|This article needs additional citations for verification. (April 2008) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
Operation 40 was the code name for a Central Intelligence Agency-sponsored counterintelligence group composed of Cuban exiles. The group was formed to seize control of the Cuban government after the Bay of Pigs Invasion. Operation 40 continued to operate unofficially until disbanded in 1970 due to allegations that an aircraft that was carrying cocaine and heroin in support of the group crashed in California.
On 11 December 1959, following the Cuban Revolution of January 1959, Colonel J.C. King, chief of the CIA's Western Hemisphere Division, sent a confidential memorandum to CIA director Allen W. Dulles. King argued that in Cuba there existed a "far-left dictatorship, which if allowed to remain will encourage similar actions against U.S. holdings in other Latin American countries."
The group was presided over by then-Vice President Richard M. Nixon and included Admiral Arleigh Burke, Livingston Merchant of the State Department, National Security Adviser Gordon Gray, as well as Dulles himself.
On 17 March 1960, President Eisenhower signed a U.S. National Security Council directive on the anti-Cuban covert action program authorizing the CIA to organize, train, and equip Cuban refugees as a guerrilla force to overthrow the government of Cuban prime minister Fidel Castro.
Operation 40 was not only involved in sabotage operations. One member, Frank Sturgis, allegedly told author Mike Canfield: "this assassination group (Operation 40) would upon orders, naturally, assassinate either members of the military or the political parties of the foreign country that you were going to infiltrate, and if necessary some of your own members who were suspected of being foreign agents...We were concentrating strictly in Cuba at that particular time." The group sought to incite civil war in Cuba against the government of prime minister Fidel Castro. "In October 1960, they realize that this project has failed, and that is when Brigade 2506" was created, a CIA-sponsored group made up of 1,511 Cuban exiles who fought in the April 1961 Bay of Pigs Invasion.
On 17 April 1961, Vicente Leon Leon, with other members of Operation 40, landed at the Bay of Pigs via the CIA-chartered freighter Atlantico. He was killed in action.
In popular culture
Operation 40 is a playable faction in the video game Call of Duty: Black Ops.
- Assassination attempts on Fidel Castro
- Richard M. Bissell, Jr.
- Cuban Power
- Cuban Project
- Echo 31
- Guillermo Hernández-Cartaya
- Smith, Jr., W. Thomas (2003). "40, Operation". Encyclopedia of the Central Intelligence Agency. New York: Facts on File, Inc. p. 104. ISBN 9781438130187. Retrieved October 5, 2015.
- Bartlett, Charles (May 11, 1961). "Cuban Terror Unit Barred?". The Palm Beach Post. Palm Beach, Florida. p. 9. Retrieved May 7, 2015.
- Rodriguez (1999), p.153
- Bohning, Don. 2005. The Castro Obsession: U.S. Covert Operations Against Cuba, 1959–1965. p. 303 ISBN 1-57488-676-2
- Rodriguez, Juan Carlos. 1999. Bay of Pigs and the CIA. Ocean Press Melbourne. ISBN 1-875284-98-2
- Bay of Pigs, 40 Years After: Chronology. The National Security Archive. The George Washington University http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/bayofpigs/chron.html