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Operation Clean and Beautiful Nation

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Operation Clean and Beautiful Nation
Part of the Rohingya conflict

Burmese tactical failure

Myanmar (SLORC)

Rohingya Solidarity Organisation

(border skirmish)
Commanders and leaders
Saw Maung Muhammad Yunus
Casualties and losses
200,000[2]–250,000[3][1] displaced
(150,000 later repatriated)[4]

Operation Clean and Beautiful Nation (Burmese: ပြည်သာယာ စစ်ဆင်ရေး), officially known as Operation Pyi Thaya in English, was a military operation conducted by the Tatmadaw (Myanmar Armed Forces) in northern Rakhine State, near Myanmar's border with Bangladesh.[2][5][6][7] The operation took place between 1991 and 1992,[1] under the military junta of the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC), officially as a response to the military expansion of the Rohingya Solidarity Organisation (RSO).[3]

Similar to Operation Nagamin (Operation Dragon King) in 1978, the government's official explanation for the operation was to expel so-called "foreigners" from the area, as well as capturing RSO insurgents. The resulting violence however, resulted in 200,000[2] to 250,000[3] civilians being displaced (most of whom fled to neighbouring Bangladesh) and failed to prevent further attacks by the RSO, which continued until the end of the 1990s.[5][7]

In December 1991, Tatmadaw soldiers crossed the border and accidentally fired on a Bangladeshi military outpost, causing a brief strain in Bangladesh–Myanmar relations.[3]


  1. ^ a b c "Burma/Bangladesh: Burmese Refugees In Bangladesh - Historical Background". www.hrw.org. Human Rights Watch. Archived from the original on 27 March 2023. Retrieved 22 March 2018.
  2. ^ a b c Ahmed, Akbar. "The Rohingya: Myanmar's outcasts". www.aljazeera.com. Archived from the original on 18 August 2022. Retrieved 25 September 2017.
  3. ^ a b c d "Bangladesh Extremist Islamist Consolidation". by Bertil Lintner. Archived from the original on 21 October 2022. Retrieved 21 October 2012.
  4. ^ Skutsch, Carl (7 November 2013). Encyclopedia of the World's Minorities. Routledge. p. 128. ISBN 9781135193881. Retrieved 30 December 2015.
  5. ^ a b "Bangladesh: The Plight of the Rohingya". Pulitzer Center. 18 September 2012. Archived from the original on 2 December 2022. Retrieved 25 September 2017.
  6. ^ "Understanding and responding to the Rohingya crisis". ReliefWeb. 27 May 2015. Archived from the original on 20 September 2015. Retrieved 25 September 2017.
  7. ^ a b Hodal, Kate (20 December 2012). "Trapped inside Burma's refugee camps, the Rohingya people call for recognition". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 14 April 2023. Retrieved 25 September 2017.