Operation Tupac

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Operation Tupac is the "codename" of an ongoing "military intelligence" contingency program run by the Pakistani Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) agency, active since the 1980s. The program has a three-part action plan for covert support terrorists in the Jammu and Kashmir. It was authorized and initiated by the order of the President of Pakistan Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq in 1988.[1][2][3]

The designation is derived from Tupac Amaru II, the 18th-century revolutionary who led the war of liberation in Peru against the Spanish rule.[4] The program is thought to be active as the ISI is currently engaged in covertly supporting the Kashmiri militants, Islamists and terrorists in their fight against the Indian authorities in Kashmir.[4]

The objectives of Operation Tupac were; a) to disintegrate India; b) to utilize the spy network to act as an instrument of sabotage; c) to exploit porous borders with Nepal and Bangladesh to set up bases and conduct operations.[1][5]

ISI was reported to have spent ₨. 2.4 crore per month to sponsor its activities in Kashmir.[1] Though all the militant groups received funding the Pro Pakistani groups were reportedly favored.[1] Under this program, the ISI helped create 6 militant groups in Kashmir including Lashkar-e-Taiba.[2][6] American Intelligence officials believe ISI continues to provide protection and share intelligence with Lashkar-e-Taiba.[6]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d John Pike (25 July 2002). "Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence". Federation of American Scientists. Archived from the original on 15 May 2008.
  2. ^ a b Juan Cole (12 December 2008), "Does Obama understand his biggest foreign-policy challenge?", Salon, archived from the original on 2009-02-15
  3. ^ Mukhtar Khan (9 January 2009). "India's Sikh Militants Forming Ties with Lashkar-e-Taiba and Pakistani Intelligence" (PDF). The Jamestown Foundation. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2012-08-29.
  4. ^ a b "Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence". GlobalSecurity.org. Archived from the original on 2008-05-15. Retrieved 12 May 2008.
  5. ^ Winchell, Sean P. (2003), "Pakistan's ISI: The Invisible Government", International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence, 16 (3): 374–388, doi:10.1080/713830449
  6. ^ a b Richard A. Oppel Jr.; Salman Masood (1 January 2009), "Pakistani Militants Admit Role in Siege, Official Says", The New York Times, archived from the original on 2018-12-15