Ophir

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Ophir (/ˈfər/;[1] Hebrew: אוֹפִיר, Modern: Ofir, Tiberian: ʼÔp̄îr) is a port or region mentioned in the Bible, famous for its wealth. King Solomon received a cargo from Ophir every three years,[citation needed] which consisted of gold, silver, sandalwood, pearls, ivory, apes, and peacocks.[2]

Biblical references[edit]

Ophir in Genesis 10 (the Table of Nations) is said to be the name of one of the sons of Joktan.[a] The Books of Kings and Chronicles tell of a joint expedition to Ophir by King Solomon and the Tyrian king Hiram I from Ezion-Geber, a port on the Red Sea, that brought back large amounts of gold, precious stones and 'algum wood' and of a later failed expedition by king Jehoshaphat of Judah.[b] The famous 'gold of Ophir' is referenced in several other books of the Hebrew Bible.[c]

In Septuagint, other variants of the name are mentioned: Ōpheír, Sōphír, Sōpheír and Souphír.[3]

The New Testament apocrypha book Cave of Treasures contains a passage: "And the children of Ophir, that is, Send, appointed to be their king Lophoron, who built Ophir with stones of gold; now, all the stones that are in Ophir are of gold."[4]

Archaeology[edit]

In 1946 an inscribed pottery shard was found at Tell Qasile (in modern-day Tel Aviv) dating to the eighth century BC.[5][6] It bears, in Paleo-Hebrew script, the text "gold of Ophir to/for Beth-Horon [...] 30 shekels"[d][7] The find confirms that Ophir was a place where gold was imported from.[8]

Theorized or conjectural locations[edit]

India[edit]

A Dictionary of the Bible by Sir William Smith, published in 1863,[9] notes the Hebrew word for parrot Thukki, derived from the Classical Tamil for peacock Thogkai and Cingalese "tokei",[10] joins other Classical Tamil words for ivory, cotton-cloth and apes preserved in the Hebrew Bible. This theory of Ophir's location in Tamilakkam is further supported by other historians.[11][12][13] Locations on the coast of Kerala conjectured to be Ophir include Poovar and Beypore.[14][15]

Earlier in the 19th century Max Müller and other scholars identified Ophir with Abhira, near the Indus River in modern-day state of Gujarat, India. According to Benjamin Walker Ophir is said to have been a town of the Abhira tribe.[16]

Africa[edit]

Biblical scholars, archaeologists and others have tried to determine the exact location of Ophir. Vasco da Gama's companion Tomé Lopes reasoned that Ophir would have been the ancient name for Great Zimbabwe in Zimbabwe, the main center of sub-African trade in gold in the Renaissance period — though the ruins at Great Zimbabwe are now dated to the medieval era, long after Solomon is said to have lived. The identification of Ophir with Sofala in Mozambique was mentioned by Milton in Paradise Lost (11:399-401), among many other works of literature and science.

Another, more serious, possibility is the African shore of the Red Sea, with the name perhaps being derived from the Afar people living in the Danakil desert (Ethiopia, Eritrea) between Adulis and Djibouti.

Afri was a Latin name used to refer to the Carthaginians, who dwelt in North Africa, in modern-day Tunisia. This name, that later gave the rich Roman province of Africa and the subsequent medieval Ifriqiya, are from which the name of the continent Africa is ultimately derived, seems to have referred to a native Libyan tribe originally, however, see Terence for discussion. The name is usually connected with Phoenician afar, "dust", but a 1981 hypothesis[17] has asserted that it stems from the Berber word ifri (plural ifran) meaning "cave", in reference to cave dwellers.[18] This is proposed[18] to be the origin of Ophir as well.[19]

Americas[edit]

The theologian Benito Arias Montano (1571) proposed finding Ophir in the name of Peru, reasoning that the native Peruvians were thus descendants of Ophir and Shem.[20]

Other assumptions[edit]

In 1568 Alvaro Mendaña became the first European to discover the Solomon Islands, and named them as such because he believed them to be Ophir.[21]

In Jewish tradition, Ophir is often associated with a place in India,[e] named for one of the sons of Joktan.[24] The 10th-century lexicographer, David ben Abraham al-Fasi, identified Ophir with Serendip, the old Persian name for Sri Lanka (aka Ceylon).[25]

In Tomo III (1519-1522), pages 112-138, of the book Colección general de documentos relativos a las Islas Filipinas existentes en el Archivo de Indias de Sevilla[26], found in the Archivos de Indias de Sevilla in Spain, Document No. 98 describes how to locate the land of Ophir. The travel guide started from the Cape of Good Hope in Africa to India, to Burma, to Sumatra, to Moluccas, to Borneo, to Sulu, to China, then finally Ophir which is said to be the Philippines. While all other probable locations of Ophir are based on expert opinion, this is the only probable location with documentary support.

See also[edit]

  • Tarshish, another Biblical location providing Solomon with riches.
  • Ophur, Chicago, IL based rock band circa 1997 - 2004
  • Karl Mauch, an explorer who inadvertently discovered Great Zimbabwe when searching for Ophir.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ This is also stated in 1 Chronicles 1:22
  2. ^ The first expedition is described in 1 Kings 9:28; 10:11; 1 Chronicles 29:4; 2 Chronicles 8:18; 9:10, the failed expedition of Jehoshaphat in 1 Kings 22:48
  3. ^ Book of Job 22:24; 28:16; Psalms 45:9; Isaiah 13:12
  4. ^ Beth-Horon probably refers to the ancient city 35 km south of Tell Qasile; another interpretation is that Beth-Horon means 'the temple of Horon', (a Canaanite deity also known as Hauron), see Lipiński (2004, p. 197)
  5. ^ Fourteenth-century biblical commentator, Nathanel ben Isaiah, writes: "And Ophir, and Havilah, and Jobab (Gen. 10:29), these are the tracts of countries in the east, being those of the first clime,"[22] and which first clime, according to al-Biruni, the sub-continent of India falls entirely therein.[23]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Ophir". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
  2. ^ Schroff, The Periplus of the Erythræan Sea 1912, p. 41.
  3. ^ Mahdi, The Dispersal of Austronesian boat forms in the Indian Ocean 1999, p. 154.
  4. ^ Badge, William (1927). The Book of The Cave of Treasures by Ephrem the Syrian: Translated from the Syriac Text of The British Museum. London: The Religious Tract Society. p. 32 – via Google Books.
  5. ^ Maisler, B., Two Hebrew Ostraca from Tell Qasîle, Journal of Near Eastern Studies, Vol. 10, No. 4 (Oct., 1951), p. 265 [1]
  6. ^ Boardman, John, The Prehistory of the Balkans: The Middle East and the Aegean World, Tenth to Eighth Centuries B.C., Part 1, Cambridge University Press, 1982, p. 480 [2]
  7. ^ Kitchen, Kenneth A.; Handy, Lowell K. (ed.), The Age of Solomon: Scholarship at the Turn of the Millennium, BRILL 1997, p. 144 [3]
  8. ^ Lipiński 2004, p. 144.
  9. ^ Smith, William, A dictionary of the Bible, Hurd and Houghton, 1863 (1870), pp.1441
  10. ^ Smith's Bible Dictionary
  11. ^ Ramaswami, Sastri, The Tamils and their culture, Annamalai University, 1967, pp.16
  12. ^ Gregory, James, Tamil lexicography, M. Niemeyer, 1991, pp.10
  13. ^ Fernandes, Edna, The last Jews of Kerala, Portobello, 2008, pp.98
  14. ^ Menon, A. Sreedhara (1967), A Survey of Kerala History, Sahitya Pravarthaka Co-operative Society [Sales Department]; National Book Stall, p. 58
  15. ^ Aiyangar, Sakkottai Krishnaswami (2004) [first published 1911], Ancient India: Collected Essays on the Literary and Political History of Southern India, Asian Educational Services, pp. 60–, ISBN 978-81-206-1850-3
  16. ^ Walker, Benjamin (1968), Hindu World: An Encyclopedic Survey of Hinduism, Volume 2, Allen & Unwin, p. 515
  17. ^ Names of countries, Decret and Fantar, 1981
  18. ^ a b The Berbers, by Geo. Babington Michell, p 161, 1903, Journal of the Royal African Society book on ligne
  19. ^ Lipiński 2004, p. 200.
  20. ^ Shalev, Zur (2003). "Sacred Geography, Antiquarianism and Visual Erudition: Benito Arias Montano and the Maps in the Antwerp Polyglot Bible" (PDF). Imago Mundi. 55: 71. doi:10.1080/0308569032000097495. Retrieved 2017-01-17.
  21. ^ HOGBIN, H. In, Experiments in Civilization: The Effects of European Culture on a Native Community of the Solomon Islands, New York: Schocken Books, 1970 (1939), pp.7-8
  22. ^ Ben Isaiah, N. (1983). Sefer Me'or ha-Afelah (in Hebrew). Translated by Yosef Qafih. Kiryat Ono: Mechon Moshe. p. 74.
  23. ^ Sunil Sharma, Mughal Arcadia: Persian Literature in an Indian Court, Harvard University Press: Cambridge 2017, p. 66
  24. ^ Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews (Book 8, chapter 6, §4), s.v. Aurea Chersonesus
  25. ^ Solomon Skoss (ed.), The Hebrew-Arabic Dictionary of the Bible, Known as `Kitāb Jāmiʿ al-Alfāẓ` (Agron) of David ben Abraham al-Fasi, Yale University Press: New Haven 1936, vol. 1, p. 46 (Hebrew)
  26. ^ Compañía General de Tabacos de Filipinas. Colección general de documentos relativos a las Islas Filipinas existentes en el Archivo de Indias de Sevilla. Tomo III--Documento 98, 1520-1528. pp. 112–138.

Bibiography[edit]

External links[edit]