This article needs additional citations for verification. (December 2014)
|Part of the Golden exile|
|Cause||Education in Cuba
|Outcome||14,000 unaccompanied minors arrive in the United States|
Operation Peter Pan (or Operación Pedro Pan) was a clandestine exodus of over 14,000 unaccompanied Cuban minors ages 6 to 18 to the United States over a two-year span from 1960 to 1962. They were sent after parents feared that Fidel Castro and the Communist party were planning to terminate parental rights and place minors in communist indoctrination centers, commonly referred to as the Patria Potestad.
The program consisted of two main components: the mass evacuation of Cuban children via airplane to the United States – Miami as a particularly common hub – and the programs set up to care for them once they arrived. Both were led by Father Bryan O. Walsh of the Catholic Welfare Bureau. The operation was the largest exodus of minor refugees in the Western Hemisphere at the time. It operated covertly out of fear that it would be viewed as an anti-Castro political enterprise.
Aftermath of the Cuban Revolution
Following the Cuban Revolution of 1959, but more importantly after the regime's October 1960 move to nationalize industries, the first wave of Cuban immigrants left for the United States. These upper and upper-middle classes were not tied to Batista's government (those left in the days following the overthrow of Batista) but had economic livelihoods incompatible with the regime's goals. Most, if not all, thought it to be a temporary departure, imagining a life where they would return to Cuba once the United States installed another puppet regime in the country. An additional wave of Cubans left upon the failure of the Bay of Pigs Invasion and the subsequent announcement by Castro that he was a Marxist-Leninist. This proclamation of a new order acted as a catalyst to leave to those who had adopted a "wait and see" attitude to developments. This third wave of Cuban immigrants was predominantly middle class. This wave of Cuban immigrants included middle merchants and management, landlords, mid-level professionals and a significant representation of skilled unionized workers. The constituents of these different classes looked on warily at the closures of private universities and schools in 1961 since these actions played into their fears that the government would take over the education of their children.
By 1960, the Cuban government began reforming education strategies. School children were taught military drills, how to bear arms, and anti-American songs. By 1961, the Cuban government would seize control of all private schools.
As a result of the new social order, rumors began to swirl, originating from both inside the United States and other anti-Castro media. Various outlets, including the Miami Herald and Time Magazine, reported that Castro and his followers intended to terminate parental rights, assume custody of all Cuban children, prohibit religion and indoctrinate them into communism. The CIA-backed Radio Swan station asserted that the Cuban government was planning to remove children from their parents and send them to the Soviet Union. These claims lacked evidence, but denials fell on deaf ears.
These rumors, combined with the pre-existing worry instilled by the Spanish Civil War (during which children were evacuated to other countries), made the patria potestad hoax impossible to contain. It had already reached the Catholic church and the general public, and opponents of the now openly communist regime who did not migrate during the first wave of the exodus began sending their children off to perceived safety.
Organizing an exodus
Having been involved in a similar program that gained young Hungarians entrance to the US following Soviet repression of the 1956 uprising, Father Bryan O. Walsh of the Catholic Welfare Bureau, with the help of the U.S. government, developed the Cuban Children's Program in late 1960. Key players included Tracy Voorhees, Eisenhower Administration, James Baker and Father Walsh.
An October meeting brought the influx of Cuban refugees in Miami to the attention of the White House, with particular focus on what appeared to be a high number of unaccompanied minors wandering the city. Shortly after, Tracy Voorhees – a veteran U.S. government official who was serving as the president's Personal Representative for Cuban Refugees – reported that, though the issue was not large in number, it had still been highly publicized and, therefore, the administration needed to be seen taking action.
Up until that time, the Catholic church had been the largest provider of aid. But, towards the end of 1960, President Eisenhower approved $1 million to help, with specific funds allocated to the creation of a Cuban emergency refugee center. To further their efforts, and ultimately further the smear campaign of Castro's Cuba, Vorhees recommended the administration further their involvement, this time taking specific interest in caring for the Cuban refugee children.
Simultaneously, James Baker (headmaster of an American school in Havana) met with Walsh (who was already invested in helping already arrived child refugees settle into their new life) to detail his efforts helping parents send their children to Miami. Baker's original goal was to establish a boarding school in the United States for Cuban refugee children. However, both later agreed professional social welfare agencies would be better equipped for the job. The Catholic Welfare Bureau, the Children's Services Bureau and Jewish Family and Children's Services were the agencies that ultimately agreed to care for the refugee children. Thus, in November 1960, they appealed for federal funding, and, following the earlier recommendation from Vorhees, it was granted.
Baker would arrange the children's transportation and facilitate visas, Walsh would arrange for accommodations in Miami. Underground organizations led by the involved parents helped spread information. Among those who helped alert parents about the program were Penny Powers, Pancho and Bertha Finlay, Drs. Sergio and Serafina Giquel, Sara del Toro de Odio and Albertina O'Farril. To maintain confidentiality, the program's leaders in the U.S. minimized communications with their contacts in Cuba.
By January 1961, 6,500 Cuban children were enrolled in Miami and Miami-adjacent schools. By September 1962, that number had jumped to 19,000. And while Pedro Pans are often depicted as babies, infants or elementary-school-aged children, most of them were actually teenaged boys.
A lack of limitations placed on how many were admitted coupled with federally-funded foster care made the Cuban Children's Program one unlike any other. It only continued to grow and get more complex.
In January 1961, the U.S. embassy of Cuba closed, but Operation Peter Pan persisted. Instead of visas, children received waivers in the form of simple letters signed by Walsh effectively gaining them entrance into the country. Airlines were instructed to accept these letters as official documents and, as an added incentive, the U.S. government covered the cost of flights.
From there, things continued to spiral. In September of that year, the State Department began allowing Cuban child refugees to apply for visa waivers on behalf of their parents. For many who could not otherwise afford it or did not already have other relatives in the United States, this became a fairly regular means of familial immigration.
By late 1960, Castro had expropriated several companies that made up the American Chamber of Commerce in Havana, including Esso Standard Oil Company and Freeport Sulfur Company. The leaders of these companies moved to Miami while they analyzed the actions of Cuba's new government. Under the impression that Castro's rule would be brief, they agreed to aid the Cuban children by providing funding for Operation Peter Pan. Through collaborations with Baker, these business leaders agreed to help secure donations from multiple US businesses and send them to Cuba.
Because Castro was supervising all major monetary transactions, the businessmen were very careful in how the funds were transferred. Some donations were sent to the Catholic Welfare Bureau and others were written out as checks to citizens living in Miami. These individuals then wrote checks out to the W. Henry Smith Travel Agency in Havana, which helped fund the children's flights to the United States. It was necessary to send the funds in American currency because Castro had ruled that plane tickets could not be purchased with Cuban pesos.
As the need for shelters grew as the children arrived in increasing numbers, several prominent locations were converted to house them, including Camp Matecumbe, the Opa-locka Airport Marine barracks. Special homes, authorized by state officials and operated by Cuban refugees, were formed in several hundred cities across the nation including Albuquerque, New Mexico; Lincoln, Nebraska; Wilmington, Delaware; Fort Wayne, Indiana; Jacksonville and Orlando, Florida.
Many children were placed in foster care, some were placed in positive living environments and others endured emotional and physical neglect. Laws prevented any relocated children from being housed in reform schools or centers for juvenile delinquents. Further, the minors were not made available for adoption.
The Cuban Children's Program remained a secret until February 1962, when The Plain Dealer introduced its readers to the masses of unaccompanied Cuban minors who made their way across the country for three years unnoticed. On March 9 of the same year, the Miami Herald's Gene Miller also ran a story about the event, in which he coined the term Operation Pedro Pan.
The American portion of Operation Peter Pan ended when all air traffic between the United States and Cuba ceased in the aftermath of the Cuban Missile Crisis of October 1962. Cuban immigrants were instead re-routed to Spain and other countries following the Cuban Missile Crisis, and Cuban immigrants would have to travel via Spain or Mexico to reach the United States until 1965.
In December of 1965, the United States established a program of Freedom Flights (los vuelos de la libertad) to unite Cuban parents with their children. The Catholic Welfare Bureau reported that, once the Freedom Flights began, nearly 90% of the minors still in its care were reunited with their parents.
Remnants of the program would continue up until 1981. An estimate of 25,000 children were affected by the program.
Nearing the end of this mass-exodus of children to the United States, Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy approved funding for a propaganda film designed to assist migrant children’s understanding of why their parents had made this choice on their behalf. This film elaborates on the many things for children to do within their current situation, including but not limited to learning, playing, and attending religious ceremonies. However, this film is careful not mention the current events in Cuba. The film was directed by Cliff Solway, a Canadian director for CBC.
Titled The Lost Apple, the (approximately) thirty-minute short film follows the life of Roberto and two other young children inside the Florida City Camp that was one of the main offloading sites for children. The film was produced by the United States Information Agency. Narrated by Carlos Montalbán, the short film explains to young Cuban children how and why they are in the United States. The narrator explains that camps such as the Florida City Camp is only a temporary place for the children to stay, as they are meant to find other opportunities through scholarships or be housed with foster parents.
The American Museum of The Cuban Diaspora (shortened to The Cuban) hosted an installation recounting Operation Peter Pan for its 60th anniversary in 2021. The museum is located in Miami, Florida and was founded in 2004. The Cuban, working directly with Operation Pedro Pan Group, Inc. (OPPG), expanded on OPPG's 2015 exhibit by adding documents, objects, and images loaned by the historical committee of the organization.
Pedro Pan children
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Many Pedro Pans had trouble assimilating into American society. Many were sent to the United States on the instruction of their parents and felt alienated both from their homeland and their new home. Some found the United States an unwelcoming place gripped by racial segregation.
Those who felt uncomfortable in American society often participated in the growing Civil rights movement and anti-war movement, adopted the traits of the growing youth counterculture, or rejected the ideology of their parents. Many would desire to return to Cuba. In the same way, some others found professional success, and went on to become notable people. One of such examples is Maximo Alvarez, founder of the fuel distribution chain Sunshine Gasoline Distribution inc., who emigrated to the United States as a Pedro Pan child in 1961, at the age of 13. In 1961, thirteen-year-old Ana Mendieta, who would become a well-known multimedia and performance artist, emigrated to the United States with her older sister.
Some Pedro Pan children would involve themselves in the Abdala organization, an organization of Cuban-American students dedicated to protesting the Cuban government and promoting Cuban-American pride.
Other Pedro Pan children would adopt leftist sympathies after becoming involved in social movements in the United States. In 1977, some Pedro Pan emigrants joined the Antonio Maceo Brigade that sympathized with the Cuban government and supported Cuban exiles' travel to Cuba. The brigade would make the first trip of Cuban exiles to Cuba.
Pedro Pan Children by the Numbers
A study from Yale University investigated if the Pedro Pan population shows persistent differences in their physical and mental health, and attachment secondary to childhood separation from their family. These participants were compared against a control sample of Cuban immigrants who had traveled with their families to the US at the same time as the Pedro Pan children. 102 adults who were involved in the Operation Pedro Pan exodus participated in this study.
Within the survey, it was reported that no significant differences were found between the Pedro Pan group and the control group. However, the result of the study can be interpreted in many different ways. Since both groups were part of a larger exile, they could have similar mindsets about their familial ties and feelings towards the earlier time period.
The United States government may have had other than humanitarian motives for allowing Cuban migration. The emigration of Cuba's middle class undermined its economic situation through a "brain drain". Stories of abandoned Pedro Pans deepened Anti-Castro sentiment within the Americas, connecting the rise of Communism and the separation of families.
In 1978, El Grupo Areito and Casa de las Américas collaborated to publish "Contra viento y marea", a book of anonymous testimonies detailing alienation from both the Cuban community from which they fled and the American community to which they came. A direct contrast to the previous happy-go-lucky stories of Operation Pedro Pan, these accounts told stories of loneliness, poor conditions and mental, physical and sexual abuse.
Controversy over CIA involvement
An ongoing political controversy developed around charges that Operation Peter Pan was not an effort of volunteers and charitable organization, but had been secretly funded by the U.S. government as a covert operation of the Central Intelligence Agency. Author Maria de los Angeles Torres filed a Freedom of Information Act suit to obtain government files on the program. In 1999, a ruling by the U.S. District Court for Northern Illinois determined that this "evacuation of Cuban children turned out not to be a CIA operation at all". The ruling was based in part on the court's review of 733 pages of documentation provided by the CIA for use in an earlier lawsuit. Despite this, several former CIA agents have admitted to editing, printing and distributing copies of a fabricated Patria Potestad law that stated the revolutionary government was about to abolish parental rights. This, along with fake news about threats to the Cuban family broadcast on CIA-operated Radio Swan, helped fuel the exodus of unaccompanied children. 
Participants in Operation Peter Pan
Unaccompanied Cuban minors, known at the time as "Pedro Pans" or "Peter Pans", who participated in the operation include:
- Eduardo Aguirre, United States Ambassador to Spain (2005–2009)
- Frank Angones, first Cuban-born head of the Florida Bar
- Fred Beato, Cuban-American musician and business owner.
- Carlos Mayans, former mayor of Wichita, Kansas
- Willy Chirino, Cuban-American musician and salsa singer
- Carlos Eire, author, professor of the history of religion at Yale University
- Felipe de Jesus Estevez, former bishop Roman Catholic diocese of St. Augustine
- Mario Garcia, newspaper designer and media consultant
- Hugo Llorens, United States Ambassador to Honduras (2008–2011) and United States Ambassador to Afghanistan (2016–17)
- Ana Mendieta, artist
- Guillermo "Bill" Vidal, former mayor of Denver (2011) and author of Boxing for Cuba
- Miguel Bezos, Jeff Bezos' (Amazon's founder) stepfather, who raised him since he was 4 years old
- U.S. Senator Mel Martinez, former Florida Senator and first Latino chairman of the Republican party
- Lissette Alvarez, singer-songwriter
- Eduardo J. Padrón, former President of Miami Dade College (1995–2019)
- Demetrio Perez Jr., educator, politician, radio commentator, entrepreneur and publisher of LIBRE, a bilingual weekly newspaper, and founded the Lincoln-Marti educational group.
Operation Peter Pan is recounted in:
- Waiting for Snow in Havana, in which Carlos Eire describes his experiences during Operation Peter Pan
- Learning to Die in Miami, another memoir by Carlos Eire about his emigration to the United States from Havana
- Operation Pedro Pan: The Untold Exodus of 14,048 Cuban Children, based on the research and interviews of Yvonne M. Conde
- The Red Umbrella, a young-adult historical fiction novel by Christina Diaz Gonzalez, based on her mother's exile from Cuba as a teenager
- Cuba on My Mind: Journeys to a Severed Nation, an exploration of Havana, Miami, and the "one-and-half-generation" by Román de la Campa
- Boxing For Cuba, a 2007 memoir by Bill Vidal, civil servant and mayor of Denver
- "Operation Peter Pan", a song written by Tori Amos originally on the B-side to the limited edition release of her single "A Sorta Fairytale"
- The operation is the main influence behind the Manic Street Preachers song "Baby Elián", the penultimate track from the band's sixth studio album, Know Your Enemy.
- On the 2017 Netflix Original Series One Day at a Time, Lydia Riera, played by Rita Moreno, the grandmother on the show, came to the US via Pedro Pan.
- Cuban migration to Miami
- Cuban American
- Cuban exile
- Mariel boatlift
- Opposition to Fidel Castro
- Operation Baby Lift (South Vietnam, 1975)
- Polita Grau
- Blakemore, Erin (14 September 2020). "The Secret Cold War Program That Airlifted Cuban Kids to the U.S.—Without Their Parents". HISTORY. Retrieved 24 November 2021.
- Pedraza-Bailey, Silvia (1985). "Cuba's Exiles: Portrait of a Refugee Migration". The International Migration Review. 19 (1): 4–34. doi:10.2307/2545654. JSTOR 2545654. PMID 12267275.
- "Cuba's 'Peter Pans' Remember Childhood Exodus". National Geographic. 15 August 2015. Archived from the original on 2 August 2019. Retrieved 3 August 2019.
- Shnookal, Deborah (2020). "The Patria Potestad Hoax". Operation Pedro Pan and the Exodus of Cuba's Children. University of Florida Press. pp. 105–126. doi:10.2307/j.ctv12sdxzr.9. ISBN 978-1-68340-155-1. JSTOR j.ctv12sdxzr.9. S2CID 240848874.
- Shnookal, Deborah (2020). "Operation Pedro Pan and the Children Who Could Fly". Operation Pedro Pan and the Exodus of Cuba's Children. University of Florida Press. pp. 127–159. doi:10.2307/j.ctv12sdxzr.10. ISBN 978-1-68340-155-1. JSTOR j.ctv12sdxzr.10. S2CID 242394605.
- Shnookal, Deborah (2020). "The Dark Side of Neverland". Operation Pedro Pan and the Exodus of Cuba's Children. University of Florida Press. pp. 160–196. doi:10.2307/j.ctv12sdxzr.11. ISBN 978-1-68340-155-1. JSTOR j.ctv12sdxzr.11. S2CID 242704360.
- Bradford, Anita Casavantes (2016). "Remembering Pedro Pan: Childhood and Collective Memory Making in Havana and Miami, 1960–2000". Cuban Studies. 44 (1): 283–308. doi:10.1353/cub.2016.0011. JSTOR 44111920. S2CID 147381213. Project MUSE 613549 ProQuest 1785500897.
- Bolender, Keith (2010). Voices From the Other Side: An Oral History of Terrorism Against Cuba. Pluto Press. doi:10.2307/j.ctt183p8v9. ISBN 978-0-7453-3040-2. JSTOR j.ctt183p8v9.
- "History". www.pedropan.org. Retrieved 1 April 2022.
- "Pedro Pan". All Things Considered. NPR. 3 May 2000.
- "The lost apple". collegeofwooster.on.worldcat.org. Retrieved 1 April 2022.
- "The Cuban | American Museum of The Cuban Diaspora". Retrieved 1 April 2022.
- "Operation Pedro Pan | The Cuban". Retrieved 1 April 2022.
- Palenzuela, Deanna. "Growing Up in Neverland: An assessment of the long-term physical and cognitive correlates of the Operation Pedro Pan exodus" (PDF).
- "Torres v. C.I.A.". 12 March 1999. Retrieved 1 May 2016.
- "Torres v. C.I.A.". 15 December 1998. Retrieved 1 May 2016.
- "Radio Swan Brief History - broadcasting to Cuba".
- Moraid, Fernando (2015). The Last Soldiers of the Cold War: The Story of the Cuban Five. Verso. ISBN 978-1781688762. Retrieved 28 March 2016.
- "Cuban Americans Await President Obamas Visit to Cuba". NBC Los Angeles. Retrieved 20 February 2021.
- "Un cubano reencontró a su madre pero no lo reconoció | Video" (in Spanish). CNN. 22 March 2016. Retrieved 20 February 2021.
- Muellner, Alexis (29 November 2013). "'Pedro-Pan kid' Mario Garcia had to show resiliency, passion for storytelling early". Tampa Bay Business Journal. Retrieved 2 May 2016.
- Quattlebaum, Mary (4 August 2010). "Christina Diaz Gonzalez's 'The Red Umbrella' and Adam Rex's 'Fat Vampire'". The Washington Post. Retrieved 28 March 2016.
- Flores, Juan. "Latinos, Cubanos and the New Americanism." Foreword to Cuba on My Mind
- "Denver Official Tells Childhood Story of Rescue, Survival". Around the Nation. NPR. 15 July 2011. Retrieved 28 March 2016.
- "The inspiration behind Netflix's timely 'One Day at a Time' reboot". CNN. 6 January 2016.
- Operation Pedro Pan Group, official site
- "Children of Cuba Remember their Flight to America", NPR
- "Cuban Refugee Children" by Monsignor Bryan O. Walsh
- Pedro Pan Network, hosted by the Miami Herald
- "Cuban Kids in Exile: Pawns of Cold War Politics", Chicago Sun-Times, 24 August 2003, review of Maria de los Angeles Torres' The Lost Apple