From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
|Test site||NTS Area 12, Rainier Mesa; NTS Area 19, 20, Pahute Mesa; NTS, Areas 1-4, 6-10, Yucca Flat|
|Number of tests||14|
|Test type||underground shaft, underground tunnel|
|Max. yield||140 kilotonnes of TNT (590 TJ)|
|Previous test series||Operation Tinderbox|
|Next test series||Operation Praetorian|
Operation Guardian was a series of 14 nuclear tests conducted by the United States in 1980-1981 at the Nevada Test Site. These tests followed the Operation Tinderbox series and preceded the Operation Praetorian series.
|Name [note 1]||Date time (UT)||Local time zone [note 2]||Location [note 3]||Elevation + height [note 4]||Delivery [note 5]
Purpose [note 6]
|Device [note 7]||Yield [note 8]||Fallout [note 9]||References||Notes|
|Miners Iron||31 October 1980 18:00:00.09||PST (-8 hrs)
||NTS Area U12n.11||2,212 m (7,257 ft) - 389.5 m (1,278 ft)||underground tunnel,
|10 kt||Venting detected, 0.3 Ci (11 GBq)|||
|Dauphin||14 November 1980 16:50:00.084||PST (-8 hrs)
||NTS Area U9cq||1,306 m (4,285 ft) - 320 m (1,050 ft)||underground shaft,
|Experimetal test for nuclear pumped x-ray laser||2 kt|||
|Baseball||15 January 1981 20:25:00.09||PST (-8 hrs)
||NTS Area U7ba||1,232 m (4,042 ft) - 563.88 m (1,850.0 ft)||underground shaft,
|Clairette||5 February 1981 18:00:00.117||PST (-8 hrs)
||NTS Area U3kr||1,182 m (3,878 ft) - 353.6 m (1,160 ft)||underground shaft,
|less than 20 kt|||
|Seco||25 February 1981 15:00:00.082||PST (-8 hrs)
||NTS Area U8l||1,356 m (4,449 ft) - 200 m (660 ft)||underground shaft,
|less than 20 kt|||
|Vide||30 April 1981 14:35:00.084||PST (-8 hrs)
||NTS Area U8k||1,346 m (4,416 ft) - 323 m (1,060 ft)||underground shaft,
|less than 20 kt||Venting detected, 3 Ci (110 GBq)|||
|Aligote||29 May 1981 16:00:00.094||PST (-8 hrs)
||NTS Area U7bg||1,311 m (4,301 ft) - 320 m (1,050 ft)||underground shaft,
|Harzer||6 June 1981 18:00:00.084||PST (-8 hrs)
||NTS Area U19aj||2,073 m (6,801 ft) - 637 m (2,090 ft)||underground shaft,
|Niza||10 July 1981 14:00:00.096||PST (-8 hrs)
||NTS Area U9cr||1,266 m (4,154 ft) - 341 m (1,119 ft)||underground shaft,
|4 kt||I-131 venting detected, 0|||
|Pineau||16 July 1981 15:00:00.096||PST (-8 hrs)
||NTS Area U7ao||1,259 m (4,131 ft) - 207.26 m (680.0 ft)||underground shaft,
|less than 20 kt|||
|Havarti||5 August 1981 13:41:00.086||PST (-8 hrs)
||NTS Area U10bg||1,283 m (4,209 ft) - 200 m (660 ft)||underground shaft,
|less than 20 kt||I-131 venting detected, 0|||
|Islay||27 August 1981 14:31:00.088||PST (-8 hrs)
||NTS Area U2er||1,297 m (4,255 ft) - 294 m (965 ft)||underground shaft,
|4 kt||Venting detected, 700 Ci (26,000 GBq)|||
|Trebiano||4 September 1981 15:00:00.103||PST (-8 hrs)
||NTS Area U3lj||1,211 m (3,973 ft) - 305.4 m (1,002 ft)||underground shaft,
|1 kt||Venting detected, 200 Ci (7,400 GBq)|||
|Cernada||24 September 1981 15:00:00.089||PST (-8 hrs)
||NTS Area U3kk||1,181 m (3,875 ft) - 213.2 m (699 ft)||underground shaft,
|less than 20 kt|||
- The US, France and Great Britain have code-named their test events, while the USSR and China did not, and therefore have only test numbers (with some exceptions – Soviet peaceful explosions were named). Word translations into English in parentheses unless the name is a proper noun. A dash followed by a number indicates a member of a salvo event. The US also sometimes named the individual explosions in such a salvo test, which results in "name1 – 1(with name2)". If test is canceled or aborted, then the row data like date and location discloses the intended plans, where known.
- To convert the UT time into standard local, add the number of hours in parentheses to the UT time; for local daylight saving time, add one additional hour. If the result is earlier than 00:00, add 24 hours and subtract 1 from the day; if it is 24:00 or later, subtract 24 hours and add 1 to the day. All historical timezone data are derived from here:
- Rough place name and a latitude/longitude reference; for rocket-carried tests, the launch location is specified before the detonation location, if known. Some locations are extremely accurate; others (like airdrops and space blasts) may be quite inaccurate. "~" indicates a likely pro-forma rough location, shared with other tests in that same area.
- Elevation is the ground level at the point directly below the explosion relative to sea level; height is the additional distance added or subtracted by tower, balloon, shaft, tunnel, air drop or other contrivance. For rocket bursts the ground level is "N/A". In some cases it is not clear if the height is absolute or relative to ground, for example, Plumbbob/John. No number or units indicates the value is unknown, while "0" means zero. Sorting on this column is by elevation and height added together.
- Atmospheric, airdrop, balloon, gun, cruise missile, rocket, surface, tower, and barge are all disallowed by the Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. Sealed shaft and tunnel are underground, and remained useful under the PTBT. Intentional cratering tests are borderline; they occurred under the treaty, were sometimes protested, and generally overlooked if the test was declared to be a peaceful use.
- Include weapons development, weapon effects, safety test, transport safety test, war, science, joint verification and industrial/peaceful, which may be further broken down.
- Designations for test items where known, "?" indicates some uncertainty about the preceding value, nicknames for particular devices in quotes. This category of information is often not officially disclosed.
- Estimated energy yield in tons, kilotons, and megatons. A ton of TNT equivalent is defined as 4.184 gigajoules (1 gigacalorie).
- Radioactive emission to the atmosphere aside from prompt neutrons, where known. The measured species is only iodine-131 if mentioned, otherwise it is all species. No entry means unknown, probably none if underground and "all" if not; otherwise notation for whether measured on the site only or off the site, where known, and the measured amount of radioactivity released.
- Yang, Xiaoping; North, Robert; Romney, Carl (August 2000), CMR Nuclear Explosion Database (Revision 3), SMDC Monitoring Research
- "Timezone Historical Database". iana.com. Retrieved March 8, 2014.
- Estimated exposures and thyroid doses received by the American people from Iodine-131 in fallout following Nevada atmospheric nuclear bomb tests, Chapter 2 (PDF), National Cancer Institute, 1997, retrieved 2014-01-05
- Radiological Effluents Released from U.S. Continental Tests 1961 Through 1992 (DOE/NV-317 Rev. 1) (PDF), DOE Nevada Operations Office, August 1996, retrieved 2013-10-31
- Official list of underground nuclear explosions, Sandia National Laboratories, 1994-07-01, retrieved 2013-12-18
- United States Nuclear Tests: July 1945 through September 1992 (PDF) (DOE/NV-209 REV15), Las Vegas, NV: Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, 2000-12-01, retrieved 2013-12-18
- Broad, William J. (1985). Star warriors : a penetrating look into the lives of the young scientists behind our space age weaponry. New York: Simon and Schuster. p. 116. ISBN 0671545663.
- Hechanova, Anthony E.; O'Donnell, James E. (1998-09-25), Estimates of yield for nuclear tests impacting the groundwater at the Nevada Test Site, Nuclear Science and Technology Division
- Operation Argus, 1958 (DNA6039F), Washington, DC: Defense Nuclear Agency, Department of Defense, retrieved 26 November 2013