During World War II the name Büffel Bewegung ("Buffalo Movement" in German) was given to a series of local retreats conducted by the German Army on the Eastern Front during the period 1–22 March 1943. This movement eliminated the Rzhev Salient and shortened the front by 230 miles, releasing twenty-one divisions. This allowed the Germans to create a reserve for operations elsewhere, including what would become the Battle of Kursk.
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