Operation Inherent Resolve
|Operation Inherent Resolve|
|Part of the international military intervention against the Islamic State and the War on terror|
U.S. Navy F/A-18F Super Hornets of VFA-22 take off from USS Carl Vinson to support U.S. efforts for Operation Inherent Resolve in October 2014.
|Commanders and leaders|
Mark Esper (Secretary of Defense, 2019 –2020)|
James Mattis (Secretary of Defense, 2017 – 2018)
Ashton Carter (Secretary of Defense, 2015–2017)
Chuck Hagel (Secretary of Defense, 2014–2015)
General Kenneth F. McKenzie Jr. (CENTCOM Commander, 2019 – present)
General Joseph Votel (CENTCOM Commander, 2016 – 2019)
Lieutenant General Robert P. White
Commanding General Combined Joint Task Force - Operation Inherent Resolve
Major General Kevin M. Copsey
(Deputy Commander-Stability CJTF-OIR)
Major General Alexus G. Grynkewich
(Deputy Commander-Operations and Intelligence CJTF-OIR)
Abu Ibrahim al-Hashimi al-Qurashi † (Former leader of IS)
Abu Khayr al-Masri † (al-Qaeda deputy leader)
Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant:
|Casualties and losses|
Tens of thousands of civilians killed by IS (per Iraqi Body Count and SOHR)
Operation Inherent Resolve (OIR) is the U.S. military's operational name for the International military intervention against IS, including both a campaign in Iraq and a campaign in Syria, with a closely-related campaign in Libya. Through 18 September 2018, the U.S. Army's III Armored Corps was responsible for Combined Joint Task Force – Operation Inherent Resolve (CJTF—OIR) and were replaced by the XVIII Airborne Corps. The campaign is primarily waged by American and British air forces in support of local allies, most prominently the Iraqi security forces and Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF). Combat ground troops, mostly special forces and artillery, have also been deployed, especially in Iraq. Of the airstrikes, 70% have been conducted by the military of the United States, 20% by the United Kingdom and the remaining 10% being carried out by France, Turkey, Canada, the Netherlands, Denmark, Belgium, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Australia and Jordan.
According to the Pentagon, by March 2019, the day of the territorial defeat in Syria of the Islamic State (IS), CJTF-OIR and its partner forces had liberated nearly 110,000 square kilometers (42,471 square miles) of land and 7.7 million people from IS, the vast majority of the self-proclaimed caliphate's territory and subjects. By October 2017, around the time of IS's territorial defeat in Iraq, CJTF-OIR claimed that around 80,000 IS militants had been killed by it and its allies (excluding those targeted by Russian and Syrian Air Force strikes). By the end of August 2019, it had conducted 34,573 strikes. Tens of thousands more were killed by partner forces on the ground (the SDF alone claimed to have killed 25,336 IS fighters by the end of 2017).
Unlike their coalition partners, and unlike previous combat operations, no name was initially given to the conflict against IS by the U.S. government. The decision to keep the conflict nameless drew considerable media criticism.
The U.S. decided in October 2014 to name its military efforts against IS as "Operation Inherent Resolve"; the U.S. Central Command (CENTCOM) news release announcing the name noted that:
According to CENTCOM officials, the name INHERENT RESOLVE is intended to reflect the unwavering resolve and deep commitment of the U.S. and partner nations in the region and around the globe to eliminate the terrorist group ISIL and the threat they pose to Iraq, the region and the wider international community. It also symbolizes the willingness and dedication of coalition members to work closely with our friends in the region and apply all available dimensions of national power necessary—diplomatic, informational, military, economic—to degrade and ultimately destroy ISIL.
The US Defense Department announced at the end of October 2014 that troops operating in support of Operation Inherent Resolve after 15 June were eligible for the Global War on Terrorism Expeditionary Medal.
By 4 December 2014, three U.S. service members had died from accidents or non-combat injuries.
On 22 October 2015, a U.S. Master Sergeant, Joshua Wheeler, was killed in action when he, with about 30 other U.S. special operations soldiers and a Peshmerga unit, conducted a prison break near Hawija in the disputed territories of Northern Iraq, in which about 70 hostages were rescued, five IS members were captured and "a number" were killed or wounded. Sergeant First Class Thomas Payne was awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions during the operation. The Kurdistan Regional Government said after the raid that none of the 15 prisoners it was intended to rescue were found.
From May, North American Rockwell OV-10 Broncos joined the operation, flying more than 120 combat sorties over 82 days. It is speculated they provided close air support for special forces missions. The experiment ended satisfactorily, but a US Air Force spokesman stated it remains unlikely they will invest in reactivating the OV-10 on a regular basis because of the overhead cost of operating an additional aircraft type.
By 9 March 2016, nearly 11,000 airstrikes had been launched on IS (and occasionally Al-Nusra), killing over 27,000 fighters and striking over 22,000 targets, including 139 tanks, 371 Humvees, and 1,216 pieces of oil infrastructure. Approximately 80% of these airstrikes have been conducted by American forces, with the remaining 20% being launched by other members of the coalition, such as the United Kingdom and Australia. 7,268 strikes hit targets in Iraq, while 3,602 hit targets in Syria. On 12 June 2016, it was reported that 120 IS leaders, commanders, propagandists, recruiters and other high-value individuals were killed so far this year.
Until March 2016, U.S. military members were ineligible for Campaign Medals and other service decorations due to the continuing ambiguous nature of the continuing U.S. involvement in Iraq. However, on 30 March 2016, U.S. Secretary of Defense Ash Carter announced the creation of a new medal, named "Inherent Resolve Campaign Medal".
On 3 June 2016, aircraft flying from the USS Harry S. Truman in the Mediterranean Sea began airstrikes on IS. On 16 June 2016, AV-8B II+ Harriers of the 13th MEU flying from the USS Boxer in the Persian Gulf also began airstrikes on IS, marking the first time the U.S. Navy used ship-based aircraft from both the Mediterranean and the Persian Gulf at the same time during Operation Inherent Resolve.
By 27 July 2016, U.S. and coalition partners had conducted more than 14,000 airstrikes in Iraq and Syria: Nearly 11,000 of those strikes were from U.S. aircraft and the majority of the strikes (more than 9,000) were in Iraq. Of the 26,374 targets hit, nearly 8,000 were against IS fighting positions, while approximately 6,500 hit buildings; IS staging areas and oil infrastructure were each hit around 1,600 times. On 15 December 2016, the U.K. Defense Secretary Michael Fallon said that "more than 25,000 Daesh fighters have now been killed," a number that was half of the United States' estimate. When asked about this discrepancy, the UK's Ministry of Defense said that it stood by his estimate.
Since the first U.S. airstrikes on IS targets in Iraq on 8 August 2014, over two years, the U.S. military has spent over $8.4 billion fighting IS.
Operation Odyssey Lightning
From August to December 2016, the U.S. conducted another similar operation in Libya, code-named Operation Odyssey Lightning, during the battle to capture Sirte, which was the local capital of IS's Libyan branch. In September 2017, the US Africa Command announced that 495 precision airstrikes were carried out and 800 to 900 IS fighters were killed during the operation in Sirte between 1 August and 19 December 2016. On 18 January 2017, US B-2 bombers bombed 2 IS camps to the south of Sirte, killing 90 IS militants.
According to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, Coalition airstrikes have killed 7,043 people across Syria, of which: 5,768 dead were IS fighters, 304 Al-Nusra Front militants and other rebels, 90 government soldiers and 881 civilians. The air strikes occurred in the period between 22 September 2014 and 23 January 2017.
In March 2017, various media outlets reported that conventional forces from the 11th MEU, as well as special operations forces in the form of the 75th Ranger Regiment deployed to Syria to support U.S.-backed forces in liberating Raqqa from IS occupation. The deployment marked an escalation in the U.S. intervention in Syria.
By February 28, the Coalition had conducted 3,271 sorties in 2017, 2,129 of which resulted in at least one weapon released. In total, the coalition released 7,040 weapons in Iraq and Syria in this same time period in an effort to destroy IS.
As of August 9, 2017, coalition aircraft flew a total of 167,912 sorties, and conducted 13,331 strikes in Iraq and 11,235 strikes in Syria, for a total of 24,566 strikes.
In February 2018, the 2nd Brigade Combat Team, 101st Airborne Division was awarded a campaign streamer following its deployment to Iraq. In May 2016, the brigade deployed to advise and assist, train and equip Iraqi security forces to fight the Islamic State of Iraq. The 2nd Brigade also conducted precision surface-to-surface fires and supported a multitude of intelligence and logistical operations for coalition and Iraqi forces. They also provided base security throughout more than 12 areas of operations. The Brigade also aided in the clearance of IS from Fallujah, the near elimination of suicide attacks in Baghdad, and the introduction of improved tactics that liberated more than 100 towns and villages. The 2nd Brigade, 101st Airborne Division also played a significant role in the liberation of Mosul.
In early 2019, the US-led coalition focused on the final assault on ISIS in the Euphrates pocket, including the Battle of Baghuz Fawqani in the first quarter of the year. Civilian human shields held by ISIS were among the victims, including in one reported massacre on 19 March in which up to 300 civilians, including 45 children, were alleged to have been killed by Coalition forces.
From August 8, 2014, to August 29, 2019, coalition aircraft conducted a total of 34,573 strikes.
On 31 December 2019, the CJTF-OIR reported its forces were "closely monitoring the current situation of the protests at the US Embassy in Baghdad", adding that they were "taking the appropriate force protection measures to ensure [US Embassy personnel] safety".
CJTF-OIR paused all training and anti-ISIS operations on January 5, 2020, to focus on protecting Iraqi bases hosting Coalition troops in the wake of several rocket attacks. This action was also linked to the anticipated response against Coalition forces in the wake of the killing of Iranian General Qasem Soleimani. In March 2020, the U.S. military started to withdraw from various bases in Iraq.
This section needs to be updated.(July 2021)
On 31 March 2021, Carrier Air Wing Three launched naval flight operations in support of Operation Inherent Resolve. The USS Dwight D. Eisenhower and its carrier strike group were expected to lead Task Force 50, which oversees Operation Inherent Resolve's naval strike operations.
U.S. and coalition forces are training Iraqi forces at four sites: in al-Asad in Anbar province, Erbil in the north, and Taji and Besmayah in the Baghdad area.
- 1st Infantry Division 1st Cavalry division
- 3rd Brigade Combat Team, 82nd Airborne Division (January – September 2015).
- 3rd Brigade Combat Team, 10th Mountain Division
- 1st Brigade Combat Team, 10th Mountain Division (September 2015 – June 2016).
- 2nd Brigade Combat Team, 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault) (June 2016 – January 2017).
- 2nd Brigade Combat Team, 82nd Airborne Division (January 2017 – October 2017)
- 2nd Battalion, 82nd Field Artillery Regiment (January 2017 – October 2017)
- 28th Expeditionary Combat Aviation Brigade, 28th Infantry Division
- 35th Combat Aviation Brigade, 35th Infantry Division (Summer 2018- Summer 2019)
3rd Cavalry Regiment (Spring 2018 – Spring 2019)
- Marine Air-Ground Task Force (MAGTF)
- Special Purpose Marine Air-Ground Task Force – Crisis Response – Central Command
During the operation in Syria, there were several bases mostly in the north:
- Al-Hasakah Governorate
- Aleppo Governorate
- Deir ez-Zor Governorate
- Homs Governorate
- Raqqa Governorate
However, following the 2019 Turkish offensive into north-eastern Syria, most U.S. soldiers withdrew from northern Syria to western Iraq in October 2019, while even bombing their own Lafarge basement near Harab Isk.
Meanwhile, The New York Times reported that the Pentagon was planning to "leave 150 Special Operations forces at a base called al-Tanf". In addition, 200 U.S. soldiers would remain in eastern Syria near the oil fields, to prevent the Islamic State, Syrian government and Russian forces from advancing in the region. However, at least 600–900 U.S. Troops are expected to stay in Syria, in Al-Hasakah and Deir ez-Zor Governorates. In July 2020, the U.S. military built a new base including an airport, located between Um Kahif village and Tal Alu silos near Al-Yaarubiyah.
According to Airwars, in 2014 there were 63 incidents involving the US-led coalition in Iraq and Syria in which there were civilian casualties, causing at least 160 civilian deaths. In 2015, there were 268 incidents and 708 deaths. In 2016, there were 483 incidents and 1,372 deaths. Civilian casualties peaked in 2017, with 1,841 incidents and at least 4,677 civilian deaths.
According to Airwars, 1,472 civilians were killed by the U.S. air campaign in Iraq and Syria in March 2017 alone. On March 17, a U.S.-led coalition airstrike in Mosul killed more than 200 civilians. Data compiled by Airwars shows that 229 strikes in Iraq and 878 strikes in Syria were carried out by Coalition forces in June 2017, killing an alleged total of 1,483 people. The reporting of 875 of those total alleged deaths is contested. In July 2017, Airwars recorded reports of an alleged 1,342 people were killed in Iraq and Syria by Coalition airstrikes. Of the allegations 812 were contested, and two were disproved.
Casualty figures fell after the 2017 peak. According to Airwars, 2018 saw 192 incidents and 846 deaths; 2019 saw 72 incidents and 467 deaths. In 2019, the casualties were concentrated in the first quarter during the Battle of Baghuz Fawqani including an alleged massacre of civilian human shields on 19 March.
By 2020, Airwars had recorded a five-year total of 14,771 US-led Coalition strikes in Iraq and 19,829 in Syria and investigated 2,921 alleged civilian casualty incidents, estimating 8,259–13,135 civilian deaths, of whom around 2,000 were children, although the Coalition itself estimated just 1,377 or 1,417 civilian deaths.
The New York Times reported that efforts to minimize and count civilian deaths fell far short of the approach promised by the US military for its use of airstrikes in the war against IS. The Times reported that airstrikes against IS, as well as in the war in Afghanistan, was marked by "flawed intelligence, poor targeting and thousands of civilian deaths." The Times reported that efforts to minimize civilian casualties diminished after President Trump assumed office in 2017, stating "... the authority to approve strikes was pushed further down the chain of command, even as an overwhelming majority of strikes were carried out in the heat of war, and not planned far in advance." The Times reported that the US military systematically under-reported casualties, providing a total death count of 1,417, when the actual count was significantly higher. The report states that the military made little effort to accurately determine civilian casualties after the airstrikes. The military was also reluctant to divulge information about the casualties, in spite of promises of transparency, and news media were required to make numerous requests under the Freedom of Information Act, and had to repeatedly sue the US military to produce data.
During the years 2014 to 2019, an Air Force special operations group named Talon Anvil killed a significant number of non-combatant civilians, and often failed to follow US military protocols designed to minimize civilian casualties. In one particular bomb strike, in March 2019, the Baghuz airstrike, approximately 50 women and children were killed, and the Air Force subsequently covered the deaths up. The Talon Anvil group operated under the auspices of Task Force 9, which was the US military unit responsible for ground operations in the war against IS in Syria. The group consisted of about 20 plains-clothes military personnel that operated out of anonymous office buildings in Iraq and Syria. In December 2021, the US Secretary of Defense ordered an investigation into the civilian deaths caused by Talon Anvil's bombing strikes.
- Combined Joint Task Force – Operation Inherent Resolve, commander headquarters of ongoing operations
- German intervention against the Islamic State, also named Operation Counter Daesh, related German operations
- Opération Chammal, name for similar French operations
- Operation Impact, name for similar Canadian operations
- Operation Martyr Yalçın, name for similar Turkish operation against IS
- Operation Okra, name for similar Australian operations
- Operation Shader, name for similar British operations
- Operation Tidal Wave II, name of a suboperation against IS oil infrastructure
- "Islamic State, rival Al Nusra Front each strengthen grip on Syria". Los Angeles Times. 28 November 2014. Retrieved 6 December 2014.
- Master. "Negotiations failed between the IS, Jabhat al-Nusra and Islamic battalions". Syrian Observatory For Human Rights. Archived from the original on 17 November 2014.
- "War of Words Between al Qaeda and ISIS Continues With Scholar's Smackdown". NBC News. Retrieved 6 December 2014.
- "IŞİD ve El Nusra'nın birleştiği iddia edildi". Star Gazete (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 28 January 2015. Retrieved 14 April 2015.
- "An internal struggle: Al Qaeda's Syrian affiliate is grappling with its identity". Brookings Institution. 31 May 2015. Retrieved 1 June 2015.
- Charkatli, Izat (23 February 2017). "Over 2,000 radical rebels defect to ISIS following intra-rebel deal". Archived from the original on 28 May 2019. Retrieved 12 December 2017.
- "Search for the dead begins in Idlib after Islamic State-linked brigade leaves for Raqqa". 22 February 2017.
- Caleb Weiss (14 February 2017). "Uighur jihadist fought in Afghanistan, killed in Syria". Long War Journal. Retrieved 22 February 2017.
- Nick Paton Walsh; Laura Smith-Spark (6 November 2014). "Report: Airstrikes target new Islamist group in Syria". CNN. Retrieved 6 December 2014.
- "No. 63097". The London Gazette (Supplement). 1 September 2020. p. 14664.
- "Islamic State confirms Baghdadi is dead, appoints successor". Reuters. 31 October 2019. Retrieved 31 October 2019.
- "ISIS leader killed in US military raid in Syria, with multiple civilian fatalities". TheJournal.ie. 3 February 2022.
- "Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi: IS leader 'killed in US operation' in Syria". BBC News. 27 October 2019.
- "Report: A former physics teacher is now leading ISIS". Business Insider. 23 April 2015. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
- Hubbard, Ben; Schmitt, Eric (27 August 2014). "Military Skill and Terrorist Technique Fuel Success of ISIS". The New York Times. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
- Matt Bradley; Ghassan Adnan; Felicia Schwartz (10 November 2014). "Coalition Airstrikes Targeted Islamic State Leaders Near Mosul". The Wall Street Journal.
- "Kadyrov Claims Red-Bearded Chechen Militant al-Shishani Dead". ElBalad. 14 November 2014. Archived from the original on 28 January 2015.
- "Kadyrov Says Islamic State's Leader From Georgia Killed". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 14 November 2014.
- Antonopoulos, Paul (26 February 2017). "BREAKING: Al-Qaeda's deputy leader killed in Idlib drone strike". Archived from the original on 30 June 2019. Retrieved 12 December 2017.
- "Syria's Qaeda leader killed in explosion – ARA News". ARA News. Archived from the original on 8 March 2015. Retrieved 31 March 2015.
- "Al-Qaida Reasserts Itself With Khorasan Group". NPR. 3 October 2014. Retrieved 23 July 2015.
- "Key al-Qaeda figure Muhsin al-Fadhli killed in U.S. airstrike in Syria – Pentagon". BNO News. Archived from the original on 25 December 2018. Retrieved 21 July 2015.
- "French jihadist Drugeon killed in Syria: US official". AFP. 11 September 2015. Retrieved 11 September 2015.
- Sgt. Deja Borden (15 April 2015). "Build Partner Capacity strengthens bonds, armies" (PDF) (Press release). Combined Joint Task Force, Operation Inherent Resolve. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 April 2015.
- Sisk, Richard (31 October 2017). "ISIS Fires Mortars Near Marines Deployed to Train Iraq Forces". Military.com.
- "U.S. Department of Defense, Photo Essay". United States Department of Defense. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
- "PATFORSWA: Guardians of the Arabian Gulf". coastguard.dodlive.mil. United States Coast Guard. Retrieved 21 March 2018.
PATFORSWA also supported Operation Enduring Freedom and in 2015 transitioned to supporting Operation Inherent Resolve
- Michelle Tan (30 December 2014). "2-star on Iraq: 'Still a big fight going on here'". Army Times. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
- Crowley, Michael (18 August 2014). "Obama la Mission Creep in Iraq". Time.
- Welch, William M (3 September 2014). "US sending 350 more troops to Iraq". USA Today.
- "Obama doubling US troop levels in Iraq". Stars and Stripes. Retrieved 28 December 2014.
- "Islamic State: Coalition 'pledges more troops' for Iraq". BBC News. 8 December 2014.
- "1,000 soldiers from the 82nd Airborne headed to Iraq". Stars and Stripes. Retrieved 25 February 2015.
- Barnes, Julian E. (1 October 2014). "2,300 U.S. Marines deploy new quick-reaction force in Kuwait". The Wall Street Journal.
- Lamothe, Dan (19 July 2014). "US companies pulling contractors from Iraqi bases as security crumbles". The Washington Post. Retrieved 13 August 2014.
- Nissenbaum, Dion (3 February 2014). "Role of US Contractors Grows as Iraq Fights Insurgents". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 13 August 2014.
- "USS Carl Vinson Takes Over Airstrike Campaign From USS George H. W. Bush (Video)". KPBS. Archived from the original on 4 November 2014. Retrieved 6 December 2014.
- "See U.S. warships head for ISIS fight". CNN. 13 April 2015. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
- "USS Carl Vinson begins return to San Diego". San Diego: CBS 8. 13 April 2015. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
- "US airstrikes in Syria", ABC News
- Hennigan, W. J.; Cloud, David S. (25 September 2014). "At War – Again". Florida Courier. Archived from the original on 20 October 2014. Retrieved 20 October 2014.
- Foster, Peter (23 September 2014). "US military launches air strikes against Isil in Syria". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 23 September 2014. Retrieved 20 October 2014.
- Capaccio, Tony (10 October 2014). "Pentagon Says Islamic State Fight Costs $7.6 Million/Day". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 13 October 2014.
- "Kobani: US drops weapons to Kurds in Syria". The Guardian. Associated Press. 20 October 2014. Retrieved 20 October 2014.
- "How US is Pinpointing ISIS Targets in Air War". NDTV. Agence France-Presse. 12 October 2014. Retrieved 20 October 2014.
- Baldor, Lolita (6 October 2014). "Pentagon: Up to $1.1B cost for Iraq, Syria". Marine Corps Times. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 7 October 2014. Retrieved 20 October 2014.
- Majumdar, Dave (25 September 2014). "Exclusive Pictures of Stealth Jet Raid on Syria". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 20 October 2014.
- Rush, James (6 October 2014). "Isis air strikes: US brings in Apache helicopters as British jets target militants in Iraq". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on 24 May 2022. Retrieved 8 October 2014.
- Trevithick, Joseph (18 November 2014). "U.S. Commandos Are Flying Around Iraq". Medium.com. Retrieved 25 November 2014.
- Sanchez, Raf (8 September 2014). "Predator drones being flown over Isil's Syrian 'capital'". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 8 September 2014. Retrieved 11 October 2014.
- Gordon, Greg (29 September 2014). "Once targeted, Global Hawk drone now hidden weapon in U.S. airstrikes". McClatchyDC.com. Archived from the original on 28 January 2015. Retrieved 20 October 2014.
- Barbara Starr, U.S. officials say 6,000 ISIS fighters killed in battles, CNN (22 January 2015).
- CIA says IS numbers underestimated, Al Jazeera (12 September 2014).
- "ISIS militants have army of 200,000, claims senior Kurdish leader". el-balad.com. Archived from the original on 20 November 2014. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
- "Islamic State 'training pilots to fly fighter jets'". BBC News. 17 October 2014. Retrieved 22 October 2014.
- "U.S.-led forces drop nearly 5,000 bombs on ISIS". Al Arabiya. 8 January 2015. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
- "Fears of massacre as Isis tanks lead assault on Kurdish bastion". The Times. 4 October 2014.
- "Now ISIS has drones?". CNN. 24 August 2014.
- "Footage From an ISIS Drone". NYTimes.com – Video. 30 August 2014.
- Taylor, Adam (27 October 2014). "In bizarre new video, Islamic State hostage gives tour of Kobane". The Washington Post blogs.
- "ISIS: We Nabbed an Iranian Drone". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 6 December 2014.
- Tomson, Chris (21 May 2017). "Islamist rebel group joins Al-Qaeda franchise in Syria". Al-Masdar News. Archived from the original on 11 May 2019. Retrieved 21 May 2017.
- Al-awsat, Asharq (30 January 2017). "Syria: Surfacing of 'Hai'at Tahrir al-Sham' Threatens Truce – ASHARQ AL-AWSAT English". Archived from the original on 15 February 2017. Retrieved 12 December 2017.
- "Gen. Dempsey Claims Airstrikes in Syria that Targeted Khorasan Group Disrupted Plots Against US". KNEB Radio. Archived from the original on 9 October 2014.
- Moubayed, Sami (29 January 2017). "Is Syria's Idlib being groomed as Islamist killing ground?". Asia Times.
- "Syrian opposition merger in Jan 2017". archicivilians. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
- https://www.defense.gov/casualty.pdf[bare URL PDF]
- "Islamic State Kassig murder: Western jihadists probed". BBC News. 17 November 2014. Retrieved 17 November 2014.
- "Islamic State Allies In Egypt Say They Killed American Oil Worker William Henderson". The Huffington Post. 1 December 2014. Retrieved 6 December 2014.
- "BBC News – Libya hotel attack: Five foreigners among nine killed". BBC News. 28 January 2015.
- "Kayla Mueller, American ISIL hostage, is dead,", Al Jazeera America, 10 February 2015
- Lamothe, Dan (1 December 2014), "Air Force F-16 pilot killed in crash in Middle East", The Washington Post
- "Isil using anti aircraft batteries captured in Iraq", The World Tribune, 12 September 2014, archived from the original on 1 September 2015
- Rempfer, Kyle (20 August 2018). "One US service member killed in aircraft crash in Iraq". Military Times.
- Rempfer, Kyle (16 March 2018). "CENTCOM: No survivors after US helicopter crash in western Iraq". Air Force Times.
- Karouny, Mariam (17 March 2015). "U.S. loses drone over Syria, which claims to have brought it down". Reuters. Retrieved 31 March 2015.
- Roba Alhenawi (17 March 2015). "Syria says it shot down U.S. drone". CNN. Retrieved 31 March 2015.
- "Once promised paradise, ISIS fighters end up in mass graves". The Straits Times. 15 October 2017. Retrieved 11 December 2017.
- "Airstrikes in Iraq and Syria". US Department of Defense. 30 September 2016. Retrieved 21 October 2016.
- Reuters, Brett Wolf, "RPT-INSIGHT-In taking economic war to Islamic State, U.S. developing new tools", 24 November 2015.
- "About 3 thousand citizens were killed by the International Coalition warplanes in Syria within about 10700 persons who were killed during 38 months of their military operations in Syria". SOHR. 23 November 2017. Retrieved 11 December 2017.
- "U.S. Airstrike Kills More Than 100 al-Qaida Fighters in Syria". US Department of Defense. 20 January 2017.
- "US-led air strikes hit al-Qaeda affiliate in Syria". Reuters. 6 November 2014. Retrieved 9 November 2014.
- "Pentagon: 11 al Qaeda terrorists killed in airstrikes near Idlib, Syria | FDD's Long War Journal". www.longwarjournal.org. 8 February 2017.
- "IS executes 61 people during the ninth month of declaration its alleged "Caliphate"". SOHR. 29 March 2015. Retrieved 29 March 2015.
- "Clashes around Aleppo city and more losses in al-Hasakah". SOHR. 29 March 2015. Retrieved 29 March 2015.
- "US-led Coalition in Iraq & Syria". Airwars. Retrieved 19 October 2019.
- "Iraq crisis: Islamists force 500,000 to flee Mosul". BBC News. 11 June 2014. Retrieved 11 June 2014.
- "10,000 Yazidis rescued through safe corridor, as ISIL 'fire on aid helicopters'". Hurriyet Daily News. Retrieved 1 December 2014.
- "Most US Airstrikes in Syria Target a City That's Not a "Strategic Objective"". Mother Jones. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
- At least 20,000 civilians displaced during the Al-Hasakah offensive (February–March 2015); 5,000+ in the Khabur Valley region, and 15,000+ in the Tell Hamis region 
- "Pentagon Briefing On Operation Inherent Resolve against Daesh". minute 1:20 / 32:56, Archived 3 January 2020 at the Wayback Machine
- "CJTF-OIR transitions commanders for defeat-ISIS mission". Operation Inherent Resolve. Retrieved 27 June 2020.
- "Resolve Special Reports: Operation Inherent Resolve". U.S. Department of Defense. Archived from March 28, 2017. Accessed July 2, 2019 via the Wayback Machine.
- "CJTFOIR Strike Releases March 26 2019" (PDF). CJTF-OIR. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
- "CJTF-OIR Monthly Civilian Casualty Report". Operation Inherent Resolve. 30 November 2017. Retrieved 19 October 2019.
- "Combined Joint Task Force – Operation Inherent Resolve Monthly Civilian Casualty Report". Operation Inherent Resolve. 26 September 2019. Retrieved 19 October 2019.
- See Syrian Kurdish-Islamist conflict for complete references.
- "US Operation Against ISIL in Iraq Remains Nameless". Military.com. 18 August 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- "The War on ISIS Has 'No Name". Business Insider. 3 October 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- "The Military Can't Come Up with a Name For Its War Against ISIS. We're Here To Help". The Huffington Post. 3 October 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- "What's in a Name: Obama's Anonymous War Against ISIS". U.S. News & World Report. 29 September 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- "U.S. Needs a Name for the Operation Against ISIS". New York. 3 October 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- "The War With No Name". The American Prospect. 1 October 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- "Iraq and Syria Operations Against ISIL Designated as Operation Inherent Resolve". U.S. Central Command. 15 October 2014. Retrieved 15 October 2014.
- Kube, Courtney (13 September 2019). "Trump's plan to pay for border wall with Air Force funds risks national security, report says". NBC News. Retrieved 14 September 2019.
"Security breaches have increased since the base began Operation Inherent Resolve Support," the report says.
- Carroll, Chris. "Global War on Terrorism Expeditionary Medal authorized for Operation Inherent Resolve". Stripes.com. Retrieved 22 November 2014.
- "Air Force pilot killed in Middle East crash identified". Stars and Stripes. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
- Gal Perl Finkel, Back to the ground?, Israel Hayom, 8 November 2015.
- "U.S. soldier killed in Iraq hostage rescue operation". CBS News. Retrieved 23 October 2015.
- "U.S. Identifies American Killed in Iraq Raid as Master Sgt. Joshua Wheeler". The Wall Street Journal. 23 October 2015. Retrieved 24 October 2015.
- "Why Is America Using These Antique Planes to Fight ISIS?". Daily Beast. 13 April 2017.
- "The OV-10 Is Even Older Than the A-10 and It's Fighting ISIS Too". Popular Mechanics. 11 March 2016.
- Starr, Barbara. "Estimate: More than 26,000 ISIS fighters killed by Coalition". CNN. 17 February 2016.
- "U.S. Military Says it has Killed more than 120 Islamic State Leaders". military.com. 12 June 2016.
- "Troops not eligible for campaign medal in fight against ISIS". The Hill. 1 October 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- "Carter Announces Operation Inherent Resolve Campaign Medal > U.S. DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE > Article View". Archived from the original on 13 April 2016. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
- "USS Harry Truman launches airstrikes against ISIS from Mediterranean Sea". Fox News. 4 June 2016.
- "Harriers from USS Boxer begin airstrikes against Islamic State". Stars and Stripes. 17 June 2016.
- "Two Years of U.S.-led Airstrikes on ISIS in Syria and Iraq in Numbers". ABC News. 8 August 2016.
- Ryan Browne (16 December 2016). "UK puts number of ISIS fighters killed at half US figure". CNN.
- "Nearly 45,000 ISIS-linked fighters killed in past 2 years, US military official says". Fox News. 10 August 2016.
- "How many bombs has Britain dropped in 2017?". BBC. 15 April 2017.
- "Libya effort named 'Operation Odyssey Lightning' | InsideDefense.com". insidedefense.com.
- "US resumes strikes against Islamic State in Libya". FDD's LONG WAR JOURNAL. 30 September 2017. Retrieved 5 October 2017.
- "US resumes strikes against Islamic State in Libya | FDD's Long War Journal". www.longwarjournal.org. 30 September 2017. Retrieved 2 December 2019.
- "28 months of bombing by the international coalition kills more than 6900 persons in Syria, including 820 Syrian civilians". SOHR. 23 January 2017. Retrieved 23 January 2017.
- Gal Perl Finkel, Win the close fight, The Jerusalem Post, March 21, 2017.
- "US Marines join local forces fighting in Raqqa". CNN. 8 March 2017.
- AFCENT/PA (28 February 2017). "Combined Forces Air Component Commander 2012–2017 Airpower Statistics – Feb 28" (PDF). www.afcent.af.mil.
- "Special Report: Operation Inherent Resolve". U.S. Department of Defense. Retrieved 3 November 2017.
- "101st Airborne Division's Strike Brigade receives Operation Inherent Resolve streamer following Iraq deployment – Clarksville, TN Online". Clarksvilleonline.com. 23 February 2018. Retrieved 16 September 2018.
- https://airwars.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/02/2019-Annual-Report-Web.pdf[bare URL PDF]
- "ISIS leader al-Baghdadi believed to have been killed in a US military raid, sources say". CNN. 27 October 2019.
- "Baghdad embassy attack: Iraqi protesters storm US compound as gunshots ring out". The Independent. 31 December 2019. Archived from the original on 24 May 2022. Retrieved 31 December 2019.
- "CJTF-OIR Statement on the ongoing Defeat Daesh Mission". Operation Inherent Resolve. 5 January 2020. Retrieved 5 January 2020.
- "Anti-ISIS coalition suspends operations due to Iran threat". Axios. 5 January 2020. Retrieved 5 January 2020.
- "U.S.-Led Forces Pull Out of Third Iraqi Base This Month". Time. 30 March 2020. Archived from the original on 29 March 2020.
- "Ike Carrier Strike Group launches flight operations against ISIS". Navy Times. 1 April 2021. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
- "Warrior Brigade assumes mission in Iraq". U.S. Central Command – DoD. Archived from the original on 30 September 2015. Retrieved 4 December 2015.
- "Department of the Army announces 101st Airborne Division deployment". U.S. Army. Retrieved 11 October 2016.
- "US Soldiers build elite Iraqi force with ranger training". U.S. Army. Retrieved 11 October 2016.
- "Lightning Tal Afar battle tests US soldiers' agility". Stars and Stripes. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
- "35th Combat Aviation Brigade's Southwest Asia deployment ends".
- "ISIS Fires Mortars Near Marines Deployed to Train Iraq Forces". Military.com. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
- Hope Hodge Seck (6 March 2015). "IS militants pushed out of village near Marine base". Marine Corps Times. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
- "VOA Exclusive: Inside a US Military Base in Syria". VOA News. 7 July 2021. Retrieved 16 January 2022.
- "Syrian Opposition Website Provides Details Of Locations Of U.S. Bases In Northern Syria". memri.org. 23 September 2019.
- "US Expands Military Footprint in Syria to Eight Bases". popularresistance.org. 6 July 2017.
- @obretix (27 June 2018). "pictures of C-17 Globemaster and C-130J Hercules at the airfield between Tell Tamr and Tell Baydar in northern Syria" (Tweet). Archived from the original on 29 June 2018 – via Twitter.
- "US forces in Syria seen setting up new front-line positions". apnews. 4 April 2018.
- Zorlu, Faruk; Copur, Hakan (19 June 2018). "France cooperating with PKK/YPG terrorists: Coalition". Anadolu Agency.
According to information obtained by Anadolu Agency on March 30 from local sources, more than 70 French special forces under the international coalition against Daesh are stationed at the Lafarge Cement factory near the strategic Mistanur Hill and Harab-Isk village in southern Ayn al-Arab province (Kobani).
- @obretix (10 July 2018). "US Army Apache helicopter at the Lafarge cement plant in northern Syria" (Tweet). Archived from the original on 10 July 2018 – via Twitter.
- "US Changes Plan of Building Air Base in Syrian Kurdistan". basnews. 9 April 2016.
- Cenciotti, David (27 June 2018). "Here Are The First Photographs Of U.S. Air Force C-17 and Marine Corps KC-130J Operating From New U.S. Airfield in Northern Syria". The Aviationist.
Another U.S. airfield is located in northern Syria: Sarrin. The base was built in 2016 and the first aircraft appeared to operate from there in July 2017.
- Szoldra, Paul (8 August 2018). "Exclusive: The Insider Attack In Syria That The Pentagon Denies Ever Happened". Task & Purpose. Archived from the original on 9 August 2018.
- Samir [@obretix] (8 August 2018). "picture of "some of the Marines of Weapons Co., 2/7, in Syria" from taskandpurpose.com/syria-insider-attack/ … geolocated to administrative and housing complex at Omar oil field" (Tweet). Archived from the original on 9 August 2018 – via Twitter.
- "Inside U.S. troops' stronghold in Syria, a question of how long Biden will keep them there". LA Times. 12 March 2021. Retrieved 11 December 2021.
- "US troops leaving Syria will go to Iraq, says Pentagon chief". BBC News. 20 October 2019.
- "Satellite Photos Call Into Question Impact Of U.S. Bombing Its Own Syrian Base After Retreat". The Drive. 22 October 2019.
- "Assad Forces Surge Forward in Syria as U.S. Pulls Back". The New York Times. 14 October 2019.
- "Trump Said to Favor Leaving a Few Hundred Troops in Eastern Syria". The New York Times. 20 October 2019.
- "Hundreds of U.S. Troops Leaving, and Also Arriving in, Syria". The New York Times. 30 October 2019.
- "U.S. Special Ops Soldier Talks To Reporter In Syrian Oil Fields As Mission Remains In Flux". The Drive. 4 November 2019.
- "American Entrenchment: US Builds New Military Air Base in Syria's Hasakah". albawaba.com. 2 July 2020.
- "US-led coalition killed more Syrian civilians than Isis or Russia in March, figures show". The Independent. 28 March 2017.
- "US admits it conducted Mosul air strike 'at location' where '200' civilians died". The Independent. 26 March 2017.
- "Data". Airwars. 6 August 2017.
- "US-led Coalition in Iraq & Syria". Airwars. 20 January 2020. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
- "What to know about Civilian Casualty Files" Michael Levenson, 18 Dec 2021 New York Times https://www.nytimes.com/2021/12/18/us/airstrikes-civilian-casualty-files-pentagon.html
- Airwars states that coalition counts 1,377 civilian deaths, and New York Times states that US military counts 1,417 civilian deaths.
- "What to know about Civilian Casualty Files" Michael Levenson 18 Dec 2021 New York Times https://www.nytimes.com/2021/12/18/us/airstrikes-civilian-casualty-files-pentagon.html
- "Hidden Pentagon Records Reveal Patterns of Failure in Deadly Airstrikes" Azmat Khan 18 Dec 2021 New York Times https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2021/12/18/us/airstrikes-pentagon-records-civilian-deaths.html
- "The Civilian Casualty Files" Azmat Khan, Lila Hassan, Sara Almukhtar, and Rachel Shorey 18 Dec 2021 New York Times https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2021/us/civilian-casualty-files.html
- "Civilian Deaths Mounted as Secret U.S. Unit Pounded Islamic State", Dave Philipps , Eric Schmitt and Mark Mazzetti, December 12, 2021, New York Times, https://www.nytimes.com/2021/12/12/us/civilian-deaths-war-isis.html
- "How the U.S. Hid an Airstrike That Killed Dozens of Civilians in Syria", Dave Philipps and Eric Schmitt, Nov. 13, 2021, New York Times https://www.nytimes.com/2021/11/13/us/us-airstrikes-civilian-deaths.html
- Operation Inherent Resolve – Official Website
- Global Coalition – Official Website
- Air Superiority Under 2000 Feet: Lessons From Waging Drone Warfare Against ISIL