Operation Tupac

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Operation Tupac is the existing codename of an ongoing cold war military intelligence contingency program run by the Pakistani Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) agency, active since the 1980s. The program has a three-part action plan for covert support of militancy in Indian-held Kashmir. It was authorized and initiated by order of the President of Pakistan Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq in 1988, after the failure of "Operation Gibraltar" to gain control of the territory.[1][2][3]

The designation is derived from Tupac Amaru II, the 18th-century revolutionary who led the war of liberation in Peru against the Spanish rule.[4] The program is thought to be remain active as the ISI is currently engaged in covertly supporting the Kashmiri militants in their fight against the Indian authorities in Kashmir.[4]

The objectives of Operation Tupac were; a) to disintegrate India; b) to utilize the spy network to act as an instrument of sabotage; c) to exploit porous borders with Nepal and Bangladesh to set up bases and conduct operations.[5][6]

ISI was reported to have spent ₨. 2.4 crore per month to sponsor its activities in Kashmir.[1] Though all the militant groups received funding the Pro Pakistani groups were reportedly favored.[1] Under this program, the ISI helped create 6 militant groups in Kashmir including Lashkar-e-Taiba.[2][7] American Intelligence officials believe ISI continues to provide protection and share intelligence with Lashkar-e-Taiba.[7]

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