Operation Tupac is the existing codename of an ongoing cold war military intelligence contingency program run by the Pakistani Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) agency, active since the 1980s. The program has a three-part action plan for covert support of militancy in Indian-held Kashmir. It was authorized and initiated by order of the President of Pakistan Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq in 1988, after the failure of "Operation Gibraltar" to gain control of the territory.
The designation is derived from Tupac Amaru II, the 18th-century revolutionary who led the war of liberation in Peru against the Spanish rule. The program is thought to be remain active as the ISI is currently engaged in covertly supporting the Kashmiri militants in their fight against the Indian authorities in Kashmir.
The objectives of Operation Tupac were; a) to disintegrate India; b) to utilize the spy network to act as an instrument of sabotage; c) to exploit porous borders with Nepal and Bangladesh to set up bases and conduct operations.
ISI was reported to have spent ₨. 2.4 crore per month to sponsor its activities in Kashmir. Though all the militant groups received funding the Pro Pakistani groups were reportedly favored. Under this program, the ISI helped create 6 militant groups in Kashmir including Lashkar-e-Taiba. American Intelligence officials believe ISI continues to provide protection and share intelligence with Lashkar-e-Taiba.
- Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI), Federation of American Scientists
- Does Obama understand his biggest foreign-policy challenge?, Salon.com, 2008-12-12
- Khan, Mukhtar (9 January 2009). "India's Sikh Militants Forming Ties with Lashkar-e-Taiba and Pakistani Intelligence" (PDF). The Jamestown Foundation. Retrieved 24 July 2010.
- Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence, GlobalSecurity.org
- Daily Describes Activities of ISI in India, Federation of American Scientists, 1999-06-30
- Pakistan's ISI: The Invisible Government, Sean P. Winchell .International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence, Volume 16, Issue 3 July 2003 , pages 374 - 388
- Pakistani Militants Admit Role in Siege, Official Says, The New York Times, 2009-01-01
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