Operation Peter Pan
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Operation Peter Pan (Operation Pedro Pan or Operación Pedro Pan) was a mass exodus of over 14,000 unaccompanied Cuban minors to the United States between 1960 and 1962. Father Bryan O. Walsh of the Catholic Welfare Bureau created the program to provide air transportation to the United States for Cuban children. It operated without publicity out of fear that it would be viewed as an anti-Castro political enterprise.
Father Bryan O. Walsh, director of the Catholic Welfare Bureau, developed Operation Peter Pan in November 1960. He was inspired by Pedro Menéndez, a fifteen-year-old Cuban boy who had immigrated to Miami to live with relatives who proved unable to provide for him and sought assistance from the Catholic Welfare Bureau. Walsh understood that many similar youngsters would be immigrating to the United States as Fidel Castro established a Communist government. Speculation that this new government was planning to send minors to the Soviet Union to serve in work camps was causing panic in Cuban families who could not afford to emigrate.
Walsh contacted Tracy Voorhees, a veteran U.S. government official who was serving as the president's Personal Representative for Cuban Refugees, who suggested the Eisenhower Administration could provide funds to support Cuban immigrants once they reached Miami. James Baker, the headmaster of an American school in Havana, met with Walsh and detailed his efforts helping parents expatriate their children to Miami. Operation Peter Pan was formed with the understanding that Baker would arrange the children's transportation, and Walsh would arrange for accommodations in Miami. Underground organizations led by the involved parents spread information regarding Operation Peter Pan. Among those who helped alert parents about the program were Penny Powers, Pancho and Bertha Finlay, Drs. Sergio and Serafina Giquel, Sara del Toro de Odio, and Albertina O'Farril. To maintain confidentiality, the program's leaders in the U.S. minimized their communications with their contacts in Cuba.
Between 26 December 1960 and 23 October 1962, many Cuban youths traveled to Miami without their parents. Until early 1962, the children were required to have a visa and twenty-five dollars for airfare into the United States. Many family members already in the United States applied for visas and sent the necessary funds to relatives in Cuba. The U.S. Embassy in Havana issued the necessary student visas. On 3 January 1962, the U.S. Department of State announced that Cuban minors no longer needed visas to immigrate to the United States. Many Cubans believed that Castro's time in power would be short-lived. They anticipated that minors in the United States would eventually rejoin their families in Cuba. Nearly half of the minors who arrived were reunited with family members, while a majority were placed in shelters managed by the Catholic Welfare Bureau.
By late 1960, Castro had expropriated several companies that made up the American Chamber of Commerce in Havana, including Esso Standard Oil Company and Freeport Sulfur Company. The leaders of these companies moved to Miami while they analyzed the actions of Cuba's new government. Under the impression that Castro's rule would be brief, they agreed to aid the Cuban children by providing funding for Operation Peter Pan. Through collaborations with Baker, these business leaders agreed to help secure donations from multiple US businesses and send them to Cuba. Because Castro was supervising all major monetary transactions, the businessmen were very careful in how the funds were transferred. Some donations were sent to the Catholic Welfare Bureau, and others were written out as checks to citizens living in Miami. These individuals then wrote checks out to the W. Henry Smith Travel Agency in Havana, which helped fund the children's flights to the United States. It was necessary to send the funds in American currency because Castro had ruled that plane tickets could not be purchased with Cuban pesos.
As the need for shelters grew as the children arrived in increasing numbers, several prominent locations were converted to house them, including Camp Matecumbe, the Opa-locka Airport Marine barracks. Special homes, authorized by state officials and operated by Cuban refugees, were formed in several hundred cities across the nation including Albuquerque, New Mexico; Lincoln, Nebraska; Wilmington, Delaware; Fort Wayne, Indiana; Jacksonville and Orlando, Florida. Laws prevented any relocated children from being housed in reform schools or centers for juvenile delinquents. A large majority of the minors who arrived in Miami were between the ages of 12 and 18, and more than two-thirds were boys over the age of 12. They were predominantly Catholic, but Protestant, Jewish, and non-practicing backgrounds as well. Most were children of the middle or lower classes. The minors were not made available for adoption.
Operation Peter Pan ended when all air traffic between the United States and Cuba ceased in the aftermath of the Cuban Missile Crisis of October 1962. Cuban immigrants needed to travel via Spain or Mexico to reach the United States until December 1965 when the United States established a program of Freedom Flights to unite Cuban parents with their children. The Catholic Welfare Bureau reported that once the Freedom Flights began nearly 90% of the minors still in its care were reunited with their parents.
In 1962, Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy approved funding for a documentary film designed to serve the U.S. government’s campaign against Communism. Called The Lost Apple, it recounted the stories of the children who came to Miami.
An ongoing political controversy developed around charges that Operation Peter Pan was not an effort of volunteers and charitable organization, but had been secretly funded by the U.S. government as a covert operation of the Central Intelligence Agency. Author Maria de los Angeles Torres filed a Freedom of Information Act suit to obtain government files on the program. In 1999, a ruling by the U.S. District Court for Northern Illinois determined that this "evacuation of Cuban children turned out not to be a CIA operation at all". The ruling was based in part on the court's review of 733 pages of documentation provided by the CIA for use in an earlier lawsuit.
Participants in Operation Peter Pan
Unaccompanied Cuban minors, known at the time as "Pedro Pans" or "Peter Pans", who participated in the operation include:
- Eduardo Aguirre, United States Ambassador to Spain (2005–2009)
- Frank Angones, first Cuban-born head of the Florida Bar
- Willy Chirino, Cuban-American rapper and salsa singer
- Carlos Eire, Author, professor of the history of religion at Yale University
- Felipe de Jesus Estevez, bishop Roman Catholic diocese of St. Augustine (2011- )
- Mario Garcia, newspaper designer and media consultant 
- Hugo Llorens, United States Ambassador to Honduras (2008 - 2011)
- Raul Andres Martinez Tome, Senior Executive Service, Director of Administration, US Department of Defense (1980-2001)
- Ana Mendieta, artist
- Agustin De Rojas de la Portilla (1944-2011), inventor of the extended-wear contact lens
- Guillermo "Bill" Vidal, Mayor of Denver (2011) and author of Boxing For Cuba
- Miguel Bezos, Jeff Bezos' (Amazon.com's founder) stepfather, who raised him since he was 4 years old
- Carlos Oliva, singer-songwriter with Los Sobrinos del Juez
- U.S. Senator Mel Martinez, former Florida Senator and first Latino chairman of the Republican party
- Lissette Alvarez, singer-songwriter
- Eduardo J. Padrón, current President of Miami Dade College
- Armando Codina, real estate developer
- Alfredo Lanier, journalist for the Chicago Tribune
- Margarita Exquiroz, Miami-Dade County circuit judge and Florida's first female Hispanic judge
- Maria de los Angeles Torres, author of studies of Cuban history
- Carlos Saladrigas, business executive
Operation Peter Pan is recounted in:
- Waiting for Snow in Havana, in which Carlos Eire describes his experiences during Operation Peter Pan
- Learning to Die in Miami, another memoir by Carlos Eire about his emigration to the United States from Havana
- Operation Pedro Pan: The Untold Exodus of 14,048 Cuban Children, based on the research and interviews of Yvonne M. Conde
- The Red Umbrella, a young-adult historical fiction novel by Christina Diaz Gonzalez, based on her mother's exile from Cuba as a teenager
- Cuba on My Mind: Journeys to a Severed Nation, an exploration of Havana, Miami, and the "one-and-half-generation" by Román de la Campa
- Boxing For Cuba, a 2007 memoir by Bill Vidal, civil servant and mayor of Denver
- Operation Peter Pan, a song written by Tori Amos originally on the B-side to the limited edition release of her single A Sorta Fairytale
- Cuban American
- Cuban exile
- Mariel boatlift
- Opposition to Fidel Castro
- Operation Baby Lift (South Vietnam, 1975)
- Polita Grau
- Neyra, Edward (2010). Cuba, Lost and Found. Cincinnati, OH: Clerisy Press. pp. 13–15. ISBN 978-1578603909.
- "Pedro Pan". NPR. 3 May 2000. Retrieved 5 November 2015.
- Krull, Catherine (2014). Cuba in a Global Context. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida. p. 59. ISBN 978-0-8130-4910-6.
- Kuper, Simon (19 November 2010). "My friend, the Cuban Peter Pan". Financial Times. Retrieved 5 November 2015.
- "History: The Cuban Children's Exodus". www.pedropan.org. Retrieved 5 November 2015.
- "Agustin Blazquez". www.cubankids1960.com. Retrieved 5 November 2015.
- "Torres v. C.I.A.". 12 March 1999. Retrieved 1 May 2016.
- "Torres v. C.I.A.". 15 December 1998. Retrieved 1 May 2016.
- Moraid, Fernando (2015). The Last Soldiers of the Cold War: The Story of the Cuban Five. Verso. ISBN 978-1781688762. Retrieved 28 March 2016.
- Muellner, Alexis (29 November 2013). "'Pedro-Pan kid' Mario Garcia had to show resiliency, passion for storytelling early". Tampa Bay Business Journal. Retrieved 2 May 2016.
- "Contact lens inventor arrived with Pedro Pan". Miami Herald. 17 February 2011.
- "Effort Begins to List Pedro Pan Children". TheLedger.com. Retrieved 5 November 2015.
- "CNN - Cuban-Americans struggle with memories of childhood airlifts - January 12, 1998". www.cnn.com. Retrieved 5 November 2015.
- "Fallece Margarita Esquiroz, una de las primeras juezas hispanas de Miami-Dade". El Nuevo Herald (in Spanish). 17 April 2012. Retrieved 3 May 2016.
- "Maria de los Angeles Torres | UIC News Center". news.uic.edu. Retrieved 5 November 2015.
- Kuper, Simon (19 November 2010). "My friend, the Cuban Peter Pan". Financial Times. Retrieved 28 March 2016.
- "Interview: Carlos Saladrigas". Frontline. PBS. Retrieved 28 March 2016.
- Quattlebaum, Mary (4 August 2010). "Christina Diaz Gonzalez's 'The Red Umbrella' and Adam Rex's 'Fat Vampire'". Washington Post. Retrieved 28 March 2016.
- Flores, Juan. "Latinos, Cubanos and the New Americanism." Foreword to Cuba on My Mind
- "Denver Official Tells Childhood Story of Rescue, Survival". Around the Nation. NPR. 15 July 2011. Retrieved 28 March 2016.
- Operation Pedro Pan Group, official site
- "Children of Cuba Remember their Flight to America", NPR
- "Cuban Refugee Children" by Monsignor Bryan O. Walsh
- Pedro Pan Network, hosted by the Miami Herald
- "Cuban Kids in Exile: Pawns of Cold War Politics", Chicago Sun-Times, 24 August 2003, review of Maria de los Angeles Torres' The Lost Apple