Gala 10 7th
Samuel 19 La Cañada de San Urbano Gala 9 8th
Rafa 21 Vall de Uxó 9th
Alba Lucía 18 Murcia Gala 8 10th
Elías 22 Almendralejo Gala 7 11th
Diana 20 Burgos Gala 6 12th
Maxi 25 Reus Gala 5 13th
Nazaret 19 Camarma de Esteruelas Gala 4 14th
Pedro 20 Jerez de la Frontera Gala 3 15th
Guadiana 22 Badajoz Gala 2 16th
Púa 18 Sant Vicents dels Horts Gala 1 17th
Patty 26 Barrio de las Letras 18th

Series 8 (2011)[edit]

This was the last series aired by Telecinco. The show was cancelled after 35 days due to poor ratings. It ended with a rushed finale featuring contestants from previous series. Despite the low ratings, fans of the show made the Twitter hashtag #VivaOT, which went on to be the highest trending topic during the airing of the finale.[7]

Contestant Age Residence Episode of elimination Place finished
Nahuel 19 Castelló Gala Final Winner
Álex 26 Valencia Runner-up
Jefferson 19 Fuengirola 3rd
Alexandra 19 Barcelona 4th
Niccó 20 Tenerife 5th
Josh 27 Melilla 6th
Roxio 21 Madrid 7th
Naxxo 26 Barcelona 8th
Coraluna 21 Jaén 9th
Nirah 28 Barcelona 10th
Juan 24 Barcelona 11th
Moneiba 28 Gran Canaria 12th
Geno 29 Gran Canaria 13th
Enrique Ramil 28 Ares Gala 3 14th
Charlie 17 Tenerife Gala 2 15th
Silvia 20 Jaén Gala 1 16th
Sira 19 Tenerife 17th
Alexxa 20 Gijón Gala 0 Not selected
Miguel 26 Almería

Series 9 (2017–18)[edit]

Some of the contestants of Operación Triunfo 2017 at the Premios Forqué 2018.

Six years after the show was discontinued and thirteen years after it last aired on TVE, RTVE approved to revive the contest. The total cost of the new series was €10,2 million. Casting auditions for the ninth series were held from 14 June 2017 to 18 July 2017 in Barcelona, Las Palmas, Palma, Valencia, Santiago de Compostela, Bilbao, Granada, Seville, and Madrid. The minimum age to compete was raised to 18.[8] On 18 July 2017, Noemí Galera, a member of the jury panel on previous series, was announced as the new "headmaster" of the Academy.[9] On 28 August 2017, it was revealed that the jury panel would consists of singer, songwriter and producer Mónica Naranjo, marketing director Joe Pérez-Orive and music executive and producer Manuel Martos, who would be accompanied every week by a fourth guest juror.[10] On 30 August 2017, Roberto Leal was announced as the new host.[11] The series premiered on 23 October 2017. The final took place on 5 February 2018, and Amaia Romero was announced the winner.[12] In addition, Amaia and Alfred were selected to represent Spain in the Eurovision Song Contest 2018 with "Tu canción", and finished in twenty-third place out of 26 countries.

Contestant Age Residence Episode of elimination Place finished
Amaia 19 Pamplona Gala Final Winner
Aitana 18 Sant Climent de Llobregat Runner-up
Miriam 21 Pontedeume 3rd
Alfred 20 El Prat de Llobregat 4th
Ana Guerra 23 San Cristóbal de La Laguna 5th
Agoney 21 Adeje Gala 12 6th
Roi 24 Santiago de Compostela Gala 11 7th
Nerea 18 Gavá Gala 10 8th
Cepeda 28 Ourense Gala 9 9th
Raoul 20 Montgat Gala 8 10th
Mireya 20 Alhaurín de la Torre Gala 7 11th
Ricky 31 Palma Gala 6 12th
Marina 19 Dos Hermanas Gala 5 13th
Thalía 18 Malpartida de Plasencia Gala 4 14th
Juan Antonio 23 Bilbao Gala 3 15th
Mimi 25 Huétor-Tájar Gala 2 16th
João 21 Madrid Gala 0 Not selected
Mario 21 Madrid

Series 10 (2018)[edit]

On 28 February 2018, RTVE's Governing Board approved the renewal of Operación Triunfo for a tenth series.[2] Casting auditions for the tenth series were held from 30 May 2018 to 10 July 2018 in Barcelona, Alicante, Valencia, Majorca, San Sebastián, Vigo, Tenerife, Málaga, Seville and Madrid.[13] The series premiered on 19 September 2018 and ended on 19 December 2018.

The 18 contestants that appeared on the introduction live show or Gala 0 were announced on 14 September 2018.[14][15]

Contestant Age Residence Episode of elimination Place finished
Famous 19 Bormujos Gala Final Winner
Alba Reche 21 Elche Runner-up
Natalia 19 Pamplona 3rd
Sabela 24 As Pontes de García Rodríguez 4th
Julia 23 San Fernando 5th
Miki 22 Terrassa Gala 12 6th
Marta 18 Torre del Mar Gala 11 7th
María 26 Madrid Gala 10 8th
Marilia 18 Gáldar Gala 9 9th
Carlos Right 25 Esplugues de Llobregat Gala 8 10th
Noelia 22 Málaga Gala 7 11th
Damion 21 Adeje Gala 6 12th
Dave 20 Sanlúcar de Barrameda Gala 5 13th
Joan Garrido 22 Bunyola Gala 4 14th
África 22 Madrid Gala 3 15th
Alfonso 22 Madrid Gala 2 16th
Rodrigo 25 San Juan del Puerto Gala 0 Not selected
Luis 19 El Masnou

As in the previous season, the series served as the platform to select the Spanish entry at the Eurovision Song Contest 2019.[16][17] A special live show was held on 20 January 2019 to select the Spanish entrant and song for Eurovision.[18]

Series 11 (2020)[edit]

In January 2019, TVE confirmed an eleventh series.[19][20][21] Casting auditions for the eleventh series were held from 7 October 2019 to 6 November 2019 in Barcelona, Las Palmas, Valencia, Palma, Málaga, Seville, Bilbao, Santiago de Compostela and Madrid.[22] The series premiered on 12 January 2020.

Contestant Age Residence Episode of elimination Place finished
Nía 26 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria Gala Final Winner
Flavio 19 Murcia Runner-up
Eva 19 Sada 3rd
Anaju 26 Alcañiz 4th
Hugo 20 Córdoba 5th
Maialen 25 Pamplona Gala 12 6th
Samantha 25 Beniarrés 7th
Bruno 25 Alcalá de Henares Gala 11 8th
Gèrard 20 Ceuta Gala 10 9th
Jesús 24 Barbate Gala 8 10th
Rafa 23 Adamuz Gala 7 11th
Anne 18 Pamplona Gala 6 12th
Javy 21 Barbate Gala 5 13th
Nick 19 Sant Cugat del Vallès Gala 4 14th
Eli 19 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria Gala 3 15th
Ariadna 18 Sant Joan Despí Gala 2 16th
Valery 22 Elche Gala 0 Not selected
Adri 23 Palma

Series 12 (2023–24)[edit]

Three years after it last aired in TVE, Amazon Prime Video acquired the rights to air the series.[6] On 27 May 2023, series one contestant Chenoa was announced as the host.[23] Casting auditions were held from 3 July 2023 to 19 September 2023 in Barcelona, Zaragoza, Santiago de Compostela, Bilbao, Valencia, Las Palmas, Málaga, Seville and Madrid.[24] The series will premiere on 20 November 2023.[25]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "'Operación Triunfo' vuelve a La 1, 16 años después de su estreno en TVE". RTVE.es. April 26, 2017.
  2. ^ a b "TVE confirma 'OT 2018', renovando el formato por una nueva edición". FormulaTV.com. 28 February 2018.
  3. ^ "¿Ha superado 'OT 2017' a 'OT 1'?". Archived from the original on 2018-08-05. Retrieved 2019-09-21.
  4. ^ "Las claves que han convertido "OT 2017" en un fenómeno". abc. January 3, 2018.
  5. ^ Cordero, Por Gonzalo (January 9, 2018). "¿Virtuosismo o caricatura? Por qué 'OT 2017' sigue dando que hablar en 2018". Esquire.
  6. ^ a b Marcos, Méndez (April 25, 2023). "Amazon Prime Video confirma 'OT', detalla cómo será 'El castillo de Takeshi' y anuncia dos nuevas series". eldiario.es. Retrieved April 25, 2023.
  7. ^ elEconomista.es. "Los fans de 'Operación Triunfo' se vengan en Twitter contra Telecinco – EcoDiario.es".
  8. ^ RTVE.es. "Preséntate al casting de 'Operación Triunfo': Fechas y lugares" (in Spanish).
  9. ^ RTVE.es. "Noemí Galera será la nueva directora de la Academia de Operación Triunfo y Manu Guix el director musical" (in Spanish).
  10. ^ RTVE.es. "Mónica Naranjo, Joe Pérez-Orive y Manuel Martos, jurado de 'Operación Triunfo' 2017" (in Spanish).
  11. ^ RTVE.es. "Roberto Leal presentará 'Operación Triunfo' 2017" (in Spanish).
  12. ^ "Amaia gana 'OT 2017'". FormulaTV.com. 6 February 2018.
  13. ^ "Estas son las fechas del casting de 'OT 2018'". La Vanguardia (in Spanish).
  14. ^ RTVE.es. "Gran estreno de OT 2018, el miércoles 19 de septiembre en La 1 de TVE" (in Spanish).
  15. ^ RTVE.es. "CONCURSANTES DE OT 2018" (in Spanish).
  16. ^ Carro, David (24 August 2018). "'OT 2018' se estrenará el lunes 17 de septiembre". FórmulaTV.com. Retrieved 25 August 2018.
  17. ^ "El representante de España en Eurovisión 2019 volverá a salir de Operación Triunfo". eurovision-spain.com. 14 September 2018. Retrieved 14 September 2018.
  18. ^ Valiente, Adrián (4 October 2018). "Spain: RTVE reveal Eurovision 2019 song selection details". esc-plus.com.
  19. ^ "TVE confirma que 'OT' volverá entre 2019 y 2020". lacoctelera.top (in Spanish). 15 January 2019. Retrieved 15 January 2019.
  20. ^ "TVE confirma el regreso de 'Operación Triunfo', aunque sin desvelar sus fechas". elperiodico.com (in Spanish). 11 June 2019. Retrieved 11 June 2019.
  21. ^ "Televisión Española anuncia el regreso de "Operación Triunfo"". ABC (in Spanish). Spain. 12 June 2019. Retrieved 12 June 2019.
  22. ^ "Comienza el casting más exigente de 'Operación Triunfo' el 7 de octubre en Barcelona". RTVE.es (in Spanish).
  23. ^ "Chenoa presentará la nueva edición de 'Operación Triunfo' en Amazon Prime Video". eldiario.es. May 27, 2023. Retrieved May 27, 2023.
  24. ^ Pérez, Laura (30 May 2023). "'OT 2023' se presenta en Amazon: galas más cortas, programa diario, nueva Academia y primeros profesores". eldiario.es (in European Spanish). Retrieved 30 May 2023.
  25. ^ "'OT 2023' oficializa su calendario completo para las galas, posgalas y resúmenes en Amazon Prime Video". verTele!. eldiario.es (in European Spanish). 31 October 2023. Retrieved 1 November 2023.

External links[edit]