On May 13, 1948, a day before the state of Israel was proclaimed, the Haganah launched Operation Shfifon (Hebrew: מבצע שפיפון, lit. Operation Cerastes Cerastes) with the aim of capturing the British outposts in the Old City of Jerusalem and preventing the Arab forces from taking control of them first. Such an eventuality had long been anticipated, and plans prepared called Operation Shfifon ('horned viper'; some translate it as 'Serpent') and quickly followed by Operation Kilshon.
- List of battles and operations in the 1948 Palestine war
- 1947–48 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine
- List of Arab towns and villages depopulated during the 1948 Palestinian exodus
- O Jerusalem! by Larry Collins, Dominique Lapierre Publisher: Simon & Schuster page 367
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