Operative temperature

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Operative temperature (), also known as Dry resultant temperature, or Resultant temperature, is defined as a uniform temperature of an imaginary black enclosure in which an occupant would exchange the same amount of heat by radiation plus convection as in the actual nonuniform environment.[1][2][3][4] Some references also use the terms 'equivalent temperature" or 'effective temperature' to describe combined effects of convective and radiant heat transfer.[5] In design, operative temperature can be defined as the average of the mean radiant and ambient air temperatures, weighted by their respective heat transfer coefficients.[6] The instrument used for assessing environmental thermal comfort in terms of operative temperature is called a eupatheoscope and was invented by A. F. Dufton in 1929.[7] Mathematically, operative temperature can be shown as;

where,

= convective heat transfer coefficient
= linear radiative heat transfer coefficient
= air temperature
= mean radiant temperature

Or

[8]

where,

= air velocity
and have the same meaning as above.

It is also acceptable to approximate this relationship for occupants engaged in near sedentary physical activity (with metabolic rates between 1.0 met and 1.3 met), not in direct sunlight, and not exposed to air velocities greater than 0.10 m/s (20 fpm). [9]

where and have the same meaning as above.

Application[edit]

Operative temperature is used in heat transfer and thermal comfort analysis in transportation and buildings.[10] Most psychrometric charts used in HVAC design only show the dry bulb temperature on the x-axis(abscissa), however, it is the operative temperature which is specified on the x-axis of the psychrometric chart illustrated in ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 55 – Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human occupancy.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ International Standard Organization (1998). "ISO 7726:1998 Ergonomics of the thermal environment -- Instruments for measuring physical quantities".
  2. ^ International Standard Organization (2005). "ISO 7730:2005 Ergonomics of the thermal environment -- Analytical determination and interpretation of thermal comfort using calculation of the PMV and PPD indices and local thermal comfort criteria".
  3. ^ ASHRAE Standard 55 (2013). "Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy".
  4. ^ ASHRAE Terminology, ASHRAE Handbook CD, 1999-2002
  5. ^ Nilsson, H.O., Comfort Climate Evaluation with Thermal Manikin Methods and Computer Simulation Models, National Institute for Working Life, 2004, pg. 37
  6. ^ Thermal Comfort, ASHRAE Handbook, Fundamentals, Ch. 9, pg.3, 2009
  7. ^ Glossary of Meteorology, American Meteorological Society, < "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-05-14. Retrieved 2010-09-18.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)>, accessed Sept 2010
  8. ^ International Standard Organization (1998). "ISO 7726:1998 Ergonomics of the thermal environment -- Instruments for measuring physical quantities".
  9. ^ ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 55-2010, Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy
  10. ^ Dufton, A. F. The Equivalent Temperature of a room and its Measurement, Building Research Technical Paper No. 13. London, 1932