Operation Spring Awakening
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (December 2007)|
Operation Frühlingserwachen ("Spring Awakening") (6 – 16 March 1945) was the last major German offensive of World War II. The offensive was launched in Hungary on the Eastern Front. This offensive was also known in German as the Plattensee Offensive, in Russian as the Balaton Defensive Operation (6 – 15 March 1945), and in English as the Lake Balaton Offensive.
The offensive was launched by the Germans in great secrecy on 6 March 1945. The German attacks were centered in the Lake Balaton area. This area included some of the last oil reserves still available to the Germans.
The Germans planned to attack against Soviet General Fyodor Tolbukhin's 3rd Ukrainian Front. German General Sepp Dietrich's Sixth Panzer Army was responsible for the primary thrust of the German attack. The army was to advance from an area north of Lake Balaton on a wide front. They were to push east through the Soviet 27th Army and to the Danube River. After reaching the river, one part of the Army would turn north creating a northern spearhead. The northern spearhead would advance through the Soviet 6th Guards Tank Army and move along the Danube River to retake Budapest, which had been captured on 13 February 1945. Another part of Sixth SS Panzer Army would then turn south and create a southern spearhead. The southern spearhead would move along the Sio Canal to link up with units from German Army Group E, which was to thrust north through Mohács. If successful, the meeting of the southern spearhead and of Army Group E would encircle both the Soviet 26th Army and the Soviet 57th Army.
German Sixth Army would keep the Soviet 27th Army engaged while it was surrounded. Likewise, the German Second Panzer Army would advance from an area south of Lake Balaton towards Kaposvár and keep the Soviet 57th Army engaged. The Hungarian Third Army was to hold the area north of the attack and to the west of Budapest.
By the second half of February Soviet intelligence identified large German tank formations in western Hungary, and soon realized that preparation for a major offensive was underway. Using the experience gained in the Battle of Kursk, Soviets built multi-layer anti-tank defense using 65% of available artillery to create 66 anti-tank ambush points over 83 km of front in Lake Balaton area. The depth of the defense zone reached up to 25–30 km. To ensure sufficient supply of war materials and fuel, additional temporary bridges and gas pipelines were built on the Danube River.
The offensive began on 6 March, spearheaded by the German Sixth SS Panzer Army. The spearhead included elite units like Adolf Hitler's personal unit, the Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler Division.
However, due to well-prepared defense and rapid movement of tank reserves by the Soviets, over a period of 10 days and after suffering heavy casualties, German troops only managed to advance 15–40 km.
By 14 March, Operation Spring Awakening was at risk of failure and Joseph Goebbels wrote in his diary that the offensive would likely fail. The Sixth SS Panzer Army advanced well short of its goals. Second Panzer Army did not advance as far on the southern side of Lake Balaton as the Sixth SS Panzer Army did on the northern side. Army Group E met fierce resistance from the Bulgarian First Army and Josip Broz Tito's Yugoslavian partisan army, and failed to reach its objective of Mohács.
Soviet counterattack and subsequent operations
On 16 March, the Soviets counterattacked in strength. Within 24 hours of the Soviet counterattack, the Germans were driven back to the positions they had held before Operation Spring Awakening began.
On 22 March, out-numbered and with few armoured vehicles remaining, the surviving German forces withdrew to prepared positions elsewhere in Hungary. The Soviet counteroffensive continued and these positions[where?] were soon overrun.
On 30 March, the Soviet 3rd Ukrainian Front crossed from Hungary into Austria.
By 4 April, Sepp Dietrich's Sixth SS Panzer Army was already in the Vienna area desperately setting up the city's defenses against the anticipated Soviet Vienna Offensive. Already approaching and encircling the Austrian capital city were the Soviet 4th Guards Tank Army, the Soviet 6th Guards Tank Army, the Soviet 9th Guards Army, and the Soviet 46th Army. The Soviet's Vienna Offensive ended with the fall of the city on 13 April. By 15 April, the remnants of the Sixth SS Panzer Army were north of Vienna, facing the Soviet 9th Guards Tank Army and 46th Army.
By 15 April, the remnants of the German Sixth Army were north of Graz, facing the Soviet 26th and 27th Armies. The remnants of the German Second Panzer Army were south of Graz in the Maribor area, facing the Soviet 57th Army and the Bulgarian First Army. Between 25 April and 4 May, the Second Panzer Army was attacked near Nagykanizsa during the Nagykanizsa–Körmend Offensive.
Some Hungarian units survived the fall of Budapest and the destruction which followed when the Soviets counterattacked after Operation Spring Awakening. The Hungarian Szent László Infantry Division was still indicated to be attached to the German Second Panzer Army as late as 30 April. Between 16 and 25 March, the Hungarian Third Army was destroyed about 40 kilometres (25 mi) west of Budapest by the Soviet 46th Army which was driving towards Bratislava and the Vienna area.
Operation Spring Awakening was a failure for Germany. Given the timing of the offensive and the relative strength of German forces, the notion of pitting weakened German units, especially some returning from the Battle of the Bulge, against larger Soviet forces led the plan to be doomed from the start.
Cuff title order
The "armband order" was an order issued to the commander of German Sixth SS Panzer Army, Sepp Dietrich, by Adolf Hitler, who claimed that the troops, and, more importantly, the Leibstandarte Adolf Hitler, "did not fight as the situation demanded." As a mark of disgrace, the Leibstandarte units involved in the battle were ordered to remove their treasured "Adolf Hitler" cuff titles (German: Armband). In the field, Sepp Dietrich was disgusted by Hitler's order and did not relay it to his troops.
Order of battle
The Axis forces:
- Elements of the German Army Group South (Heeresgruppe Süd)
- German Sixth SS Panzer Army – Included the 1st SS Panzer Division Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler
- German Second Panzer Army
- German Sixth Army ("Armeegruppe Balck")
- Hungarian Third Army
- Elements of the German Army Group E (Heeresgruppe E)
The Soviet forces:
- Elements of the Soviet 3rd Ukrainian Front
- G.F. Krivosheyev, 'Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses in the twentieth century', London, Greenhill Books, 1997, ISBN 1-85367-280-7, Page 110
- Frieser, Karl-Heinz; Klaus Schmider, Klaus Schönherr, Gerhard Schreiber, Kristián Ungváry, Bernd Wegner (2007) (in German). Das Deutsche Reich und der Zweite Weltkrieg – Vol. 8: Die Ostfront 1943/44 – Der Krieg im Osten und an den Nebenfronten. Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt München 2007, ISBN 3421062358, Pages 942-943
- Higgins, David R. (2014). Jagdpanther vs SU-100. Eastern Front 1945. Osprey Publishing.
- Page 182, The Decline and Fall of Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan, Hans Dollinger, Library of Congress Catalogue Card Number 67-27047
- German War Machine. Brown Online, n.d. Web. 1 Aug. 2014.<http://www.thegermanwarmachine.com/waffenss/1945/springawakening.aspx>.
- Page 198, The Decline and Fall of Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan, Hans Dollinger, Library of Congress Catalogue Card Number 67-27047
- Eastern Front (World War II)
- History of Germany during World War II
- Hungary during the Second World War
- Military history of Bulgaria during World War II
- Battle of Budapest – 1944/45
- Battle of the Transdanubian Hills – 1945
- Nagykanizsa–Körmend Offensive – 1945
- Vienna Offensive – 1945
- Prague Offensive – 1945
- Soviet 3rd Ukrainian Front
- German 6th SS Panzer Army
- German Leibstandarte Adolf Hitler Division
- Hungarian Third Army
- Bulgarian First Army