Ophioglossidae is a subclass of Polypodiopsida (ferns). This subclass consists of the ferns commonly known as whisk ferns, grape ferns, adder's-tongues and moonworts. It is equivalent to the class Psilotopsida in previous treatments, including Smith et al. (2006).
Smith et al. (2006) carried out the ﬁrst higher-level pteridophyte classiﬁcation published in the molecular phylogenetic era, and considered the ferns (monilophytes), with four classes. They placed the whisk ferns and related taxa in the class Psilotopsida, with two orders.Mark W. Chase and James L. Reveal (2009) classified them as two separate subclasses, Psilotidae and Ophioglossidae, corresponding to those orders within a much broader grouping, the class Equisetopsidasensu lato. Christenhusz et al., 2011, included both the Ophioglossales and Psilotales orders in the Ophioglossidae subclass. This was continued by both Christenhusz and Chase (2014) and by the Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group (2016). Under the latter the subclass is one of four subclasses of Polypodiopsida (ferns) and contains two orders, two families, 12 genera, and an estimated 129 species.
The following cladogram shows a likely phylogenic relationship between subclass Ophioglossidae and the other Polypodiopsida subclasses. The first three small subclasses are sometimes informally referred to as eusporangiate ferns, in contrast to the largest subclass, Polypodiidae or leptosporangiate ferns.