Jump to content

Operation Okra

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Operation Okra
Part of the American-led intervention in Iraq, Foreign involvement in the Syrian Civil War and the War against the Islamic State
An Australian F/A-18A Hornet over Iraq in 2017
ObjectiveAustralia's contribution to the War against ISIL
Date31 August 2014 – present[1]
Executed byAustralian Army
Royal Australian Air Force
Australian Signals Directorate[2]

Operation Okra is the Australian Defence Force (ADF) contribution to the military intervention against the Islamic State. The force is part of Joint Task Force 633 in the Middle East. The operation commenced on 31 August 2014,[3] and its initial stated aim was to combat ISIL threats in Iraq.[4] In September 2015, the Australian airstrikes were extended to Syria. In June 2017, flights in Syria were temporarily halted in response to American forces shooting down a Syrian Air Force jet, before later being resumed.

Development of the Australian contribution[edit]

Airstrikes against ISIL in Iraq[edit]

The Australian government announced on 14 September 2014 that an Air Task Group (ATG) of up to eight F/A-18F Super Hornets, an E-7A Wedgetail AEW&C aircraft, and a KC-30A air-to-air refuelling tanker, along with a Special Operations Task Force, would be deployed to the Middle East in preparation for possible operations against ISIL forces.[5] The ATG commenced operations on 1 October, and on 3 October, Prime Minister Tony Abbott announced that his country would commence airstrikes.[6][7] Australian forces operate from Al Minhad Air Base in the United Arab Emirates.[8][9] Australian aircraft have also been reported to have flown out of Al Dhafra Air Base south of Abu Dhabi.[10] An Australian Army training team known as Task Group Taji was deployed to Iraq in April 2015 to assist with training the regular Iraqi Security Forces.[11] The force is part of Joint Task Force 633 in the Middle East, originally under the command of Major General Craig Orme.[12] Orme handed over command of JTF 633 to Rear Admiral Trevor Jones in December 2014.[13]

Extension with airstrikes against ISIL in Syria[edit]

Airstrikes were extended to Syria in September 2015.[14]

In late 2015 the United States Government asked the Australian Government, along with other members of the coalition, to expand its military commitment to the war. The Australian Government rejected this request in January 2016, but stated that it would increase the number of Australian personnel attached to the coalition headquarters from 20 to 30 and was considering increasing the amount of humanitarian aid it provides to people affected by the war in Iraq and Syria.[15]

The strikes within Syria were reported to have been temporarily suspended on 20 June 2017 after the US shot down a Syrian aircraft.[16][17] Operations over Syria resumed several days later, with an airstrike reported to have been carried out in the Middle Euphrates River Valley on 23 June 2017.[18]

Air force component[edit]

Humanitarian air drops and munition and arms resupply[edit]

From August 2014 a number of C-17 and C-130J transport aircraft based in the Middle East have also been used to conduct airdrops of humanitarian aid and to airlift arms and munitions.[19][20][21][22] On the night of 13–14 August an RAAF C-130J was part of a 16-aircraft mission including US C-17s and C-130Hs and a British C-130J which delivered supplies to Yezidi civilians trapped on Mount Sinjar. A second drop was later conducted to deliver supplies to isolated civilians in the northern Iraqi town of Amirli.[23][24] Later, a C-130J was involved in the airlift arms and munitions to forces in Kurdish-controlled northern Iraq in late-September.[25]

Air Task Group[edit]

In late-September 2014, an Air Task Group (ATG) of 400 personnel from the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) was deployed to Al Minhad Air Base in the United Arab Emirates as part of the coalition to combat Islamic State forces in Iraq.[26] The initial commitment of aircraft included: six F/A-18F Super Hornet strike aircraft from No. 1 Squadron RAAF, one E-7A Wedgetail Airborne Early Warning and Control aircraft from No. 2 Squadron RAAF and one KC-30A Multi Role Tanker Transport from No. 33 Squadron RAAF.[27] The ATG began operations on 1 October 2014.[28]

Between 6–17 October, Australian aircraft flew 54 sorties.[8][29][30] In at least two of them, a number of ISIL fighters were killed.[30] Australian planes attacked ISIL military equipment and facilities in support of Iraqi and Kurdish troops on the ground.[8][30] Vice Admiral David Johnston refused to give more details on the number of casualties or locations of airstrikes due to the "aggressive propaganda campaign" of ISIL.[30] In late–December 2014 Australian Super Hornets were involved in assisting Kurdish ground forces free Yezidi people trapped on Mount Sinjar along with other coalition aircraft.[31]

A second ATG arrived in the UAE in early-January 2015 to replace the first group of personnel and operate the aircraft originally deployed in September 2014.[32] Providing an operational update on 12 January 2015, the Chief of Joint Operations, Vice Admiral David Johnston, stated that Australian aircraft provide around 13 percent of coalition airstrikes in Iraq.[33]

Six single-seat F/A-18As from No. 75 Squadron RAAF based at Tindal deployed to the Middle East to replace the six dual-seat F/A-18Fs in March 2015.[34][35] On 30 June 2015 the Department of Defence reported that the ATG had dropped more than 400 munitions in support of Iraqi forces since the commencement of operations with the F/A-18A Hornets and F/A-18F Super Hornets flying nearly 5000 hours, the E-7A Wedgetail completing 100 operational sorties, and the KC‑30A air-to-air refuelling aircraft providing 25 million pounds of fuel to Australian and coalition aircraft.[36] By the end of November 2015 the F/A-18A Hornets had conducted 580 sorties over Iraq, during which they dropped 363 munitions. The aircraft also flew 18 sorties over Syria in September 2015, dropping two munitions.[37]

Rotations from No. 77 Squadron RAAF took over the deployment in September 2015, and were in turn replaced by No. 3 Squadron RAAF in April 2016.[38][39]

On 18 September 2016, two F/A-18As and a E-7A Wedgetail formed part of a multi-national force consisting of US, UK, and Danish aircraft which accidentally bombed Syrian Army forces near the city of Deir ez-Zor.[40][41]

In late-December 2017 it was announced that the strike aircraft attached to the ATG had ceased air combat operations and would return to Australia in January 2018, although the KC-30 and Wedgetail will remain in support of ongoing coalition operations.[42] This announcement followed the earlier recapture of the last remaining ISIL held areas of Iraq by government forces.[43] The final RAAF strike mission was flown by two Super Hornets on 14 January 2018. By this time the Hornets and Super Hornets had conducted over 2,700 sorties.[44]

As of October 2018, the RAAF forces assigned to operations against ISIL had been reduced to a single aircraft. This involved alternating four month long KC-30 and Wedgetail deployments.[45]

The final rotation of Air Task Group aircraft concluded in September 2020.[46]

Commanders ATG 630
  • Air Commodore Steve Roberton (September 2014 – January 2015)[47][48]
  • Air Commodore Glen Braz (January–July 2015)[48]
  • Air Commodore Stuart Bellingham (July 2015 – January 2016)
  • Air Commodore Antony Martin (January–July 2016)
  • Air Commodore Philip Gordon (July 2016 – January 2017)[49]
  • Air Commodore Mike Kitcher (January–July 2017)
  • Air Commodore Terry van Haren (July 2017 – January 2018)

Exchange personnel[edit]

In August 2015, the Sydney Morning Herald reported that five RAAF exchange personnel embedded with the USAF 432d Operations Group had begun flying General Atomics MQ-9 Reapers over Syria.[50]

Army component[edit]

An Australian soldier assigned to Task Group Taji observing Iraqi soldiers during marksmanship training in April 2016

Special Operations Task Group[edit]

In September 2014, the Australian Army deployed a Special Operations Task Group (SOTG) of approximately 200 personnel to the United Arab Emirates in preparation for operations to advise and assist Iraqi Security Forces.[51] The soldiers were expected to be deployed to Iraq when a legal framework covering their presence in the country was agreed between the Australian and Iraqi Governments.[52] The majority of the initial rotation of the SOTG was made up of Charlie Company, 2nd Commando Regiment.[53] The SOTG began moving into Iraq in early November.[54] As the Iraqi Government would not agree to sign a status of forces agreement to prevent the soldiers from being prosecuted, they entered the country using diplomatic passports instead. Iraq has agreed to grant the soldiers immunity from local laws under this arrangement, though they will be prosecuted in Australia in the event of any misconduct.[55]

The role of the SOTG is to provide training to Iraq's Counter-Terrorism Service, and personnel were stationed at the service's Counter-Terrorism Academy and Counter-Terrorism Training unit in January 2015, instructing in tactics, medical aid and counter improvised explosive device skills.[56][57] The Counter-Terrorism Service includes two brigades of the Iraqi Special Operations Forces, which fought against ISIS during 2014 at the cost of heavy casualties. Members of the service have been accused of killing prisoners and committing human rights violations. SOTG personnel are required to report any human rights violations they become aware of.[58]

The third SOTG rotation occurred in September 2015 with a reduced strength of 80 personnel.[59][60]

The SOTG role is also to provide mission support with SOTG personnel stationed in Iraqi bases assisting Iraqi units which are deployed on operations through remote means.[56] In December 2015, it was reported that SOTG personnel enabled more than 150 airstrikes in support of Counter Terrorism Service 1st Iraqi Special Operations Force Brigade's offensive liberating Ramadi resulting in the destruction of some 50 ISIL fighting positions, 16 heavy machine guns and numerous vehicle-borne improvised explosive devices.[56][61]

In April 2016, it was disclosed that SOTG personnel are assisting at the "divisional level" embedded with senior Iraqi and Kurdish Peshmerga commanders.[62] Earlier in November 2015, it had been reported that the Australian Government had authorised SOTG personnel to advise units at battalion size and larger in the field but the Iraqi Government had not provided approval.[63]

Task Group Taji[edit]

Members of Task Group Taji during a parade in November 2017

In April 2015, a 300-strong unit known as Task Group Taji (TGT) was deployed to Iraq as part of the coalition Building Partner Capacity mission. The task group consists of a training team with command, force protection and support elements, and is tasked with training the regular Iraqi Security Forces.[11] A New Zealand force element of approximately another 100 personnel is integrated into the unit, forming a combined task group.[64] The second rotation of Task Group Taji departed Australia in November 2015. The unit's departure was delayed due to problems gaining visas for the soldiers, and this caused the initial rotation's tour of duty to be extended by two weeks.[63] The third rotation arrived in Iraq during May 2016.[65]

In July 2016, it was announced that the Task Group would be expanding its role training paramilitary police agencies including Iraqi Federal and Local Police and border guard forces.[60][66] In addition, the Task Group will be allowed to conduct training at other secure coalition training locations, as the need arises.[67] Also, 15 personnel from the 16th Air Land Regiment will be deployed to provide a counter rocket, artillery and mortar (C-RAM) capability at Taji which is currently being provided by another Coalition member.[67] By the end of June 2018 the Task Group had trained more than 34,000 Iraqi soldiers since their mission began in early 2015.[68] With the deployment of the tenth rotation of TGT from Darwin, the Australian government announced that it was reducing troop numbers from 250 to 120 personnel as a result of improved capacity within the Iraqi Army's training establishments. By November 2019, over 45,000 Iraqi Army personnel had been trained, and over 2,500 Australians had served with TGT.[69]

Task Group Taji concluded in June 2020, with the tenth rotation being the last.[70]

  • Task Group Taji – 1 (Colonel Matt Galton), April 2015 – November 2015[71]
  • Task Group Taji – 2 (Colonel Gavin Keating), November 2015 – June 2016[72]
  • Task Group Taji – 3 (Colonel Andrew Lowe), June 2016 – December 2016[73]
  • Task Group Taji – 4 (Colonel Richard Vagg), December 2016 – June 2017[74][75]
  • Task Group Taji – 5 (Colonel Steve D'arcy), June 2017 – December 2017[76]
  • Task Group Taji – 6 (Colonel Robert Calhoun), December 2017 – June 2018[77]
  • Task Group Taji – 7 (Colonel Mick Say), June 2018 – December 2018[68]
  • Task Group Taji – 8 (Colonel Jason Groat), December 2018 – June 2019[78]
  • Task Group Taji – 9 (Colonel Michael Bassingthwaighte), June 2019 – December 2019[78]
  • Task Group Taji – 10 (Colonel Nick Foxall), December 2019 – June 2020[79][70]

Joint Task Force 633 commanders[edit]

Rank Name Postnominals Service Term began Term ended
Major General Craig Orme AM, CSC Army 31 August 2014 12 December 2014
Rear Admiral Trevor Jones AO, CSC Navy 12 December 2014 28 January 2016
Air Vice Marshal Timothy Innes CSC Air Force 28 January 2016 23 January 2017
Major General John Frewen AM Army 23 January 2017 20 January 2018
Rear Admiral Jaimie Hatcher AM Navy 20 January 2018 20 January 2019
Air Vice Marshal Joe Iervasi AM Air Force 20 January 2019 28 June 2019
Rear Admiral Mark Hill CSC Navy 28 June 2019 18 January 2020
Major General Susan Coyle CSC, DSM Army 18 January 2020 26 November 2020
Rear Admiral Michael Rothwell AM Navy 26 November 2020 27 July 2021
Air Commodore David Paddison CSC Air Force 27 July 2021 7 December 2021

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Operation Okra". Department of Defence. Retrieved 23 February 2024.
  2. ^ Maley, Paul (25 March 2019). "How Aussie spies won propaganda war against ISIS". The Australian. Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  3. ^ "RAAF mission against ISIS: Pilots did not drop bombs because of collateral damage risk". News.com.au. Archived from the original on 21 August 2015. Retrieved 8 October 2014.
  4. ^ "Operation OKRA". Defence Operations: Iraq. Department of Defence. Retrieved 17 August 2014.
  5. ^ "RAAF headed back to Iraq". Australian Aviation. 15 September 2014. Retrieved 15 September 2014.
  6. ^ "Tony Abbott commits Australian forces to Iraq". Sydney Morning Herald. 3 October 2014. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
  7. ^ "Australian Air Task Group commences operational missions over Iraq" (Press release). Department of Defence. 2 October 2014. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
  8. ^ a b c 'Confirmed: Australian air strikes have killed 'multiple' ISIS targets in Iraq' Archived 13 August 2015 at the Wayback Machine. news.com.au, 17 October 2014. Retrieved 25 November 2014.
  9. ^ "Australian Army personnel load humanitarian aid bundles at Al Minhad Air Base". ABC News. Retrieved 27 September 2014.
  10. ^ Frawley, Gerard (1 July 2015). "RAAF to acquire two additional KC-30s". Australian Aviation. Retrieved 4 July 2015.
  11. ^ a b "Task Force Taji farewelled – 21 April 2015" (Press release). Department of Defence. 21 April 2015. Archived from the original on 29 April 2015. Retrieved 8 May 2015.
  12. ^ Grubb, Ben (4 October 2014). "The man calling Australia's shots in the new Iraq war". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 5 October 2014.
  13. ^ "Change of Australian military command in the Middle East" (Press release). Department of Defence. 12 December 2014. Retrieved 5 February 2015.
  14. ^ Coorey, Phillip (9 September 2015). "Australia to take 12,000 refugees, boost aid and bomb Syria". Australian Financial Review. Retrieved 10 September 2015.
  15. ^ Hurst, Daniel (13 January 2016). "Malcolm Turnbull rejects US request for more Australian troops to fight Isis". The Guardian. Retrieved 13 January 2016.
  16. ^ Borger, Julian (20 June 2017). "Australia suspends air missions over Syria amid US-Russia tensions". The Guardian. Retrieved 21 June 2017.
  17. ^ Greene, Andrew (20 June 2017). "Syria war: RAAF temporarily halts missions after US jet shoots down Syrian bomber". ABC News (Australia). ABC. Retrieved 20 June 2017.
  18. ^ Headquarters Joint Operations (4 July 2017). "Operation OKRA – ADF Airstrikes for the period 15 Jun – 28 Jun 2017" (PDF). Department of Defence. Retrieved 27 August 2017.
  19. ^ Murphy, Katharine (14 August 2014). "Australian troops complete first humanitarian mission in northern Iraq". The Guardian. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
  20. ^ Wroe, David (31 August 2014). "SAS to Protect Crews on Arms Drops in Iraq". The Sydney Morning Herald. Sydney. ISSN 0312-6315.
  21. ^ "ADF delivers fourth arms shipment to Iraq" (Press release). Department of Defence. 17 September 2014. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 17 September 2014.
  22. ^ "ADF delivers fifth shipment to Iraq" (Press release). Department of Defence. 26 September 2014. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
  23. ^ "JTF633 supports Herc mercy dash" (Press release). Department of Defence. 22 August 2014. Archived from the original on 26 August 2014. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
  24. ^ "Australia steps up assistance to Iraqi people" (Press release). Department of Defence. 31 August 2014. Archived from the original on 28 September 2014. Retrieved 17 September 2014.
  25. ^ "ADF delivers fifth shipment to Iraq" (Press release). Department of Defence. 26 September 2014. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
  26. ^ "RAAF Air Task Group Arrives in Middle East" (Press release). Department of Defence. 24 September 2014. Archived from the original on 28 September 2014. Retrieved 25 September 2014.
  27. ^ Bree, Max (9 October 2014). "Largest group in decades". Air Force: The Official Newspaper of the Royal Australian Air Force (5619 ed.). Canberra: Department of Defence. p. 3. ISSN 1329-8909. Retrieved 7 October 2014.
  28. ^ "Australian Air Task Group commences operational missions over Iraq" (Press release). Department of Defence. 2 October 2014. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
  29. ^ "First Australian mission completed in Iraq". Sky News Australia. 6 October 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
  30. ^ a b c d "Australian air strikes in Iraq kill Isis fighters on 'at least two' occasions". The Guardian. 17 October 2014. Retrieved 25 November 2014.
  31. ^ "Australian air strikes support liberation of Mount Sinjar" (Press release). Department of Defence. 22 December 2014. Archived from the original on 21 July 2015. Retrieved 17 July 2015.
  32. ^ "Second RAAF Air Task Group to deploy to the Middle East". Australian Aviation. 6 January 2015. Retrieved 10 January 2015.
  33. ^ "Press conference with Chief of Joint Operations Vice Admiral David Johnston, who gives an update of Australian operations in Iraq". Transcript. Department of Defence. 12 January 2015. Retrieved 15 January 2015.
  34. ^ "Air Task Group Deploys". Air Force. 12 March 2015. p. 8. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
  35. ^ "75SQN Hornets head to Middle East". Australian Aviation. 4 March 2015. Retrieved 11 March 2015.
  36. ^ "Australian Air Task Group achieves major milestones" (Press release). Department of Defence. 30 June 2015. Retrieved 4 July 2015.
  37. ^ "Air Task Group". Operation Okra. Department of Defence. Retrieved 1 January 2016.
  38. ^ Stevenson, Chloe (11 February 2016). "Two Say Farewell to Tindal". Air Force: The Official Newspaper of the Royal Australian Air Force. Vol. 58, no. 1. Canberra: Department of Defence. p. 4. OCLC 224490713.
  39. ^ "77 SQN Completes strike rotation in the Middle East". Department of Defence. 12 April 2016. Archived from the original on 5 May 2016. Retrieved 14 April 2016.
  40. ^ "Investigation into Syrian air strikes completed". Department of Defence (Press release). 30 November 2016. Retrieved 3 March 2017.
  41. ^ Wroe, David (18 September 2016). "RAAF involved in accidental strikes on Syrian troops that were meant for Islamic State terrorists". The Canberra Times. Retrieved 18 September 2016.
  42. ^ "Australian Operation Okra Air Combat Mission to end". Australian Aviation. 22 December 2017. Retrieved 22 December 2017.
  43. ^ "Iraq declares war with IS is over". BBC News. 9 December 2017. Retrieved 9 December 2017.
  44. ^ "RAAF completes last strike mission over Iraq". Australian Aviation. 16 January 2018. Retrieved 16 January 2018.
  45. ^ "RAAF rotates KC-30 out of Middle East deployment, Wedgetail flies in". Australian Aviation. 26 October 2018. Retrieved 26 October 2018.
  46. ^ "Australian aircraft complete Middle East mission". Media release. Senator the Hon Linda Reynolds CSC. 9 September 2020. Retrieved 9 September 2020.
  47. ^ "Internationally Integrated". Canberra: Department of Defence. 10 December 2015.
  48. ^ a b "Australia's Air Task Group hits 100 days of combat operations". Canberra: Department of Defence. 15 January 2015.
  49. ^ "Sheer Grit". Air Force News. 11 August 2016. p. 4. Retrieved 27 May 2024.
  50. ^ Wroe, David (14 August 2015). "Australian pilots begin missions over Syria, flying American Reaper drones". The Sydney Morning Herald. Sydney. ISSN 0312-6315.
  51. ^ "Support to Iraq" (PDF). Army: The Soldiers' Newspaper (1338 ed.). Canberra: Department of Defence. 9 October 2014. p. 3. ISSN 0729-5685. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 September 2015.
  52. ^ Brissenden, Michael. "Deadly Australian air strikes dent IS morale in Iraq: Rear Admiral David Johnston". ABC News. Retrieved 17 October 2014.
  53. ^ Brissenden, Michael (1 November 2014). "Elite Australian commandos still waiting for green light to go into Iraq". ABC News (Australia). Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 1 November 2014.
  54. ^ Griffiths, Emma (11 November 2014). "Australian troops 'moving into locations' in Iraq to assist with fight against Islamic State". ABC News. Retrieved 15 November 2014.
  55. ^ Toohey, Paul (14 November 2014). "Australian special forces enter Iraq with diplomatic passports". The Australian. Retrieved 15 November 2014.
  56. ^ a b c "Australian Defence Force support to Iraqi Forces in Ramadi" (Press release). Department of Defence. 31 December 2015. Retrieved 31 July 2016.
  57. ^ "Unique capability" (PDF). Army: The Soldiers' Newspaper (1345 ed.). Canberra: Department of Defence. 26 February 2015. p. 2. ISSN 0729-5685. Retrieved 31 July 2016.
  58. ^ Dorling, Philip; Wroe, David (10 January 2015). "Australian special forces work with Iraqi security group accused of killing prisoners, torture". The Canberra Times. Retrieved 10 January 2015.
  59. ^ "Press conference with Vice Admiral David Johnston – Update on Australian Defence Force operations". Transcript. Department of Defence. 7 October 2015. Archived from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 29 November 2015.
  60. ^ a b Prime Minister and Minister for Defence (20 July 2016). "Training Iraqi law enforcement agencies" (Press release). Archived from the original on 31 July 2016. Retrieved 31 July 2016.
  61. ^ Wroe, David (31 December 2015). "Australian troops' key role as Ramadi wrested from Islamic State". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 15 January 2016.
  62. ^ Toohey, Paul (29 April 2016). "Australian special forces in Iraq 'will not creep into a combat role' in the fight against Islamic State". News.com.au. News Corp Australia Network. Retrieved 31 July 2016.
  63. ^ a b Wroe, David; Kenny, Mark. "Visa delays sideline Diggers as chaos deepens in Syria". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 29 November 2015.
  64. ^ "Bound for Iraq". Army: The Soldiers' Newspaper (1349 ed.). Canberra: Department of Defence. 23 April 2015. p. 3. ISSN 0729-5685.
  65. ^ Hook, James (2 June 2016). "Third rotation deploys to Iraq with confidence". Army: The Soldiers' Newspaper (1374 ed.). Canberra: Department of Defence. p. 7. ISSN 0729-5685. Retrieved 31 May 2016.
  66. ^ Wroe, David (19 July 2016). "Australian troops to train Iraqi paramilitary police in expansion of role". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 31 July 2016.
  67. ^ a b "Training Iraqi law enforcement agencies". Prime Minister of Australia. 19 July 2016. Archived from the original on 27 August 2016. Retrieved 2 August 2016. This article contains quotations from this source, which is available under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Australia licence.
  68. ^ a b "Task Group Taji-7 to lead Build Partner Capacity mission". Defence Connect. 4 June 2018. Retrieved 11 September 2018.
  69. ^ "Iraqis take the lead". Army News (1454 ed.). 14 November 2019. p. 5.
  70. ^ a b Brennan, Roger (5 June 2020). "Task Group Taji operation a success". Department of Defence. Retrieved 10 June 2020.
  71. ^ Department of Defence (15 April 2015). "Troops to deploy to Iraq" (Press release). Archived from the original on 3 April 2016. Retrieved 6 January 2017.
  72. ^ "Troops bound for Iraq farewelled in Brisbane". Australian Army. Department of Defence. 31 October 2015. Archived from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved 24 January 2017.
  73. ^ "Task Group Taji Rotation 2 Completes Mission". Department of Defence. 7 June 2016. Retrieved 9 June 2016.
  74. ^ Department of Defence (12 December 2016). "Task Group Taji (Rotation 3) hands over" (Press release). Retrieved 15 December 2016.
  75. ^ "Task Group Taji 4 completes deployment in Iraq". Department of Defence (Press release). 17 June 2017. Retrieved 28 July 2017.
  76. ^ Department of Defence (11 July 2017). "Iraqi Army takes aim with mortars". Retrieved 16 July 2017.
  77. ^ Department of Defence (Canberra) (8 December 2017). "Task Group Taji 5 completes deployment in Iraq". Retrieved 13 December 2017.
  78. ^ a b "Task Group Taji Rotation 8 personnel return home". Media Release. Department of Defence. 27 June 2019. Retrieved 3 July 2019.
  79. ^ "Taji 10 takes the reins". Defence News. Department of Defence. 13 December 2019. Retrieved 16 December 2019.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]