Operation Blue Star
|Operation Blue Star|
Akal Takht being repaired by the Indian Government after the attack. It was later pulled down and rebuilt by the Sikh community.
Special Air Service (alleged advisory role)
Pakistan Army Special Services Group
|Commanders and leaders|
Major General Kuldip Singh Brar|
Lt Gen Ranjit Singh Dyal
Lt Gen Krishnaswamy Sundarji
Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale †|
Amrik Singh †
Shabeg Singh †
10,000 armed troops of 9th Division, 175 Parachute Regiment and Artillery units|
700 jawans of CRPF 4th Battalion and BSF 7th Battalion
150 Jawans of Punjab Armed Police and officers from Harmandir Police Station.
|200 Sikh militants|
|Casualties and losses|
|83 dead||150 combatants killed|
|493 militants and civilian casualties (official).|
Operation Blue Star was an Indian military operation carried out between 1 and 8 June 1984, ordered by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi to remove militant religious leader Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale and his armed followers from the buildings of the Harmandir Sahib complex in Amritsar, Punjab. In July 1983, the Sikh political party Akali Dal's President Harchand Singh Longowal had invited Bhindranwale to take up residence in Golden Temple Complex to evade arrest. Bhindranwale later on made the sacred temple complex an armoury and headquarters. In the violent events leading up to the Operation Blue Star since the inception of Akali Dharm Yudh Morcha, the militants had killed 165 Hindus and Nirankaris; even 39 Sikhs opposed to Bhindranwale were killed. The total number of deaths was 410 in violent incidents and riots while 1,180 people were injured.
Counter Intelligence reports of the Indian agencies had reported that three prominent heads of the Khalistan movement Shabeg Singh, Balbier Singh and Amrik Singh had made at least six trips each to Pakistan between the years 1981 and 1983. Intelligence Bureau reported that weapons training was being provided at gurdwaras in Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh. Soviet intelligence agency KGB reportedly tipped off the Indian agency RAW about the CIA and ISI working together on a plan for Punjab. RAW from its interrogation of a Pakistani Army officer received information that over a thousand trained Special Service Group commandos of the Pakistan Army had been dispatched by Pakistan into the Indian Punjab to assist Bhindranwale in his fight against the government. Large number of Pakistani agents also took the smuggling routes in the Kashmir and Kutch region of Gujarat, with plans to sabotage.
After the negotiations with the militants failed, on 1 June 1984 Indira Gandhi ordered the army to launch the Operation Blue Star. A variety of army units along with paramilitary forces surrounded the temple complex on 3 June 1984. The army used the public address systems and loudspeakers to encourage the militants to surrender. Requests were also made to the militants to allow the trapped pilgrims to come out of the temple premises, before the clash with the army. However no surrender or release of pilgrims happened till 7:00 pm on 5 June. The fighting started on 5 June with skirmishes and the battle went on for three days ending on 8 June. A clean-up operation codenamed as Operation Woodrose was also initiated throughout Punjab.
The army had underestimated the firepower possessed by the militants. Militants had Chinese made rocket-propelled grenade launchers with armour piercing capabilities. Tanks and heavy artillery were used to attack the militants using anti-tank and machine-gun fire from the heavily fortified Akal Takht. After a 24-hour firefight, the army wrested control of the temple complex. Casualty figures for the Army were 83 dead and 249 injured. According to the official estimates, 1592 were apprehended and there were 493 combined militant and civilian casualties. High civilian casualties were attributed to militants using pilgrims trapped inside the temple as human shields.
The military action in the temple complex was criticized by Sikhs worldwide who had interpreted it as an assault on Sikh religion. Many Sikh soldiers in the Army deserted their units, several Sikhs resigned from civil administrative office and returned awards received from the Indian government. Nearly five months after the operation, on 31 October 1984, Indira Gandhi was assassinated in vengeance by her two Sikh bodyguards, Satwant Singh and Beant Singh. Public outcry over Gandhi's death led to the killings of more than 3,000 Sikhs in the ensuing 1984 anti-Sikh riots.
- 1 Golden Temple
- 2 Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale in Harmandir Sahib
- 3 Negotiations
- 4 Preparations
- 5 Operation
- 6 Casualties
- 7 Aftermath
- 8 Criticisms
- 9 Published accounts
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 Further reading
- 13 External links
The militants were able to claim a safe haven in the most sacred place for the Sikhs due to the whole or part support received by them from the key sikh religious leaders and institutions such as the SGPC, AISSF and Jathedar (head) of the Akal Takht. The support was either voluntary or forced by using violence or threat of violence. Several religious leaders who spoke against the occupation of Akal Takht were murdered by followers of Bhindranwale.
The Golden temple complex afforded the militants based inside a facade of fighting a "holy war". It also provided the militants access to new potential recruits from among the visitors. Several multi storied buildings were located around the Parikrama (walkway) around the reservoir of the temple that provided rooms and offices that were taken over by the militants. The temple complex also provided logistical advantage to the militants with easy access to food, water and communication lines. Further the sanctity of the Golden temple provided protection from arrests by the security forces who preferred not to enter the Temple premises so as not to hurt the religious sentiments of the Sikhs.
Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale in Harmandir Sahib
On 13 April 1978, the day to celebrate the birth of Khalsa, a peaceful Sant Nirankari convention was organized in Amritsar, with permission from the Akali state government. The practices of "Sant Nirankaris" sect of Nirankaris was considered as heresy by the orthodox sikhism expounded by Bhindranwale. Bhindranwale declared that he would not allow this convention and would go there and cut them to pieces. A procession of few hundred Sikhs led by Bhindranwale and Fauja Singh of the Akhand Kirtani Jatha left the Golden Temple, heading towards the Nirankari Convention. Fauja attempted to behead Nirankari chief Gurbachan Singh but was shot dead by his bodyguard, while Bhindranwale escaped. In the ensuing violence, several people were killed: two of Bhindranwale's followers, eleven members of the Akhand Kirtani Jatha and three Nirankaris. Bhindranwale's followers began keeping firearms and fortified the Gurdwara that served as the headquarter of religious center Damdami Taksal.
On 24 April 1980, The Nirankari head, Gurbachan was murdered. Bhindranwale took residence in Harmandir Sahib when he was accused of the assassination of Nirankari Gurbachan Singh. Police could not pursue him inside the Golden temple premises for fear of hurting the religious setiments of the Sikh community.
On 9 September 1981, Lala Jagat Narain, the founder editor of the newspaper Punjab Kesari, was murdered. He was viewed as a supporter of the Nirankari sect and had written several editorials that had condemned the acts of Bhindranwale. Bhindranwale declared that the killers of Gurbachan and Lala deserved to be rewarded. Police again suspected Bhindranwale in the editor's murder and issued a warrant for his arrest. On 20 September 1981, after absconding for several days, Bhindranwale surrendered to the police. His followers in order to obtain his release initiated a month long campaign of violence. They attacked Hindus, derailed trains, and even hijacked an Air India Plane He was released on 20 October after Home Minister of India declared lack of evidence.
Bhindranwale had risen to prominence in the Sikh political circle with his policy of getting the Anandpur Resolution passed, failing which he wanted to declare a separate country of Khalistan as a homeland for Sikhs. Indira Gandhi, the leader of the Akali Dal's rival Congress, considered the Anandpur Sahib Resolution as a secessionist document. The Government was of the view that passing of the resolution would have allowed India to be divided, making a Khalistan.
Bhindranwale was reportedly backed by Pakistan's ISI on his radical separatist stand, plans and operations. Bhindranwale had started the efforts for his demand in 1982, and by mid-1983 had managed to gain support for his plan to divide India. ISI reportedly supported and helped him in spreading militancy in the Indian Punjab state. The arms and ammunition used by his group were provided by ISI.
Guru Nanak Niwas
In July 1982, the then President of Shiromani Akali Dal, Harchand Singh Longowal invited Bhindranwale to take up residence at the Golden Temple complex to escape arrest. He called Bhindranwale "our stave to beat the government." On 19 July 1982, Bhindranwale anticipating his imminent arrest took shelter with approximately 200 armed followers, in the Guru Nanak Niwas (Guest house), in the precincts of the Golden Temple. Bhindranwale had made Golden Temple complex his headquarters. From here he met and was interviewed by international television crews.
On 23 April 1983, the Punjab Police Deputy Inspector General A. S. Atwal was shot dead as he left the Harmandir Sahib compound by a gunman from Bhindranwale's group. The following day, after the murder, Longowal claimed the involvement of Bhindranwale in the murder. Reportedly, militants responsible for bombings and murders were taking shelter in some gurdwaras in Punjab. Punjab assembly noted that the murder in the temple premises confirmed the charges that the extremists were being sheltered and given active support in religious places and the Guru Nanak Niwas. While Bhindranwale was openly supporting such elements. However, the Congress-led government declared that it could not enter the gurdwaras for the fear of hurting Sikh sentiments. After the murder of six Hindu bus passengers in October 1983, President's rule was imposed in Punjab.
Occupation of Akal Takht
During the debate in the Parliament of India members of both the houses demanded the arrest of Bhindranwale. Sensing a prospect of his arrest from the hostel premises, he convinced the SGPC president Tohra to set up his headquarter in Akal Takht (Shrine representing the temporal power of God) in the Golden temple. The temple high priest protested this move as a sacrilege since no Guru or leader ever resided in Akal Takht that too on the floor above Granth Sahib but Tohra agreed to Bhindranwale's demand to prevent his arrest. On 15 December 1983, Bhindranwale was asked to move out of Guru Nanak Niwas house by members of the Babbar Khalsa who acted with Longowal's support. Babbar Khalsa had also the support of the Congress party. Longowal by now feared for his own safety. Tohra then convinced the high priest to allow Bhindranwale to reside in the first floor of Akal Takht as he had nowhere to go to avoid arrest. Bhindranwale had assumed that the sacredness of the shrine would provide him immunity from arrest. Bhindranwale claimed that he had to move to Akal Takht as Morcha dictator Longowal was negotiating with the government for his arrest. By December 1983, Bhindranwale and his followers had made the Golden Temple complex an armoury and headquarter for extremist activities.
Few leaders raised their voice against Bhindranwale in the Golden Temple and other Gurudwaras across the state. Among the prominent ones was Giani Partap Singh, an eighty year old spiritual leaders and a former Jathedar of the Akal Takht, Partap had openly criticized Bhindranwale for stocking arms and ammunition in the Akal Takht. Bhindranwale's occupation of the Akal Takht was called an act of sacrilege. Partap was shot dead at his home in Tahli Chowk. Other dissenters were also killed. They included Harbans Singh Manchanda, the Delhi Sikh Gurudwara Management Committee president, Niranjan Singh, the Granthi of Gurudwara Toot Sahib, Granthi Jarnail Singh of Valtoha and Granthi Surat Singh of Majauli. All those who spoke against Bhindranwale were perceived as his enemies who in turn were branded as enemies of the Sikh faith. Bhindranwale's group were killing the Sikhs who had been speaking against Bhindranwale and the idea of Khalistan. The Sikh religious leadership had heard and understood the message being spread and they had already succumbed to their fear.
In January 1984, India's secret service Research & Analysis Wing (RAW) prepared a covert plan codenamed Operation Sundown involving special forces to abduct Bhindranwale from the Golden Temple complex. A RAW unit was formed to rehearse Operation Sundown in the Sarsawa Air Force Base in Uttar Pradesh. But the operation never materialized due to Indira Gandhi’s rejection. It would have caused numerous casualties as collateral damage, the Golden Temple being one of the most visited sites in Punjab. It would have also hurt the religious sentiments of the Sikhs. Other options such as negotiations were opted for instead.
The government sent a team led by Narasimha Rao to try to convince Bhindranwale to back out but he was adamant. The negotiations failed and the law and order situation in Punjab continued to deteriorate. Indira Gandhi tried to persuade the Akalis to support her in the arrest of Bhindranwale peacefully. These talks ended up being futile. During the days before the assault, government representatives met with Bhindranwale in a last ditch effort to negotiate a truce. Bhindranwale warned of a backlash by the Sikh community in the event of an armed assault on the Golden Temple. On 26 May, Tohra informed the government that he had failed to convince Bhindranwale for a peaceful resolution of the crisis and that Bhindranwale was no longer under anyone's control. Faced with imminent Army action and with the foremost Sikh political organisation, Shiromani Akali Dal (headed by Harchand Singh Longowal), abandoning him, Bhindranwale declared "This bird is alone. There are many hunters after it". In his final interview to Subhash Kirpekar, Bhindranwale stated that Sikhs can neither live in India nor with India.
Indira Gandhi then gave her permission to initiate Operation Blue Star on the recommendation of Army Chief Arun Shridhar Vaidya. She was apparently led to believe and had assumed that Operation Blue Star would not involve any civilian casualties. The assumption was that when confronted Bhindranwale would surrender to the Army.
Fortification of Golden Temple
The violence rose to its peak in the months before Operation Bluestar and the Golden Temple was allegedly being defiled with weapons. An arsenal had been created within the Akal Takht over a period of several months. Trucks engaged for kar seva (religious service) and bringing in supplies for the daily langar were smuggling in guns and ammunition. The police never attempted to check these vehicles entering the Golden Temple, reportedly on instructions from superiors. During a random check one such truck was stopped and a large number of sten guns and ammunition were found. Later on after the operation Blue Star it was found that the militants had set up a ‘grenade manufacturing’ facility, and a workshop for the fabrication of sten-guns inside the Temple Complex.
Harmandir Sahib compound and some of the surrounding houses were fortified under the guidance of Major General Shabeg Singh who had joined Bhindranwale's group after dismissal from Army. During their occupation of Akal Takht, Bhindranwale's group had initated fortifying the building which had allegedly disfigured the Akal Takht. The Statesman reported that light machine guns and semi-automatic rifles were known to have been brought into the compound, and strategically placed to defend an armed assault on the complex. The modern weapons found inside the temple complex later indicated that foreign elements were involved. The heavier weapons were found with the Pakistan or Chinese markings on them.
Holes were smashed through the marble walls of Akal takht to create gun positions. Walls were broken to allow entry points from the basements in the Takht and from the rooms around the Parikrama, to the tiled courtyards. Secured machine gun 'nests' were made. Each of these ‘positions’ were protected by sandbags and newly made brick walls. The windows and arches of Akal Takht were blocked with bricks and sand bags. Sandbags were placed on the turrets. The entire Akal Takht had been converted into a large reinforced pillbox with weapons pointing all the directions. Every strategically significant building of the temple complex, apart from the Harmandir Sahib located at its very centre had been fortified in a similar manner and allegedly defaced. The fortifications also included seventeen private houses in the residential area near the Temple. All the high rise buildings and towers near the temple complex were occupied. The militants manning these vantage points were in wireless contact with Shabeg Singh in Akal Takht. Under the military leadership of the cashiered Major General Shabeg Singh, ex-Army veterans and deserters had provided weapons training to Bhindranwale’s men in the Temple Complex. Young Sikhs were occupying firing positions in the shrine and the buildings on all sides of Akal Takht.
The militants in the complex were anticipating an attack by the government troops. The defences in the complex were created with a purpose of holding out long enough to provoke an uprising among Sikhs in the villages so that they march enmasse towards the Golden temple in support of the militants. Sufficient food that would have lasted a month was stocked in the complex.
During this period police and the security forces stationed around the Temple Complex were allowed only beyond a sanitised area of more than 200 yards. This was to avoid the ‘desecration’ of the temple by their presence. The security forces were prevented by the politicians to take actions in enforcing the law. Even self defence from the miltants was made difficult. On February 14, 1984, a police post near the entrance of the Temple was attacked by a group of militants. Six fully armed policemen were 'captured' and taken inside. After twenty four hours the police responded and sent in a senior police officer for negotiation. He asked Bhindranwale in the Akal Takht to release his men and return their weapons. Bhindranwale agreed only to return the corpse of one of the policemen who had been killed. Later the remaining five policemen who were still alive were also released, but their weapons, including three sten guns, and a wireless set, were not returned.
The fortifications of the temple denied Army the possibility of commando operation. The buildings were close by and had labyrinthine passages all under the control of the militants. Militants in the temple premises had access to Langars food supplies and water from the Sarovar (temple pond). Militants were well stocked with weapons and ammunitions. Any siege under these circumstances would have been long and difficult. The option of laying over a long siege was ruled out by the Army due to the risk of emotionally aroused villagers marching to the temple and clashing with the Army. The negotiated settlement had already been rejected by Bhindranwale and the only option left to the government was to raid the temple.
Rise in militant incidents
On 12th May 1984, Ramesh Chander, Son of Lala Jagat Narain and editor of media house Hind Samachar group was also murdered by the militants of Bhindranwale. In addition, seven editors and seven news hawkers and newsagents were also killed in a planned attack on the freedom of media house to cripple it financially. Punjab Police had to provide protection to the entire distribution staff and scenes of armed policemen escorting news hawkers on their morning rounds became common.
Bhindranwale used vituperative language in his speeches against the Hindus. In order to solve the Hindu-Sikh problem Bhindranwale exhorted every Sikh to kill thirty-two Hindus. Bhindranwale had injuncted young Sikhs to buy motorcycles and weapons to attack enemies of Sikhs, and many young Sikhs followed this. The terror had spread to all of the countryside. The numbers of violent incidents were increasing every month. It was nine in September 1983, in October it increased to thirty six and in May 1984 there were more than fifty violent incidents. These incidents included bank robberies, attack on police, arson at railway stations, bombings, indiscriminate shootings and killing of Hindu bus passengers forcibly taken out of the bus. In the twenty two months since the launching of the Akali Dharm Yudh Morcha till June 1984, Bhindranwale's militants had already killed 165 Hindus and Nirankaris per the official figures. Militants had also killed 39 Sikhs due to their opposition to Bhindranwale. The total number of deaths was 410 in violent incidents and riots while 1,180 people were injured.
By April 1984, it appeared as if Bhindranwale would be successful in driving away the Hindus from Punjab to Haryana and other states due to the terror of violent attacks and riots. There were intelligence reports of interception of messages from Bhindranwale and Shabeg Singh to their followers in the state asking them to start a fierce movement of mass killings of Hindus on 5 June. According to Amarjit Kaur, Bhindranwale wanted to start a civil war between the Hindus and Sikhs. Meanwhile, the killing rate had been rising all over the state, with sometimes more than a dozen killings in a day. On 2 June in the last 24 hours before the announcement of the operation 23 people were killed.
In June 1984, the Army was called out to help the civil administration in Punjab in response to a request from the Punjab Governor, B. D. Pande, “in view of the escalating violence by terrorists in Punjab.” On 2 June Operation Bluestar had been initated to flush out the militants from the Golden Temple.
Certain radical groups had already started the movement to drive out Hindus from certain areas to make way for Sikhs coming in from other states. Due to the increased incidents of religious violence, exchange of population had already started in Punjab. The Sikhs from other states were moving into Punjab and the Punjabi Hindus were moving to neighbouring states in increasing numbers. New Khalistani currency was being printed and distributed. By May 1984, the declaration of Independence of Khalistan was imminent. Pakistan had been supporting the militants with arms and money. Once Khalistan would have got declared, there was the risk of Pakistan recognizing the new country and sending Pakistani Army into Indian Punjab to guarantee its security.
Operation Blue Star was launched to remove Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale and his followers who had sought cover in the Amritsar Harmandir Sahib Complex.
On 3 June, a 36-hour curfew was imposed on the state of Punjab with all methods of communication and public travel suspended. The electricity supply was also interrupted, creating a total blackout and cutting off the state from the rest of the world. Complete media censorship was enforced.
The Army stormed Harmandir Sahib on the night of 5 June under the command of Kuldip Singh Brar. The forces had full control of Harmandir Sahib by the morning of 7 June. There were casualties among the Army, civilians, and militants. Sikh leaders Bhindranwale and Shabeg Singh were killed in the operation.
General Arun Shridhar Vaidya as the Chief of the Indian army. General Vaidya, assisted by Lt. Gen. Sundarji as Vice-Chief, planned and coordinated Operation Blue Star. From the Indian Army Lt. Gen. Kuldip Singh Brar had command of the action, operating under General Krishnaswamy Sundarji. Brar was in charge of an infantry division at Meerut. On 31 May Lt. General K S Brar had been summoned from Meerut and asked to lead the operation to remove the militants from the temple. Brar was a Jat Sikh, same caste as Bhindranwale and had his ancestral village a few miles from Bhindranwale’s village. Brar was also acquainted with Shabeg Singh as his student at the Indian Military Academy at Dehradun. Both of them had worked together in the Bangladesh operations. Among the six generals leading the operation, four were Sikhs.:175
The Army operation was further subdivided along two subcategories:
- Operation Metal : To take out the militants including Bhindranwale from the Golden Temple complex. Brar's 9 Infantry Division was deputed for this.
- Operation Shop : To raid extremist hide-outs throughout the Punjab state and to mop up the militants remaining in the countryside.
In addition, another critical Operation Woodrose was done, under which the army units were deployed in the border areas, replacing the pickets routinely held by the paramilitary BSF. The border pickets held by at least a company strength.
At 12:40 hrs the CRPF and BSF started firing at "Guru Ram Das Langar" building. The Border Security Force and the Central Reserve Police Force, under orders of the Army, started firing upon the Complex, in which at least eight people died.
The Army had already sealed the international border from Kashmir to Ganga Nagar, Rajasthan. At least seven divisions of Army were deployed in villages of Punjab. Army began taking control of the city of Amritsar from the paramilitary. A young Sikh officer posing as a pilgrim was sent to the temple for scouting. He spent an hour in the complex noting the defence preparations in the complex. Plans were made to clear the vantage points outside the complex which were occupied by the miltants, before the assault. Patrols were also sent to study these locations.
By nightfall media and the press were gagged and rail, road and air services in Punjab were suspended. Foreigners' and NRIs' entry was also banned. General Gauri Shankar was appointed as the Security Advisor to the Governor of Punjab. The water and electricity supply was cut off.
In the morning the curfew was relaxed to allow the Sikh pilgrims to go inside the temple to celebrate Sikhism’s fifth guru Arjan's martyrdom day who died in the early 17th century. Around 200 young Sikhs were allowed to escape from the temple premises during this period. Most of whom were criminals and left wing extremists (naxalites). In the night the curfew was re-imposed with the Army and para-military patrolling all of Punjab. The Army sealed off all routes of ingress and exit around the temple complex.
On 4 and 5 June announcements were broadcast over loudspeakers and the pilgrims inside were asked to leave the temple. The Army started bombarding the historic Ramgarhia Bunga, the water tank, and other fortified positions. The Army used Ordnance QF 25 pounder and destroyed the outer defences laid by Shabeg Singh. The Army then placed tanks and APCs on the road separating the Guru Nanak Niwas building.
The Army helicopters spotted the massive movements, and General K. Sunderji sent tanks and APCs to meet them.
The artillery and small arms firing stopped for a while, and Gurcharan Singh Tohra, former head of SGPC was sent to negotiate with Bhindranwale for his surrender. He was, however, unsuccessful and the firing resumed.
In the morning, shelling started on the building inside the Harmandir Sahib complex. The 9th division launched a frontal attack on the Akal Takht, although it was unable to secure the building. The Golden temple complex had honey combed tunnel structures. The Army was kept under withering machine gun fire from the manholes of the tunnels. The militants would pop out of the manholes and fire machineguns and then disappear back into the tunnels.
The BSF and CRPF attacked Hotel Temple View and Brahm Boota Akhara respectively on the southwest fringes of the complex. By 22:00 hours both the structures were under their control. The Army simultaneously attacked various other gurdwaras. Sources mention either 42 or 74 locations.
Late in the evening, the generals decided to launch a simultaneous attack from three sides. 10 Guards, 1 Para Commandos and Special Frontier Force (SFF) would attack from the main entrance of the complex, and 26 Madras and 9 Kumaon battalions from the hostel complex side entrance from the south. The objective of the 10 Guards was to secure the northern wing of the Temple complex and draw attention away from SFF who were to secure the western wing of the complex and 1 Para Commandos who were to gain a foothold in Akal Takht and in Harmandir Sahab, with the help of divers. 26 Madras was tasked with securing the southern and the eastern complexes, and the 9 Kumaon regiment with SGPC building and Guru Ramdas Serai. 12 Bihar was charged with providing a cordon and fire support to the other regiments by neutralising enemy positions under their observance.
An initial attempt by the commandos to gain a foothold at Darshani Deori failed as they came under devastating fire, after which several further attempts were made with varying degrees of success. Eventually, other teams managed to reach Darshani Deori, a building north of the Nishan Sahib, and started to fire at the Akal Takth and a red building towards its left, so that the SFF troops could get closer to the Darshani Deori and fire gas canisters at Akal Takth. The canisters bounced off the building and affected the troops instead.
Meanwhile, 26 Madras and 9 Garhwal Rifles (reserve troops) had come under heavy fire from the Langar rooftop, Guru Ramdas Serai and the buildings in the vicinity. Moreover, they took a lot of time in forcing open the heavy Southern Gate, which had to be shot open with tank fire. This delay caused a lot of casualties among the Indian troops fighting inside the complex. Three tanks and an APC had entered the complex.
Crawling was impossible as Shabeg Singh had placed light machine guns nine or ten inches above the ground. The attempt caused many casualties among the Indian troops. A third attempt to gain the Pool was made by a squad of 200 commandos. On the southern side, the Madras and Garhwal battalions were not able to make it to the pavement around the pool because they were engaged by positions on the southern side.
Despite the mounting casualties, General Sunderji ordered a fourth assault by the commandos. This time, the Madras battalion was reinforced with two more companies of the 7th Garhwal Rifles under the command of General Kuldip Singh Brar. However, the Madras and Garhwal troops under Brigadier A. K. Dewan once again failed to move towards the parikarma (the pavement around the pool).
Brigadier Dewan reported heavy casualties and requested more reinforcements. General Brar sent two companies of 15 Kumaon Regiment. This resulted in yet more heavy casualties, forcing Brigadier Dewan to request tank support. As one APC inched closer to the Akal Takth it was hit with an anti-tank RPG, which immediately immobilized it. Brar also requested tank support. The tanks received the clearance to fire their main guns (105 mm high-explosive squash head shells) only at around 7:30 a.m.
Vijayanta tanks shelled the Akal Takht. It suffered some damage but the structure was still standing. The Commanders in charge of the operation were shocked by this discovery that Militants in Akal Takhts had two Chinese made Rocket-propelled grenade launchers with armour piercing capabilities.
The Army entered the Akal Takht. Dead bodies of Bhindranwale, Shabeg Singh and Amrik Singh were discovered in the building. The Army gained effective control of the Harmandir Sahib complex.
The Army fought about four Sikhs holed up in basement of a tower. A colonel of the commandos was shot dead by an LMG burst while trying to force his way into the basement. By the afternoon of 10 June, the operation was over.
The Indian Army placed total casualties at:
- Sikh militants and civilians: 493 dead
- Military: 83 killed (4 officers, 79 soldiers) and 236 wounded.
Unofficial casualty figures were higher. Bhindranwale and large number of his militants were killed. There were high civilian casualties as well, since militants used pilgrims trapped inside the temple as human shields. The pilgrims were not allowed by the militants to escape from the temple premises in spite of relaxation in the curfew hours by the security forces. The militants hoped the presence of thousands of pilgrims inside the temple premises would prevent action by the army.
President Zail Singh visited the temple premises after the operation, while making the round, he was shot at by a sniper from one of the buildings that the Army had not yet cleared. The bullet hit the arm of an Army Colonel accompanying the president. The operation also led to the assassination of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi on 31 October 1984 by two of her Sikh bodyguards as an act of vengeance, triggering the 1984 anti-Sikh riots. The widespread killing of Sikhs, principally in the national capital Delhi but also in other major cities in North India, led to major divisions between the Sikh community and the Indian Government. The Army withdrew from Harmandir Sahib later in 1984 under pressure from Sikh demands. The 1985 bombing of Air India Flight 182 is thought to have been a revenge action.
General Arun Shridhar Vaidya, the Chief of Army Staff at the time of Operation Blue Star, was assassinated in 1986 in Pune by two Sikhs, Harjinder Singh Jinda and Sukhdev Singh Sukha. Both were sentenced to death, and hanged on 7 October 1992.
In March 1986, Sikh militants again occupied and continued to use the temple compound which necessitated another police action known as Operation Black Thunder on 1 May 1986, Indian paramilitary police entered the temple and arrested 200 militants that had occupied Harmandir Sahib for more than three months. On 2 May 1986 the paramilitary police undertook a 12-hour operation to take control of Harmandir Sahib at Amritsar from several hundred militants, but almost all the major radical leaders managed to escape. In June 1990, the Indian government ordered the area surrounding the temple to be vacated by local residents in order to prevent militants activity around the temple.
Mutinies by Sikh soldiers
In the aftermath of the Operation Blue Star, cases of mutinies by Sikh soldiers, mostly raw recruits, were reported from different places. On 7 June, six hundred soldiers of the 9th Battalion of the Sikh Regiment, almost the entire other ranks' strength, mutinied in Sri Ganganagar. While some managed to escape to Pakistan, most were rounded up by men of Rajputana Rifles. The largest mutiny took place in Sikh Regimental Centre at Ramgarh in Bihar where recruits for the Sikh Regiment are trained. There, 1461 soldiers - 1050 of them raw recruits, stormed the armoury, killing one officer and injuring two before they set out for Amritsar. The leaders of the mutiny divided the troops into two groups just outside of Banaras to avoid a rumoured roadblock. One half was engaged by Army artillery at Shakteshgarh railway station; those who managed to escape were rounded up by 21st Mechanised Infantry Regiment. The other half engaged with the artillery and troops of 20th Infantry Brigade, during which 35 soldiers (both sides) were killed. There were five more smaller mutinies in different parts of India. In total 55 mutineers were killed and 2,606 were captured alive.
The captured mutineers were court-martialed, despite efforts by various groups including retired Sikh officers to get them reinstated. In August 1985, 900 of the 2,606 mutineers were rehabilitated by the Central government as part of the Rajiv-Longowal accord.
Long Term Effects
The long-term results of the operation included:
- Defeat of the ISI-backed secessionist Khalistan movement
- Reduction in militancy in the Indian state of Punjab.
- Ensuring that the Golden Temple remains free from violence and weapons stockpiling.
The operation has been criticised on several grounds including: the government's choice of timing for the attack, the heavy casualties, the loss of property, and allegations of human rights violations.
Operation Blue Star was planned on a Sikh religious day — the martyrdom day of Guru Arjan Dev, the founder of the Harmandir Sahib. Sikhs from all over the world visit the temple on this day. Many Sikhs view the timing and attack by the Army as an attempt to inflict maximum casualties on Sikhs and demoralise them, and the government is in turn blamed for the inflated number of civilian casualties by choosing to attack on that day. Additionally, Longowal had announced a statewide civil disobedience movement that would launch on 3 June 1984. Participants planned to block the flow of grain out of Punjab and refuse to pay land revenue, water and electricity bills.
The Government justified the timing stating that the mission to arrest Bhindranwale could not be delayed any more as he was going to be more aggressive in his approach towards killings of Hindus. Bhindranwale was about to launch a fierce movement planned to murder Hindus in all the villages across Punjab. Plans included killings of All congress (I) MPs and MLAs on 5th June. According to Amarjit Kaur, Bhindranwale wanted to start a civil war between the Hindus and Sikhs. Before the Operation Blue Star started, there was already a rise in the killings of Hindus and 23 people were killed in the final 24 hours before the announcement of the operation. The spate in killings confirmed the doubts of the government which then decided that the operation had to be initiated soon.
When asked about why the Army entered the temple premises just after Guru Arjan Dev's martyrdom day (when the number of devotees is much higher), General Brar said that it was just a coincidence and Army had only had three to four days to complete the operation. Based on the intelligence sources Bhindranwale was planning to declare Khalistan an independent country any moment with support from Pakistan. Khalistani currency had already been distributed. This declaration would have increased chances of Punjab Police and security personnel siding with Bhindranwale. The Army waited for the surrender of militants on the night of June 5 but the surrender did not happen. The operation had to be completed before dawn. Otherwise, exaggerated messages of Army besieging the temple would have attracted mobs from nearby villages to the temple premises. The Army could not have fired upon these civilians. More importantly, Pakistan would have come in the picture, declaring its support for Khalistan. He described the operation as traumatic and painful, but necessary.
Before the attack by the Army, a media blackout was imposed in Punjab. The Times reporter Michael Hamlyn reported that journalists were picked up from their hotels at 5 a.m. in a military bus, taken to the adjoining border of the state of Haryana and "were abandoned there." The main towns in Punjab were put under curfew, transportation was banned, a news blackout was imposed, and Punjab was "cut off from the outside world." A group of journalists who later tried to drive into Punjab were stopped at the road block at Punjab border and were threatened with being shot if they proceeded. Indian nationals who worked with the foreign media also were banned from the area. The press criticized these actions by government as an "obvious attempt to attack the temple without the eyes of the foreign press on them." The media blackout throughout Punjab resulted in spread of rumours. The only available source of information during the period was All India Radio and the Doordarshan channel.
The militants used pilgrims trapped inside the temple as human shields, to prevent the attack by the army. The civilians were prevented from leaving the complex during the ease in curfew. This led to large number of civilian deaths.
On 6th of June, a group of some 350 people, including Longowal and Tohra surrendered to the Army near the Guru Nanak Niwas. To prevent their surrender to the security forces the miltants opened fire and hurled grenades on the group. 70 people were killed in this firing, including 30 women and 5 children. Gurcharan Singh, Secretary of the Akali Dal and a prominent member of the Longowal faction, was also killed.
Two Junior Commissioned Officers of the Army were captured by the miltants during the fight and were subjected to torture and then murdered. The miltants skinned one of them alive, strapped explosives on to his body, and blew him up while throwing him from the upper floor of the Akal Takht.
On June 8, 1984, an unarmed army doctor who had entered a basement to treat some civilian casualties was abducted by the militants and was hacked to death.
Brahma Chellaney, the Associated Press's South Asia correspondent, was the only foreign reporter who managed to stay on in Amritsar despite the media blackout. His dispatches, filed by telex, provided the first non-governmental news reports on the bloody operation in Amritsar. His first dispatch, front-paged by The New York Times, The Times of London and The Guardian, reported a death toll about twice of what authorities had admitted. According to the dispatch, about 780 militants and civilians and 400 troops had perished in fierce gun-battles. Chellaney reported that about "eight to 10" men suspected Sikh militants had been shot with their hands tied. In that dispatch, Mr. Chellaney interviewed a doctor who said he had been picked up by the Army and forced to conduct postmortems despite the fact he had never done any postmortem examination before. In reaction to the dispatch, the Indian government charged Chellaney with violating Punjab press censorship, two counts of fanning sectarian hatred and trouble, and later with sedition, calling his report baseless and disputing his casualty figures. The Supreme Court of India ordered Chellaney to cooperate with Amritsar police, who interrogated him concerning his report and sources. Chellaney declined to reveal his source, citing journalistic ethics and the constitutional guarantee of freedom of the press. In September 1985 charges against Chellaney were dropped. The Associated Press stood by the accuracy of the reports and figures, which were "supported by Indian and other press accounts".
Similar accusations of highhandedness by the Army and allegations of human rights violations by security forces in Operation Blue Star and subsequent military operations in Punjab have been leveled by Justice V. M. Tarkunde, Mary Anne Weaver, human rights lawyer Ram Narayan Kumar, and anthropologists Cynthia Mahmood and Joyce Pettigrew.
The Indian Army responded to this criticism by stating that they "answered the call of duty as disciplined, loyal and dedicated members of the Armed Forces of India. . . our loyalties are to the nation, the armed forces to which we belong, the uniforms we wear and to the troops we command".:156
Five years later, the Army's strategy was criticised by comparing it with the blockade approach taken by KPS Gill in Operation Black Thunder, when Sikh militants had again taken over the temple complex. It was said that Operation Blue Star could have been averted by using similar blockade tactics. The Army responded by stating that "no comparison is possible between the two situations", as "there was no cult figure like Bhindranwale to idolise, and no professional military general like Shahbeg Singh to provide military leadership" and "the confidence of militants having been shattered by Operation Blue Star." Furthermore, it was pointed out that the separatists in the temple were armed with machine guns, anti tank missiles and Chinese made armour piercing rocket launchers, and that they strongly resisted the Army's attempts to dislodge them from the shrine, appearing to have planned for a long standoff, having arranged for water to be supplied from wells within the temple compound and had stocked food provisions that could have lasted months.:153–154
Honours to the soldiers
The soldiers and generals involved in the Operation were presented with gallantry awards, honours, decoration strips and promotions by the Indian president Zail Singh, a Sikh, in a ceremony conducted on 10 July 1985. The act was criticized by authors and activists such as Harjinder Singh Dilgeer, who accused the troops of human rights violations during the operation.
Alleged British involvement
The United Kingdom's Thatcher government was reportedly aware of the Indian government's intention to storm the temple, and had provided an SAS officer to advise the Indian authorities. This and other assistance was reportedly intended to safeguard the UK's arms sales to India. Relevant UK government records have been censored.
Operation Blue Star and the assassination of Indira Gandhi (2013) is a TV documentary which premièred on ABP News Channel series, Pradhanmantri. This documentary, directed by Puneet Sharma and narrated by Shekhar Kapur, showed the circumstances preceding the Operation Blue Star and the events that occurred during it including the aftermath.
- Nicholas Watt, Jason Burke and Jason Deans (14 January 2014). "Cameron orders inquiry into claims of British role in 1984 Amritsar attack". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 20 January 2014. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
- Swami, Praveen (16 January 2014). "RAW chief consulted MI6 in build-up to Operation Bluestar". Chennai, India: The Hindu. Archived from the original on 18 January 2014. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
- K.S. Brar (July 1993). Operation Blue Star: the true story. UBS Publishers' Distributors. pp. 56–57. ISBN 978-81-85944-29-6. Retrieved 9 August 2013.
- Dogra, Cander Suta. "Operation Blue Star - the Untold Story". The Hindu, 10 June 2013. Web. 9 Aug 2013.
- Cynthia Keppley Mahmood (1 January 2011). Fighting for Faith and Nation: Dialogues with Sikh Defenders. University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. Title, 91, 21, 200, 77, 19. ISBN 978-0-8122-0017-1. Retrieved 9 August 2013
- Kiessling, Hein (2016). Faith, Unity, Discipline: The Inter-Service-Intelligence (ISI) of Pakistan. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9781849048637. Retrieved 2 October 2018.
- Martin 2013, p. 190.
- Tatla, Darshan Singh (1993). The politics of homeland : a study of the ethnic linkages and political mobilisation amongst Sikhs in Britain and North America (Thesis). University of Warwick. p. 133.
- "Architecture & History". akaltakhtsahib.com. Archived from the original on 13 October 2017. Retrieved 10 October 2017.
- "Temple Raid: Army's Order was Restraint". The New York Times. 15 June 1984. Archived from the original on 13 November 2012. Retrieved 6 February 2012.
- Karim, Afsir (1991). Counter Terrorism, the Pakistan Factor. New Delhi: Lancer Publishers. p. 35. ISBN 8170621275.
- White Paper on the Punjab Agitation. Shiromani Akali Dal and Government of India. 1984. p. 169. Retrieved 15 July 2018.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 27 May 2013. Retrieved 10 October 2017.
- Khushwant Singh, A History of the Sikhs, Volume II: 1839-2004, New Delhi, Oxford University Press, 2004, p. 337.
- "Operation Blue Star: India's first tryst with militant extremism - Latest News & Updates at Daily News & Analysis". Dnaindia.com. 5 November 2016. Archived from the original on 3 November 2017. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
- "Sikh Leader in Punjab Accord Assassinated". LA Times. Times Wire Services. 21 August 1985. Archived from the original on 29 January 2016. Retrieved 14 June 2018.
- Mark Tully, Satish Jacob (1985). "deaths+in+violent" Amritsar; Mrs. Gandhi's Last Battle (e-book ed.). London. p. 147, Ch. 11. Archived from the original on 26 July 2018. Retrieved 26 July 2018.
- Wolpert, Stanley A., ed. (2009). "India". Encyclopædia Britannica.
- Amberish K Diwanji (4 June 2004). "'There is a limit to how much a country can take'". The Rediff Interview/Lieutenant General Kuldip Singh Brar (retired). Rediff.com. Archived from the original on 1 February 2009. Retrieved 23 January 2009.
- "Army reveals startling facts on Bluestar". Tribune India. 30 May 1984. Retrieved 9 August 2009.
- Kiss, Peter A. (2014). Winning Wars amongst the People: Case Studies in Asymmetric Conflict (Illustrated ed.). Potomac Books. p. 100. ISBN 9781612347004. Archived from the original on 15 July 2018. Retrieved 15 July 2018.
- Westerlund, David (1996). Questioning The Secular State: The Worldwide Resurgence of Religion in Politics. C. Hurst & Co. p. 1276. ISBN 1-85065-241-4.
- Sandhu, Kanwar (15 May 1990). "Sikh Army deserters are paying the price for their action". India Today. Archived from the original on 19 June 2018. Retrieved 19 June 2018.
- Singh, Pritam (2008). Federalism, Nationalism and Development: India and the Punjab Economy. Routledge. p. 45. ISBN 978-0-415-45666-1. Retrieved 29 July 2010.
- Fair, C. Christine; Ganguly, Šumit (September 2008). Treading on hallowed ground: counterinsurgency operations in sacred spaces. Oxford University Press US. p. 44. ISBN 978-0-19-534204-8. Retrieved 19 June 2010.
- "Punjab: The Knights of Falsehood -- Psalms of Terror". Satp.org. Archived from the original on 14 October 2017. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
- Mahmood, Cynthia Keppley (1996). Fighting for Faith and Nation: Dialogues with Sikh Militants. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 78. ISBN 9780812215922. Archived from the original on 8 July 2018. Retrieved 8 July 2018.
- Tully, Mark; Jacob, Satish (1985). Amritsar: Mrs. Gandhi's Last Battle. p. 59.
- Martin, Gus (2011). The SAGE Encyclopedia of Terrorism (Second ed.). SAGE Publications. p. 544. ISBN 9781483305646. Archived from the original on 13 July 2018. Retrieved 13 July 2018.
- Gill, K.P.S. and Khosla, S (2017). Punjab: The Enemies Within : Travails of a Wounded Land Riddled with Toxins. Excerpt: Bookwise (India) Pvt. Limited. ISBN 9788187330660. Archived from the original on 21 June 2018. Retrieved 8 July 2018.
- India in 1984: Confrontation, Assassination, and Succession, by Robert L. Hardgrave, Jr. Asian Survey, 1985 University of California Press
- "SIKH SEPARATISTS HIJACK INDIAN JETLINER TO PAKISTAN". New York Times. 1981. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 13 July 2018.
- Mark Tully and Satish Jacob, Amritsar – Mrs. Gandhi's Last Battle (Calcutta: Rupa & Co. by arrangement with Pan Books, London, 1985)
- Joshi, Chand, Bhindranwale: Myth and Reality (New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House, 1984), p. 129.
- Giorgio Shani (2008). Sikh nationalism and identity in a global age. Routledge. pp. 51–60. ISBN 978-0-415-42190-4.
- "34 Years On, A Brief History About Operation Bluestar, And Why It Was Carried Out". NDTV. 6 June 2018. Archived from the original on 5 July 2018. Retrieved 5 July 2018.
- Khushwant Singh, A History of the Sikhs, Volume II: 1839–2004, New Delhi, Oxford University Press, 2004, p. 337.
- Singh, Tavleen. "Prophet of Hate:J S Bhindranwale". India Today. Archived from the original on 20 June 2008. Retrieved 22 December 2009.
- Bhanwar, Harbir Singh. "Interview". ABP News. Archived from the original on 26 July 2018. Retrieved 7 June 2018.
- Longowal said "Whenever the situation becomes ripe for settlement, some violent incident takes place. Longowal was of course not on the side of Bhindranwale and so he accused him. I know Bhindranwale is behind the murder of the DIG", "(The person behind the murder is) The one who is afraid of losing his seat of power" - but there was no proof nor a verification for it.Indian Express. 27 April 1983. interview with Longowal.
- Akshayakumar Ramanlal Desai (1 January 1991). Expanding Governmental Lawlessness and Organized Struggles. Popular Prakashan. pp. 64–66. ISBN 978-81-7154-529-2.
- Mark Tully, Satish Jacob (1985). Amritsar; Mrs. Gandhi's Last Battle (e-book ed.). London. p. 393.
- Clarence Augustus Martin, ed. (2011). The SAGE Encyclopedia of Terrorism, Second Edition. SAGE Publications. pp. 544–. ISBN 978-1-4129-8016-6.
- Mark Tully, Satish Jacob (1985). Amritsar; Mrs. Gandhi's Last Battle (e-book ed.). London. p. 405. Archived from the original on 6 July 2018. Retrieved 8 July 2018.
- Fair, C. Christine; Ganguly, Šumit (September 2008). Treading on hallowed ground: counterinsurgency operations in sacred spaces. Oxford University Press US. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-19-534204-8. Retrieved 19 June 2010.
- "DSGMC president Harbans Singh Manchanda murder in Delhi sends security forces in a tizzy". India Today. 30 April 1984. Archived from the original on 10 July 2018. Retrieved 10 July 2018.
- Kaur, Amarjit (2004). The Punjab Story. Lotus. ISBN 9788174369123. Retrieved 13 July 2018.
- Unnithan, Sandeep. "Indira Gandhi considered secret commando raid before Operation Bluestar". India Today. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
- Walia, Varinder. "Man who made efforts to avert Op Bluestar is no more" Archived 29 August 2008 at the Wayback Machine., "Tribune India", Amritsar, 18 December 2007.
- Sandhu, Ranbir S. (May 1997). Sant Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale – Life, Mission, and Martyrdom (PDF). pp. 57–58. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 22 June 2018.
- Mark Tully, Satish Jacob (1985). Amritsar; Mrs. Gandhi's Last Battle (e-book ed.). London. p. 555. Archived from the original on 6 July 2018. Retrieved 8 July 2018.
- "Operation Bluestar: Rare pictures from Express archives". The Indian Express. Archived from the original on 13 July 2018. Retrieved 12 July 2018.
- Mark Tully, Satish Jacob (1985). Amritsar; Mrs. Gandhi's Last Battle (e-book ed.). London.
- Kuldip Nayar and Khushwant Singh, Tragedy of Punjab, Vision Books, New Delhi, 1984, page 79.
- "Operation Bluestar". India Today. 1999.
- Guha, Ramachandra (2008). India After Gandhi: The History of the World's Largest Democracy (illustrated, reprint ed.). Excerpts: Macmillan. ISBN 9780330396110. Retrieved 10 July 2018.
- Mark Tully, Satish Jacob (1985). Amritsar; Mrs. Gandhi's Last Battle (e-book ed.). London. p. 551. Archived from the original on 6 July 2018. Retrieved 8 July 2018.
- Mark Tully, Satish Jacob (1985). Amritsar; Mrs. Gandhi's Last Battle (e-book ed.). London. p. 515, Ch. 10.
- Pachauri, Pankaj (15 August 1989). "Terrorists adopt new strategy to intimidate media in Punjab". India Today. Archived from the original on 14 July 2018. Retrieved 13 July 2018.
- Singh, Khushwant (2015). Why I Supported the Emergency. UK: Penguin. ISBN 9788184752410. Archived from the original on 13 July 2018. Retrieved 13 July 2018.
- Crenshaw, Martha (1 November 2010). Terrorism in Context. Penn State Press. p. 385. Archived from the original on 8 July 2018. Retrieved 8 July 2018.
- Mark Tully, Satish Jacob (1985). Amritsar; Mrs. Gandhi's Last Battle (e-book ed.). London. p. 484. Archived from the original on 6 July 2018. Retrieved 8 July 2018.
- Mark Tully, Satish Jacob (1985). Amritsar; Mrs. Gandhi's Last Battle (e-book ed.). London. p. 549. Archived from the original on 6 July 2018. Retrieved 8 July 2018.
- Mark Tully, Satish Jacob (1985). Amritsar; Mrs. Gandhi's Last Battle. London. p. 408.
- (New Delhi). The Times of India. 3 June 1984. Missing or empty
- Mark Tully, Satish Jacob (1985). Amritsar; Mrs. Gandhi's Last Battle (e-book ed.). London. p. 516, Ch. 11.
- Karim, Afsir (1991). Counter Terrorism, the Pakistan Factor. Lancer Publishers. p. 33. ISBN 9788170621270. Archived from the original on 15 July 2018. Retrieved 15 July 2018.
- Brar, K.S. (1992). Operation Blue Star: True Story. UBS Publishers Distributors (P), Limited. p. 54. ISBN 81-7476-068-7.
- Brar, K.S. (1992). Operation Blue Star: True Story. UBS Publishers Distributors (P), Limited. pp. 81–82. ISBN 81-7476-068-7.
- Ahmed, Ishtiaq (1996). State, Nation, and Ethnicity in Contemporary South Asia. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 130. ISBN 1-85567-578-1.
- Sharma, Cf. Brig. Man Mohan (1998). What Ails The Indian Army. Trishul Publications. pp. 273–75. ISBN 81-85384-25-8.
- Robert L. Hardgrave; Stanley A. Kochanek (2008). India: Government and Politics in a Developing Nation. Cengage Learning. ISBN 978-0-495-00749-4. Retrieved 20 October 2012.
- "Operation Bluestar: Answers to some unanswered questions". India Today. 15 August 1984. Archived from the original on 18 July 2018. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
- Singh, Sangat: The Sikhs in History
- Hamlyn, Michael (6 June 1984). "Journalists removed from Amritsar: Army prepares to enter Sikh shrine". The Times. p. 36.
- Tully, Mark (1985). Amritsar: Mrs Gandhi's Last Battle. Jonathan Cape.
- "Gun battle rages in Sikh holy shrine". The Times. 5 June 1984. p. 1.
- Mark Tully, Satish Jacob (1985). "celebrate+the+martyrdom" Amritsar; Mrs. Gandhi's Last Battle (e-book ed.). London. p. 147, Ch. 11. Archived from the original on 28 July 2018. Retrieved 28 July 2018.
- Dr. Sangat Singh, The Sikhs in History, page = 377
- History of Sikhs, Sangat Singh, pp=??
- Sangat Singh, page = 377
- Mahmood, Cynthia Keppley (1996). Fighting for Faith and Nation: Dialogues with Sikh Militants. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 90. ISBN 9780812215922. Archived from the original on 8 July 2018. Retrieved 8 July 2018.
- Brar, K.S. (19 92). Operation Blue Star: True Story. UBS Publishers Distributors (P), Limited. pp. 81–82. ISBN 81-7476-068-7.
- Brar, K.S. (1992). Operation Blue Star: True Story. UBS Publishers Distributors (P), Limited. pp. 61. ISBN 81-7476-068-7.
- Brar, K.S. (1992). Operation Blue Star: True Story. UBS Publishers Distributors (P) Limited. pp. 81–110. ISBN 81-7476-068-7.
- Singh, Sangat (1992). The Sikhs In History. Uncommon Books. p. 378. ISBN 81-900650-0-9.
- Mark Tully, Satish Jacob (1985). Amritsar; Mrs. Gandhi's Last Battle (e-book ed.). London. Archived from the original on 6 July 2018. Retrieved 8 July 2018.
- Mark Tully, Satish Jacob (1985). Amritsar; Mrs. Gandhi's Last Battle (e-book ed.). London. p. 704.
- "Operation Blue Star (1984) Information, Photos & Videos". YouthTimes.in. YouthTimes.in. Archived from the original on 8 June 2013. Retrieved 7 May 2013.
- "1984: Indian prime minister shot dead". BBC News. 31 October 1984. Archived from the original on 17 January 2009. Retrieved 9 August 2009.
- "Sikhs, in rally, press the Army to quit temple", Sanjoy Hazarika, The New York Times, 3 September 1984.
- Weishan, Steven R. (1 May 1986). "Indian policemen raid Sikh temple". New York Times. Archived from the original on 5 July 2018. Retrieved 5 July 2018.
- New York Times, 2 May 1986.
- "India Uproots Thousands Living Near Sikh Temple", Barbara Crossette, New York Times, 3 June 1990.
- Barua, Pradeep P. (October 1992). "Ethnic Conflict in the Military of Developing Nations: A Comparative Analysis of India and Nigeria". Armed Forces & Society. 19 (1): 123–137. doi:10.1177/0095327X9201900106. ISSN 0095-327X. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
- Kundu, Apurba (1994). "The Indian Armed Forces' Sikh and Non-Sikh Officers' Opinions of Operation Blue Star". Pacific Affairs. 67 (1): 46–69. doi:10.2307/2760119. ISSN 0030-851X. JSTOR 2760119.
- Tully, Mark; Jacob, Satish (1985). Amritsar: Mrs. Gandhi's Last Battle. p. 195.
- Hardgrave, Robert L. (1985). "India in 1984: Confrontation, Assassination, and Succession". Asian Survey. 25 (2): 131–144. doi:10.2307/2644297. ISSN 0004-4687. JSTOR 2644297.
- Tully, Mark; Jacob, Satish (1985). Amritsar: Mrs. Gandhi's Last Battle. p. 199.
- Dhillon, Gurdashan Singh. Truth About Punjab (SGPC White Paper). Amristar: Shiromani Gurudwara Prabandhak Committee.
- Khushwant Singh, A History of the Sikhs, Volume II: 1839-2004, New Delhi, Oxford University Press, 2004, p. 341.
- Brar, K.S. (1992). Operation Blue Star: True Story. UBS Publishers Distributors (P), Limited. p. 31. ISBN 81-7476-068-7.
- Amberish K Diwanji (3 June 2004). "'Pakistan would have recognised Khalistan'". The Rediff Interview/Lieutenant General Kuldip Singh Brar (retired). Rediff.com. Archived from the original on 29 January 2009. Retrieved 23 January 2009.
- "Operation Bluestar: Seven people who changed the course of Indian history in 1984". Hindustan Times. 6 June 2018. Archived from the original on 27 June 2018. Retrieved 26 June 2018.
- Hamlyn, Michael (6 June 1984). "Journalists removed from Amritsar: Army prepares to enter Sikh shrine". The Times. p. 36.
- "Gun battle rages in Sikh holy shrine". The Times. 5 June 1984. p. 1.
- Hamlyn, Michael (6 June 1984). "Journalists removed from Amritsar: Army prepares to enter Sikh shrine". The Times. p. 36.
Its is also apparent that the Indian authorities wish to invade the temple without the eyes of the foreign press upon them. No foreign correspondent is being allowed into Punjab now.
- Anniversary Issue, India Today, 26 December 2005, p 136.
- Hamlyn, Michael (12 June 1984). "Amritsar witness puts death toll at 1000". The Times. p. 7.
- Eric Silver (7 June 1984), "Golden Temple Sikhs Surrender", The Guardian
- Chellaney, Brahma (14 June 1984). "Sikhs in Amritsar 'tied up and shot'". The Times.
- "India is set to drop prosecution of AP reporter in Punjab Case". The New York Times. Associated Press. 14 September 1985. p. 5. Archived from the original on 2 January 2011. Retrieved 14 January 2009.
- "Indian Police Question Reporter on Amritsar". The New York Times. Associated Press. 24 November 1984. Archived from the original on 3 January 2011. Retrieved 14 January 2009.
- Stevens (30 October 1984). "India is said to drop prosecution of A. P. reporter in Punjab case =". The New York Times. p. 5.
Mr. Chellaney reported a death toll of 1,200 at a time when the Indian Government said the figure was 576. He also reported that 8 to 10 Sikhs had been tied up and shot by soldiers. The Government called his dispatches false and inflammatory. The A. P. defended the accuracy of his reports, which were supported by Indian and other press accounts.
- Judge V M Tarkunde, et al., Oppression in Punjab: Report to the Nation, New Delhi: Citizens for Democracy, 1985, pp. 8–10, 18–19
- Weaver, Mary Anne (15 October 1984). "India's Sikhs are bitter as Army tries to weed out 'militants'". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 31 July 2018.
- Ram Narayan Kumar, et al., Reduced to Ashes (Volume One), Asia Forum for Human Rights, Kathmandu, Nepal, May 2003, pp. 75)
- I.S. Jaijee. Politics of Genocide: 1984–1998. Ajanta Publishers, New Delhi, India.
- Cynthia Mahmood. Fighting for Faith and Nation: Dialogues with Sikh Militants. University of Pennsylvania Press.
- Pettigrew, Joyce (1995). The Sikhs of the Punjab: unheard voices of State and Guerilla violence. Zed Books. ISBN 978-1-85649-355-0. Retrieved 14 July 2010.
- Brar, K.S. (1992). Operation Blue Star: True Story. UBS Publishers Distributors (P), Limited. ISBN 81-7476-068-7.
- "Indira Gandhi had since long been planning for an attack on Darbar Sahib..." Harjinder Singh Dilgeer (2012). Sikh History in 10 Volumes. vol 7, p. 168; 196-197.
- Doward, Jamie (28 October 2017). "British government 'covered up' its role in Amritsar massacre in India". Theguardian.com. Archived from the original on 28 October 2017. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
- "Pradhanmantri Episode 14". ABP News. 25 January 2018. Archived from the original on 26 July 2018. Retrieved 7 June 2018.
- "Pradhanmantri - Episode 14: Operation Blue Star and the assassination of Indira Gandhi". ABP News. Retrieved 7 June 2018.
- Harjinder Singh Dilgeer (2012). Sikh History in 10 volumes. Sikh University Press. ISBN 2-930247-47-9.: presents comprehensive details of the invasion of Indian Army (causes and events). Vols 7 to 10 also give precious information.
- K. S. Brar (1993). Operation Blue Star: the true story. UBS Publishers' Distributors. ISBN 978-81-85944-29-6.: presents the version of the Indian Army general Kuldip Singh Brar, who led the operation.
- Kirapal Singh and Anurag Singh, ed. (1999). Giani Kirpal Singh's eye-witness account of Operation Blue Star. B. Chattar Singh Jiwan Singh. ISBN 978-81-7601-318-5.: presents the version of Giani Kirpal Singh, the Jathedar of the Akal Takht.
- Johncy Itty (1985). Operation Bluestar: the political ramifications.
- Man Singh Deora (1992). Aftermath of Operation Bluestar. Anmol Publications. ISBN 978-81-7041-645-6.
- Kuldip Nayar; Khushwant Singh (1984). Tragedy of Punjab: Operation Bluestar & after. Vision Books.
- Satyapal Dang; Ravi M. Bakaya (1 January 2000). Terrorism in Punjab. Gyan Books. ISBN 978-81-212-0659-4.