List of opponents of same-sex marriage in the United States

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Opponents of same-sex marriage in the United States include organizations and individuals who seek to prevent or reverse the legal recognition of same-sex marriage. Opponents of same-sex marriage laws have introduced federal[1] and state legislation seeking to define marriage as the union of one man and one woman.[2][3]

Political parties[edit]

National[edit]

Major
  1. Republican Party[4]
Minor
  1. America First Party[5]
  2. America's Party[6]
  3. Christian Liberty Party[7]
  4. Constitution Party[8]
  5. Independent American Party[9]
  6. Prohibition Party[10]

State Republican chapters[edit]

Elected officials[edit]

Presidents[edit]

  1. George W. Bush 1 (R-Texas)[40]

Note:

  • 1 During his presidency, George W. Bush, opposed same-sex marriage. On February 24, 2004, Bush announced his support for an amendment to the US Constitution banning same-sex marriage.[41] On October 24, 2004, Bush announced his support for civil unions.[42] However, in his post presidency interviews, he refused to take a position on the issue of same-sex marriage.[43][44]

U.S. Senators[edit]

U.S. Senators who publicly oppose same-sex marriage (SSM)
  Both Republican U.S. Senators oppose SSM
  One Republican U.S. Senator opposes SSM
  No position for U.S. Senator
Opinion of same-sex marriage in the United States Senate # %
Total United States Senate 100 100 100
 
Opposition to same-sex marriage in the United States Senate 50 50 50
 
Support of same-sex marriage in the United States Senate 49 49 49
 
Unknown or ambiguous position on same-sex marriage in the United States Senate 1[45] 1 1
 
  1. Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell[46] (R-Kentucky)
  2. Senate Majority Whip John Cornyn[46][47][48] (R-Texas)
  3. Lamar Alexander[46] (R-Tennessee)
  4. Kelly Ayotte[49] (R-New Hampshire)
  5. John Barrasso[50] (R-Wyoming)
  6. Roy Blunt[51] (R-Missouri)
  7. John Boozman[52] (R-Arkansas)
  8. Richard Burr[46][53] (R-North Carolina)
  9. Shelley Moore Capito[54] (R-West Virginia)
  10. Bill Cassidy[55] (R-Louisiana)
  11. Dan Coats[56] (R-Indiana)
  12. Thad Cochran[46] (R-Mississippi)
  13. Bob Corker[57] (R-Tennessee)
  14. Mike Crapo[46][58] (R-Idaho)
  15. Ted Cruz[59] (R-Texas)
  16. Tom Cotton[60] (R-Arkansas)
  17. Steve Daines (R-Montana)[61]
  18. Mike Enzi[46][58] (R-Wyoming)
  19. Joni Ernst[62] (R-Iowa)
  20. Deb Fischer[63] (R-Nebraska)
  21. Jeff Flake[64][65] (R-Arizona)
  22. Cory Gardner[66] (R-Colorado)
  23. Lindsey Graham[46][58] (R-South Carolina)
  24. Chuck Grassley[46] (R-Iowa)
  25. Orrin Hatch[46] (R-Utah)
  26. Dean Heller[67] (R-Nevada)
  27. John Hoeven[68] (R-North Dakota)
  28. Jim Inhofe[46][58] (R-Oklahoma)
  29. Johnny Isakson[46][58] (R-Georgia)
  30. Ron Johnson[69] (R-Wisconsin)
  31. James Lankford[70] (R-Oklahoma)
  32. Mike Lee[71] (R-Utah)
  33. John McCain[72] (R-Arizona)
  34. Jerry Moran[73] (R-Kansas)
  35. Rand Paul[74] (R-Kentucky)
  36. David Perdue[75] (R-Georgia)
  37. Jim Risch[76] (R-Idaho)
  38. Pat Roberts[46][58] (R-Kansas)
  39. Mike Rounds[77] (R-South Dakota)
  40. Marco Rubio[78] (R-Florida)
  41. Ben Sasse[79] (R-Nebraska)
  42. Tim Scott[80] (R-South Carolina)
  43. Jeff Sessions[46][81] (R-Alabama)
  44. Richard Shelby[46][58] (R-Alabama)
  45. Dan Sullivan[82] (R-Alaska)
  46. John Thune[46][83] (R-South Dakota)
  47. Thom Tillis[84] (R-North Carolina)
  48. Pat Toomey[85] (R-Pennsylvania)
  49. David Vitter[46][58] (R-Louisiana)
  50. Roger Wicker[86] (R-Mississippi)

The State Marriage Defense Act, a proposed bill that would restrict federal benefits of same-sex marriage in states that prohibit it, has 12 Senate cosponsors in the 114th United States Congress.[87]

Former U.S. Senators[edit]

  1. Spencer Abraham[88] (R-Michigan)
  2. Wayne Allard[46] (R-Colorado)
  3. George Allen[46] (R-Virginia)
  4. John Ashcroft[88] (R-Missouri)
  5. Evan Bayh[89] (D-Indiana)
  6. Bob Bennett[46] (R-Utah)
  7. Kit Bond[46] (R-Missouri)
  8. David L. Boren[90] (D-Oklahoma)
  9. Hank Brown[88] (R-Colorado)
  10. Scott Brown[91] (R-Massachusetts)
  11. Sam Brownback[92] (R-Kansas)
  12. Dale Bumpers[88] (D-Arkansas)
  13. Jim Bunning[46] (R-Kentucky)
  14. Conrad Burns[46] (R-Montana)
  15. Roland Burris[93] (D-Illinois)
  16. Richard Bryan[88] (D-Nevada)
  17. Robert Byrd[94] (D-West Virginia)
  18. John Chafee[88] (R-Rhode Island)
  19. Saxby Chambliss[46][58] (R-Georgia)
  20. Lawton Chiles[95] (D-Florida)
  21. Tom Coburn[46][96][97] (R-Oklahoma)
  22. Norm Coleman[46] (R-Minnesota)
  23. Kent Conrad[98] (D-North Dakota)
  24. Paul Coverdell[88] (R-Georgia)
  25. Larry Craig[46] (R-Idaho)
  26. Tom Daschle (D-South Dakota)
  27. Al D'Amato[88] (R-New York)
  28. Jim DeMint[46][99] (R-South Carolina)
  29. Mike DeWine[46] (R-Ohio)
  30. Bob Dole[100] (R-Kansas)
  31. Elizabeth Dole[46] (R-North Carolina)
  32. Pete Domenici[46][101] (R-New Mexico)
  33. John Edwards[102] (D-North Carolina)
  34. John Ensign[46] (R-Nevada)
  35. J. James Exon[88] (D-Nebraska)
  36. Duncan Faircloth[88] (R-North Carolina)
  37. Sheila Frahm[88] (R-Kansas)
  38. Bill Frist[46] (R-Tennessee)
  39. Peter Fitzgerald[103] (R-Illinois)
  40. Wendell Ford[88] (D-Kentucky)
  41. John Glenn[88] (D-Ohio)
  42. Slade Gorton[88] (R-Washington)
  43. Bob Graham[88] (D-Florida)
  44. Phil Gramm[88] (R-Texas)
  45. Rod Grams[88] (R-Minnesota)
  46. Mark Hatfield[88] (R-Oregon)
  47. Howell Heflin[88] (D-Alabama)
  48. Jesse Helms[88] (R-North Carolina)
  49. Kay Bailey Hutchison[46][104] (R-Texas)
  50. Mike Johanns[105] (R-Nebraska)
  51. Dirk Kempthorne[88] (R-Idaho)
  52. Jon Kyl[106] (R-Arizona)
  53. George LeMieux[107] (R-Florida)
  54. Blanche Lincoln[108] (D-Arkansas)
  55. Joe Lieberman[109] (D/ID-Connecticut)
  56. Trent Lott[46] (R-Mississippi)
  57. Richard Lugar[46] (R-Indiana)
  58. Connie Mack III[88] (R-Florida)
  59. Mel Martinez[46] (R-Florida)
  60. Zell Miller[103] (D-Georgia)
  61. Frank Murkowski[88] (R-Alaska)
  62. Ben Nelson[46][110] (D-Nebraska)
  63. Don Nickles[103] (R-Oklahoma)
  64. Samuel Nunn[88] (D-Georgia)
  65. Mark Pryor[111] (D-Arkansas)
  66. William V. Roth, Jr.[88] (R-Delaware)
  67. Rick Santorum[46][112] (R-Pennsylvania)
  68. Bob Smith[88] (R-New Hampshire)
  69. Gordon H. Smith[46] (R-Oregon)
  70. Ted Stevens[46] (R-Alaska)
  71. John E. Sununu[113] (R-New Hampshire)
  72. Jim Talent[46] (R-Missouri)
  73. Craig Thomas[46] (R-Wyoming)
  74. Strom Thurmond[88] (R-South Carolina)
  75. John Warner[46] (R-Virginia)
  76. Pete Wilson[114] (R-California)

Members of the U.S. House of Representatives[edit]

Map of congressional districts with representatives who publicly oppose same-sex marriage
  District's Republican representative opposes same-sex marriage
  District's Democratic representative opposes same-sex marriage
  vacant
Opinion of same-sex marriage in the United States House of Representatives # %
Total overall United States House of Representatives 441 100 100
 
Opposition to same-sex marriage in the overall United States House of Representatives 229 52.64 52.64
 
Support of same-sex marriage in the overall United States House of Representatives 188 43.21 43.21
 
Unknown or ambiguous position on same-sex marriage in the overall United States House of Representatives 21[115][116] 4.76 4.76
 
Support marriage privatization in the overall United States House of Representatives 2[117] 0.45 0.45
 
Vacancy in the overall United States House of Representatives 2[118] 0.45 0.45
 
Total voting members of the United States House of Representatives 435 100 100
 
Opposition to same-sex marriage among voting members of the United States House of Representatives 228 52.41 52.41
 
Support of same-sex marriage among voting members of the United States House of Representatives 186 42.75 42.75
 
Unknown or ambiguous position on same-sex marriage among voting members of the United States House of Representatives 18[115] 4.13 4.13
 
Support marriage privatization among voting members of the United States House of Representatives 2[117] 0.45 0.45
 
Vacancy among voting members of the United States House of Representatives 2[118] 0.45 0.45
 
Total non-voting members of the United States House of Representatives 6 100 100
 
Unknown or ambiguous position on same-sex marriage among non-voting members of the United States House of Representatives 3[116] 50 50
 
Support of same-sex marriage among non-voting members of the United States House of Representatives 2 33.33 33.33
 
Opposition to same-sex marriage among non-voting members of the United States House of Representatives 1 16.66 16.66
 
  1. Speaker John Boehner (R-Ohio)[119]
  2. Majority Leader Kevin McCarthy (R-California)[64][65]
  3. Majority Whip Steve Scalise (R-Louisiana)[64][65]
  4. Ralph Abraham[120] (R-Louisiana)
  5. Robert Aderholt (R-Alabama)[64][65]
  6. Rick W. Allen[121] (R-Georgia)
  7. Mark Amodei (R-Nevada)[64][65]
  8. Brian Babin[122] (R-Texas)
  9. Lou Barletta (R-Pennsylvania)[64][65]
  10. Andy Barr (R-Kentucky)[123]
  11. Joe Barton (R-Texas)[64][65]
  12. Dan Benishek (R-Michigan)[64][65]
  13. Gus Bilirakis (R-Florida)[64][65]
  14. Rob Bishop (R-Utah)[64][65]
  15. Mike Bishop[124] (R-Michigan)
  16. Sanford Bishop, Jr. (D-Georgia)[64][65]
  17. Diane Black (R-Tennessee)[64][65]
  18. Marsha Blackburn (R-Tennessee)[64][65]
  19. Rod Blum[125] (R-Iowa)
  20. Mike Bost[126] (R-Illinois)
  21. Charles Boustany (R-Louisiana)[64][65]
  22. Kevin Brady (R-Texas)[64][65]
  23. Jim Bridenstine (R-Oklahoma)[127]
  24. Mo Brooks (R-Alabama)[64][65]
  25. Vern Buchanan (R-Florida)[64][65]
  26. Ken Buck[128] (R-Colorado)
  27. Larry Bucshon (R-Indiana)[64][65]
  28. Michael Burgess (R-Texas)[64][65]
  29. Bradley Byrne (R-Alabama)[129]
  30. Ken Calvert (R-California)[64][65]
  31. John Carter (R-Texas)[64][65]
  32. Steven Chabot (R-Ohio)[64][65]
  33. Jason Chaffetz (R-Utah)[64][65]
  34. Mike Coffman (R-Colorado)[64][65]
  35. Tom Cole (R-Oklahoma)[64][65]
  36. Chris Collins (R-New York)[130]
  37. Doug Collins (R-Georgia)[131]
  38. Barbara Comstock[132] (R-Virginia)
  39. Michael Conaway (R-Texas)[64][65]
  40. Paul Cook (R-California)[133]
  41. Kevin Cramer (R-North Dakota)[134]
  42. Rick Crawford (R-Arkansas)[64][65]
  43. Ander Crenshaw (R-Florida)[64][65]
  44. Henry Cuellar (D-Texas)[64][65]
  45. John Culberson (R-Texas)[64][65]
  46. Rodney L. Davis (R-Illinois)[135]
  47. Jeff Denham (R-California)[64][65]
  48. Ron DeSantis (R-Florida)[136]
  49. Scott DesJarlais (R-Tennessee)[64][65]
  50. Sean Duffy (R-Wisconsin)[64][65]
  51. Jeff Duncan (R-South Carolina)[64][65]
  52. Jimmy Duncan, Jr. (R-Tennessee)[137]
  53. Renee Ellmers (R-North Carolina)[64][65]
  54. Tom Emmer[138] (R-Minnesota)
  55. Blake Farenthold (R-Texas)[64][65]
  56. Stephen Fincher (R-Tennessee)[64][65]
  57. Michael Fitzpatrick (R-Pennsylvania)[64][65]
  58. Chuck Fleischmann (R-Tennessee)[64][65]
  59. John Fleming (R-Louisiana)[64][65]
  60. Bill Flores (R-Texas)[64][65]
  61. Randy Forbes (R-Virginia)[64][65]
  62. Jeff Fortenberry (R-Nebraska)[64][65]
  63. Virginia Foxx (R-North Carolina)[64][65]
  64. Trent Franks (R-Arizona)[64][65]
  65. Rodney Frelinghuysen (R-New Jersey)[64][65]
  66. Scott Garrett (R-New Jersey)[64][65]
  67. Bob Gibbs (R-Ohio)[64][65]
  68. Chris Gibson (R-New York)[64][65]
  69. Louie Gohmert (R-Texas)[139]
  70. Bob Goodlatte (R-Virginia)[64][65]
  71. Paul Gosar (R-Arizona)[64][65]
  72. Trey Gowdy (R-South Carolina)[64][65]
  73. Kay Granger (R-Texas)[64][65]
  74. Garret Graves[140] (R-Louisiana)
  75. Tom Graves (R-Georgia)[64][65]
  76. Samuel Graves (R-Missouri)[64][65]
  77. Morgan Griffith (R-Virginia)[64][65]
  78. Glenn Grothman[141] (R-Wisconsin)
  79. Frank Guinta[142] (R-New Hampshire)
  80. Brett Guthrie (R-Kentucky)[64][65]
  81. Cresent Hardy[143] (R-Nevada)
  82. Gregg Harper (R-Mississippi)[64][65]
  83. Andy Harris (R-Maryland)[64][65]
  84. Vicky Hartzler (R-Missouri)[64][65]
  85. Joe Heck (R-Nevada)[64][65]
  86. Jeb Hensarling (R-Texas)[64][65]
  87. Jaime Herrera (R-Washington)[64][65]
  88. Jody Hice[144] (R-Georgia)
  89. French Hill[145] (R-Arkansas)
  90. George Holding (R-North Carolina)[146]
  91. Richard Hudson (R-North Carolina)[147]
  92. Tim Huelskamp (R-Kansas)[64][65]
  93. Bill Huizenga (R-Michigan)[64][65]
  94. Randy Hultgren (R-Illinois)[64][65]
  95. Duncan D. Hunter (R-California)[64][65]
  96. Robert Hurt (R-Virginia)[64][65]
  97. Darrell Issa (R-California)[64][65]
  98. Evan Jenkins[148] (R-West Virginia)
  99. Lynn Jenkins (R-Kansas)[64][65]
  100. Sam Johnson (R-Texas)[64][65]
  101. Bill Johnson (R-Ohio)[64][65]
  102. Walter Jones (R-North Carolina)[64][65]
  103. Jim Jordan (R-Ohio)[64][65]
  104. David Joyce (R-Ohio)[149]
  105. Mike Kelly (R-Pennsylvania)[64][65]
  106. Steve King (R-Iowa)[64][65]
  107. Peter King (R-New York)[64][65]
  108. Adam Kinzinger (R-Illinois)[64][65]
  109. John Kline (R-Minnesota)[64][65]
  110. Steve Knight[150] (R-California)
  111. Raúl Labrador (R-Idaho)[64][65]
  112. Doug Lamborn (R-Colorado)[64][65]
  113. Doug LaMalfa (R-California)[151]
  114. Leonard Lance (R-New Jersey)[64][65]
  115. Robert Latta (R-Ohio)[64][65]
  116. Dan Lipinski (D-Illinois)[64][65]
  117. Frank LoBiondo (R-New Jersey)[64][65]
  118. Billy Long (R-Missouri)[64][65]
  119. Barry Loudermilk[152] (R-Georgia)
  120. Mia Love[153] (R-Utah)
  121. Frank Lucas (R-Oklahoma)[64][65]
  122. Blaine Luetkemeyer (R-Missouri)[64][65]
  123. Cynthia Lummis (R-Wyoming)[65]
  124. Tom MacArthur[154] (R-New Jersey)
  125. Kenny Marchant (R-Texas)[64][65]
  126. Thomas Marino (R-Pennsylvania)[64][65]
  127. Thomas Massie (R-Kentucky)[155]
  128. Michael McCaul (R-Texas)[65]
  129. Tom McClintock (R-California)[64][65]
  130. Patrick McHenry (R-North Carolina)[64][65]
  131. David McKinley (R-West Virginia)[64][65]
  132. Cathy McMorris Rodgers (R-Washington)[64][65]
  133. Martha McSally[156] (R-Arizona)
  134. Mark Meadows (R-North Carolina)[157]
  135. Pat Meehan (R-Pennsylvania)[64][65]
  136. Luke Messer (R-Indiana)[158]
  137. John Mica (R-Florida)[64][65]
  138. Jeff Miller (R-Florida)[64][65]
  139. Candice Miller (R-Michigan)[64][65]
  140. John Moolenaar[159] (R-Michigan)
  141. Alex Mooney[160] (R-West Virginia)
  142. Markwayne Mullin (R-Oklahoma)[161]
  143. Mick Mulvaney (R-South Carolina)[64][65]
  144. Tim Murphy (R-Pennsylvania)[64][65]
  145. Randy Neugebauer (R-Texas)[64][65]
  146. Dan Newhouse[162] (R-Washington)
  147. Kristi Noem (R-South Dakota)[64][65]
  148. Richard Nugent (R-Florida)[64][65]
  149. Devin Nunes (R-California)[64][65]
  150. Pete Olson (R-Texas)[64][65]
  151. Steven Palazzo (R-Mississippi)[64][65]
  152. Erik Paulsen (R-Minnesota)[64][65]
  153. Stevan Pearce (R-New Mexico)[64][65]
  154. Scott Perry (R-Pennsylvania)[163]
  155. Robert Pittenger (R-North Carolina)[164]
  156. Joseph Pitts (R-Pennsylvania)[64][65]
  157. Ted Poe (R-Texas)[64][65]
  158. Bruce Poliquin (R-Maine)[165]
  159. Mike Pompeo (R-Kansas)[64][65]
  160. Bill Posey (R-Florida)[64][65]
  161. Tom Price (R-Georgia)[64][65]
  162. John Ratcliffe[166] (R-Texas)
  163. Tom Reed (R-New York)[64][65]
  164. David Reichert (R-Washington)[65]
  165. Jim Renacci (R-Ohio)[64][65]
  166. Reid Ribble (R-Wisconsin)[64][65]
  167. Tom Rice (R-South Carolina)[167]
  168. Scott Rigell (R-Virginia)[64][65]
  169. Martha Roby (R-Alabama)[64][65]
  170. Phil Roe (R-Tennessee)[64][65]
  171. Michael Rogers (R-Alabama)[64][65]
  172. Harold Rogers (R-Kentucky)[64][65]
  173. Dana Rohrabacher (R-California)[64][65]
  174. Todd Rokita (R-Indiana)[64][65]
  175. Thomas Rooney (R-Florida)[64][65]
  176. Peter Roskam (R-Illinois)[64][65]
  177. Dennis Ross (R-Florida)[64][65]
  178. Keith Rothfus (R-Pennsylvania)[168]
  179. David Rouzer[169] (R-North Carolina)
  180. Edward Royce (R-California)[64][65]
  181. Paul Ryan (R-Wisconsin)[64][65]
  182. Matt Salmon (R-Arizona)[170]
  183. Mark Sanford (R-South Carolina)[171]
  184. Aaron Schock (R-Illinois)[64][65]
  185. David Schweikert (R-Arizona)[64][65]
  186. Austin Scott (R-Georgia)[64][65]
  187. James Sensenbrenner (R-Wisconsin)[64][65]
  188. Pete Sessions (R-Texas)[64][65]
  189. John Shimkus (R-Illinois)[64][65]
  190. Bill Shuster (R-Pennsylvania)[64][65]
  191. Michael Simpson (R-Idaho)[64][65]
  192. Adrian Smith (R-Nebraska)[172]
  193. Jason Smith (R-Missouri)[173]
  194. Lamar Smith (R-Texas)[64][65]
  195. Christopher Smith (R-New Jersey)[64][65]
  196. Steve Stivers (R-Ohio)[64]
  197. Chris Stewart (R-Utah)[174]
  198. Marlin Stutzman (R-Indiana)[64][65]
  199. Glenn Thompson (R-Pennsylvania)[64][65]
  200. Mac Thornberry (R-Texas)[64][65]
  201. Patrick Tiberi (R-Ohio)[64][65]
  202. Scott Tipton (R-Colorado)[64][65]
  203. David Trott[175] (R-Michigan)
  204. Michael Turner (R-Ohio)[64][65]
  205. Frederick Upton (R-Michigan)[64][65]
  206. Filemon Vela, Jr. (D-Texas)[176]
  207. Ann Wagner (R-Missouri)[177]
  208. Timothy Walberg (R-Michigan)[64][65]
  209. Greg Walden (R-Oregon)[64][65]
  210. Jackie Walorski (R-Indiana)[178]
  211. Mimi Walters[179] (R-California)
  212. Randy Weber (R-Texas)[180]
  213. Daniel Webster (R-Florida)[64][65]
  214. Bruce Westerman[181] (R-Arkansas)
  215. Lynn Westmoreland (R-Georgia)[64][65]
  216. Brad Wenstrup (R-Ohio)[182]
  217. Edward Whitfield (R-Kentucky)[64][65]
  218. Roger Williams (R-Texas)[183]
  219. Joe Wilson (R-South Carolina)[64][65]
  220. Rob Wittman (R-Virginia)[64][65]
  221. Steve Womack (R-Arkansas)[64][65]
  222. Rob Woodall (R-Georgia)[64][65]
  223. Kevin Yoder (R-Kansas)[64][65]
  224. Ted Yoho (R-Florida)[184]
  225. David Young[185] (R-Iowa)
  226. Don Young (R-Alaska)[64][65]
  227. Lee Zeldin[186] (R-New York)

Non-voting delegates Pedro Pierluisi (D/NP–Puerto Rico)[187] opposes same-sex marriage.

The Federal Marriage Amendment, a proposed amendment to the United States Constitution that would prohibit same-sex marriage nationwide, has 31 House cosponsors in the 114th United States Congress.[188]

The State Marriage Defense Act, a proposed bill that would restrict federal benefits of same-sex marriage in states that prohibit it, has 27 House cosponsors in the 114th United States Congress.[189]

Former U.S. Representatives[edit]

  1. Sandy Adams (R-Florida)[64][65]
  2. Todd Akin (R-Missouri)[64]
  3. Wayne Allard (R-Colorado)
  4. George Allen[46] (R-Virginia)
  5. Rodney Alexander (R-Louisiana)[64][65]
  6. Steve Austria (R-Ohio)[64][65]
  7. Michele Bachmann (R-Minnesota)[64][65]
  8. Spencer Bachus (R-Alabama)[64][65]
  9. J. Gresham Barrett (R-South Carolina)
  10. John Barrow (D-Georgia)[64][65]
  11. Roscoe Bartlett (R-Maryland)[64][65]
  12. Kerry Bentivolio (R-Michigan)[174]
  13. Rick Berg (R-North Dakota)[64][65]
  14. Robert Marion Berry[190] (D-Arkansas)
  15. Roy Blunt (R-Missouri)
  16. Brian Bilbray (R-California)[64][65]
  17. Jo Bonner (R-Alabama)[64][65]
  18. John Boozman (R-Arkansas)
  19. Dan Boren (D-Oklahoma)[64][65]
  20. Rick Boucher[190] (D-Virginia)
  21. Allen Boyd[190] (D-Florida)
  22. Nancy Boyda (D-Kansas)[191]
  23. Paul Broun (R-Georgia)[64][65]
  24. Hank Brown[88] (R-Colorado)
  25. Henry E. Brown, Jr. (R-South Carolina)
  26. Ginny Brown-Waite (R-Florida)
  27. Ann Marie Buerkle (R-New York)[64]
  28. Jim Bunning (R-Kentucky)
  29. Richard Burr (R-North Carolina)
  30. Dan Burton (R-Indiana)[64][65]
  31. Robert Byrd[94] (D-West Virginia)
  32. Dave Camp (R-Michigan)[64][65]
  33. John B. T. Campbell III (R-California)[64][65]
  34. Francisco Canseco (R-Texas)[64][65]
  35. Former Majority Leader Eric Cantor (R-Virginia)[192]
  36. Shelley Moore Capito (R-West Virginia)[54]
  37. Brad Carson (D-Oklahoma)[190]
  38. Bill Cassidy (R-Louisiana)[55]
  39. Saxby Chambliss (R-Georgia)
  40. Ben Chandler (D-Kentucky)[64][65]
  41. Dan Coats (R-Indiana)
  42. Howard Coble (R-North Carolina)[64][65]
  43. Tom Coburn (R-Oklahoma)
  44. Thad Cochran (R-Mississippi)
  45. Jerry Costello (D-Illinois)[64][65]
  46. Tom Cotton (R-Arkansas)[60]
  47. Larry Craig (R-Idaho)
  48. Robert E. Cramer[190] (D-Alabama)
  49. Mike Crapo (R-Idaho)
  50. Chip Cravaack (R-Minnesota)[64][65]
  51. Philip M. Crane (R-Illinois)
  52. Mark Critz (D-Pennsylvania)[64][65]
  53. Steve Daines (R-Montana)[61]
  54. Geoff Davis (R-Kentucky)[64][65]
  55. Lincoln Davis[190] (D-Tennessee)
  56. Nathan Deal (D/R-Georgia)
  57. Jim DeMint (R-South Carolina)
  58. Mike DeWine (R-Ohio)
  59. Bob Dole[100] (R-Kansas)
  60. David Dreier (R-California)[64][65]
  61. Chet Edwards[190] (D-Texas)
  62. Edwin Edwards[90] (D-Louisiana)
  63. Bob Ehrlich[193] (R-MD 2)
  64. Jo Ann Emerson (R-Missouri)[64][65]
  65. John Ensign (R-Nevada)
  66. William Enyart (D-Illinois)[194]
  67. Mary Fallin (R-Oklahoma)
  68. Jeff Flake (R-Arizona)[64][65]
  69. Luis Fortuño (NPP/R–Puerto Rico)[195]
  70. Elton Gallegly (R-California)[64][65]
  71. Pete Gallego (D-Texas)[194]
  72. Cory Gardner (R-Colorado)[66]
  73. Jim Gerlach (R-Pennsylvania)[64][65]
  74. Jim Gibbons[196] (R-Nevada)
  75. John Gingrey (R-Georgia)[64][65]
  76. Lindsey Graham (R-South Carolina)
  77. Phil Gramm[88] (R-Texas)
  78. Rod Grams[88] (R-Minnesota)
  79. Chuck Grassley (R-Iowa)
  80. Tim Griffin (R-Arkansas)[64][65]
  81. Michael Grimm (R-New York)[64][65]
  82. Ralph Hall (R-Texas)[64][65]
  83. Katherine Harris (R-Florida)[197]
  84. Doc Hastings (R-Washington)[64][65]
  85. Nan Hayworth (R-New York)[64][65]
  86. Dean Heller[67] (R-Nevada)
  87. Walter Herger (R-California)[64][65]
  88. Peter Hoekstra (R-Michigan)
  89. Tim Holden (D-Pennsylvania)[64][65]
  90. Duncan Hunter (R-California)
  91. Asa Hutchinson[198] (R-Arkansas)
  92. Jim Inhofe (R-Oklahoma)
  93. Johnny Isakson (R-Georgia)
  94. Bill Janklow[199] (R-South Dakota)
  95. Bobby Jindal (R-Louisiana)
  96. Chris John[190] (D-Louisiana)
  97. Timothy Johnson (R-Illinois)[64][65]
  98. John Kasich (R-Ohio)
  99. Jack Kingston (R-Georgia)[64][65]
  100. Larry Kissell (D-North Carolina)[64][65]
  101. Jon Kyl (R-Arizona)
  102. Jeff Landry (R-Louisiana)[64][65]
  103. James Lankford (R-Oklahoma)[70]
  104. Tom Latham (R-Iowa)[64][65]
  105. Steven LaTourette (R-Ohio)[65]
  106. Jerry Lewis (R-California)[65]
  107. Blanche Lincoln[108] (D-Arkansas)
  108. Trent Lott (R-Mississippi)
  109. Ken Lucas[190] (D-Kentucky)
  110. Daniel Lungren (R-California)[64][65]
  111. Connie Mack III[88] (R-Florida)
  112. Connie Mack IV (R-Florida)[64][65]
  113. Donald Manzullo (R-Illinois)[64][65]
  114. Jim Marshall[190] (D-Georgia)
  115. Jim Matheson (D-Utah)[64][65]
  116. John McCain (R-Arizona)
  117. Vance McAllister (R-Louisiana)[200]
  118. Thaddeus McCotter (R-Michigan)[64][65]
  119. Mike McIntyre (D-North Carolina)[64][65]
  120. Howard McKeon (R-California)[64][65]
  121. Gary Miller (R-California)[64][65]
  122. Jerry Moran (R-Kansas)
  123. Marilyn Musgrave[201] (R-Colorado)
  124. Sue Myrick (R-North Carolina)[64][65]
  125. Alan Nunnelee (R-Mississippi)[64][65]
  126. Doug Ose (R-California)[202]
  127. Butch Otter[203] (R-Idaho)
  128. Adam H. Putnam (R-Florida)
  129. George Radanovich (R-California)
  130. Bob Riley (R-Alabama)[204]
  131. Pat Roberts (R-Kansas)
  132. Todd Platts (R-Pennsylvania)[64][65]
  133. Mike Pence (R-Indiana)[64][65]
  134. Tom Petri (R-Wisconsin)[64][65]
  135. Ben Quayle (R-Arizona)[65]
  136. Nick Rahall (D-West Virginia)[64][65]
  137. Denny Rehberg (R-Montana)[64][65]
  138. David Rivera (R-Florida)[64][65]
  139. Buddy Roemer (D-Louisiana)[205]
  140. Michael Rogers (R-Michigan)[64][65]
  141. Mike Ross (D-Arkansas)[64][65]
  142. William V. Roth, Jr.[88] (R-Delaware)
  143. Jon Runyan (R-New Jersey)[64][65]
  144. Max Sandlin[190] (D-Texas)
  145. Stephanie Herseth Sandlin[190] (D-South Dakota)
  146. Rick Santorum (R-Pennsylvania)
  147. Bobby Schilling (R-Illinois)[64][65]
  148. Jean Schmidt (R-Ohio)[64][65]
  149. Tim Scott (R-South Carolina)[64][65]
  150. John B. Shadegg (R-Arizona)
  151. Richard Shelby (R-Alabama)
  152. Heath Shuler (D-North Carolina)[64][65]
  153. Ike Skelton[190] (D-Missouri)
  154. Robert C. Smith[88] (R-New Hampshire)
  155. Steve Southerland (R-Florida)[64][65]
  156. Clifford Stearns (R-Florida)[64][65]
  157. Charles Stenholm[190] (D-Texas)
  158. Steve Stockman (R-Texas)[206]
  159. John Sullivan (R-Oklahoma)[64][65]
  160. Don Sundquist[207] (R-Tennessee)
  161. John E. Sununu[113] (R-New Hampshire)
  162. Jim Talent (R-Missouri)
  163. John Tanner[190] (D-Tennessee)
  164. Gene Taylor[190] (D-Mississippi)
  165. Lee Terry (R-Nebraska)[65]
  166. Craig Thomas (R-Wyoming)
  167. John Thune (R-South Dakota)
  168. Todd Tiahrt (R-Kansas)
  169. Pat Toomey (R-Pennsylvania)
  170. Bob Turner (R-New York)[64][65]
  171. Jim Turner[190] (D-Texas)
  172. David Vitter (R-Louisiana)
  173. Joe Walsh (R-Illinois)[64][65]
  174. Zach Wamp (R-Tennessee)
  175. J. C. Watts[208] (R-Oklahoma)
  176. Allen West (R-Florida)[64][65]
  177. Roger Wicker (R-Mississippi)
  178. Bob Wise (D-West Virginia)[209]
  179. Frank Wolf (R-Virginia)[64][65]
  180. Bill Young (R-Florida)[64][65]

U.S. Governors[edit]

U.S. Governors who publicly oppose same-sex marriage by party affiliation.
  State's Republican Governor opposes SSM
  State's independent Governor opposes SSM
  State's Popular Democratic/Democratic Governor opposes SSM
  1. Greg Abbott[210] (R-Texas)
  2. Robert Bentley[211] (R-Alabama)
  3. Terry Branstad1[212][213] (R-Iowa)
  4. Phil Bryant[214] (R-Mississippi)
  5. Sam Brownback[92] (R-Kansas)
  6. Eddie Calvo[215] (R-Guam)
  7. Chris Christie1[216][217] (R-New Jersey)
  8. Dennis Daugaard[218] (R-South Dakota)
  9. Nathan Deal[219] (R-Georgia)
  10. Doug Ducey[220] (R-Arizona)
  11. Mary Fallin1[221] (R-Oklahoma)
  12. Alejandro García Padilla[222] (PD/D-Puerto Rico)
  13. Nikki Haley[223] (R-South Carolina)
  14. Bill Haslam[224] (R-Tennessee)
  15. Gary Herbert1[225] (R-Utah)
  16. Asa Hutchinson[198](R-Arkansas)
  17. Bobby Jindal[226] (R-Louisiana)
  18. John Kasich[227] (R-Ohio)
  19. Paul LePage[228] (R-Maine)
  20. Susana Martínez1[229] (R-New Mexico)
  21. Pat McCrory1[230] (R-North Carolina)
  22. Matt Mead1[231] (R-Wyoming)
  23. Butch Otter[203] (R-Idaho)
  24. Mike Pence1[232] (R-Indiana)
  25. Pete Ricketts[233] (R-Nebraska)
  26. Brian Sandoval1[234] (R-Nevada)
  27. Rick Scott[235] (R-Florida)
  28. Bill Walker[236] (I-Alaska)
  29. Scott Walker[237] (R-Wisconsin)

Note:

  • 1The following governors are no longer actively opposing same-sex marriage in their states: Terry Branstad, Chris Christie, Mary Fallin, Gary Herbert, Susana Martínez, Pat McCrory, Matt Mead, Mike Pence, and Brian Sandoval

U.S. Former Governors[edit]

  1. Lamar Alexander[46] (R-Tennessee)
  2. George Allen[46] (R-Virginia)
  3. John Ashcroft[88] (R-Missouri)
  4. Reubin Askew[238] (D-Florida)
  5. Haley Barbour[239] (R-Mississippi)
  6. Roy Barnes[240] (D-Georgia)
  7. Evan Bayh[89] (D-Indiana)
  8. David Beasley[241] (R-South Carolina)
  9. Mike Beebe[242] (D-Arkansas)
  10. Craig Benson[243] (R-New Hampshire)
  11. Kathleen Blanco[244] (D-Louisiana)
  12. Matt Blunt[245] (R-Missouri)
  13. Kit Bond[46] (R-Missouri)
  14. David L. Boren[90] (D-Oklahoma)
  15. Phil Bredesen[246] (D-Tennessee)
  16. Jan Brewer[247] (R-Arizona)
  17. Dale Bumpers[88] (D-Arkansas)
  18. George W. Bush (R-Texas)
  19. Jeb Bush[248] (R-Florida)
  20. Richard Bryan[88] (D-Nevada)
  21. Donald Carcieri[249] (R-Rhode Island)
  22. John W. Carlin[90] (D-Kansas)
  23. Raúl Héctor Castro[250] (D-Arizona)
  24. John Chafee[88] (R-Rhode Island)
  25. Lawton Chiles[95] (D-Florida)
  26. Tom Corbett[251] (R-Pennsylvania)
  27. Mitch Daniels[252] (R-Indiana)
  28. Jim Douglas[253] (R-Vermont)
  29. Mike Easley[254] (D-North Carolina)
  30. Jim Edgar[255] (R-Illinois)
  31. Edwin Edwards[90] (D-Louisiana)
  32. Bob Ehrlich[193] (R-Maryland)
  33. John Engler[256] (R-Michigan)
  34. J. James Exon[88] (D-Nebraska)
  35. Kirk Fordice[257] (R-Mississippi)
  36. Luis Fortuño[195] (NPP/R-Puerto Rico)
  37. Murphy J. Foster, Jr.[258] (R-Louisiana)
  38. Dave Freudenthal (D-Wyoming)
  39. Jim Gibbons[196] (R-Nevada)
  40. Jim Gilmore[259] (R-Virginia)
  41. Mills E. Godwin, Jr.[260] (D/R-Virginia)
  42. Bob Graham[88] (D-Florida)
  43. Bill Graves[261] (R-Kansas)
  44. Kenny Guinn[262] (R-Nevada)
  45. Mark Hatfield[88] (R-Oregon)
  46. Dave Heineman[263] (R-Nebraska)
  47. Brad Henry[264] (D-Oklahoma)
  48. Edgar Herschler[265] (D-Wyoming)
  49. Jim Hodges[266] (D-South Carolina)
  50. John Hoeven[68] (R-North Dakota)
  51. Bob Holden[267] (D-Missouri)
  52. Mike Huckabee[268] (R-Arkansas)
  53. Jim Hunt[269] (D-North Carolina)
  54. Fob James[270] (D/R-Alabama)
  55. Bill Janklow[199] (R-South Dakota)
  56. Mike Johanns[105] (R-Nebraska)
  57. Frank Keating[271] (R-Oklahoma)
  58. Dirk Kempthorne[88] (R-Idaho)
  59. Joe E. Kernan[272] (D-Indiana)
  60. Tony Knowles[273] (D-Alaska)
  61. Mike Leavitt[274] (R-Utah)
  62. Linda Lingle[275] (R-Hawaii)
  63. Marvin Mandel[276] (D-Maryland)
  64. Scott M. Matheson (D-Utah)
  65. Bob McDonnell[277] (R-Virginia)
  66. Zell Miller[103] (D-Georgia)
  67. Frank Murkowski[88] (R-Alaska)
  68. Ben Nelson[46][110] (D-Nebraska)
  69. Frank O'Bannon[278] (D-Indiana)
  70. Bill Owens[279] (R-Colorado)
  71. Sarah Palin[280] (R-Alaska)
  72. Sean Parnell[281] (R-Alaska)
  73. George Pataki[282] (R-New York)
  74. Tim Pawlenty[283] (R-Minnesota)
  75. Beverly Perdue[284] (D-North Carolina)
  76. Rick Perry[285] (R-Texas)
  77. Marc Racicot[286] (R-Montana)
  78. Bob Riley[204] (R-Alabama)
  79. Bill Ritter[287] (D-Colorado)
  80. Buddy Roemer[205] (D/Louisiana)
  81. Roy Romer[288] (D-Colorado)
  82. Mitt Romney[289][290] (R-Massachusetts)
  83. Mike Rounds[291] (R-South Dakota)
  84. Mark Sanford[171] (R-South Carolina)
  85. Ed Schafer[292] (R-North Dakota)
  86. Don Sundquist[207] (R-Tennessee)
  87. John H. Sununu[293] (R-New Hampshire)
  88. Fife Symington[294] (R-Arizona)
  89. Bob Taft[295] (R-Ohio)
  90. Tommy Thompson (R-Wisconsin)
  91. Strom Thurmond[88] (R-South Carolina)
  92. Cecil H. Underwood[296] (R-West Virginia)
  93. George Voinovich[46][297] (R-Ohio)
  94. Olene S. Walker[298] (R-Utah)
  95. Pete Wilson[114] (R-California)
  96. Bob Wise[209] (D-West Virginia)

Lieutenant Governors[edit]

U.S. Lieutenant Governors who publicly oppose same-sex marriage by party affiliation.
  State or territory's Republican Lieutenant Governor opposes SSM
  vacant
  No position for lieutenant governor
  1. Casey Cagle[299] (R-Georgia)
  2. Jay Dardenne[300] (R-Louisiana)
  3. Sue Ellspermann[301] (R-Indiana)
  4. Tim Griffin[64][65] (R-Arkansas)
  5. Kim Guadagno[302] (R-New Jersey)
  6. Mark Hutchison[303] (R-Nevada)
  7. Peter Kinder[304] (R-Missouri)
  8. Rebecca Kleefisch[305] (R-Wisconsin)
  9. Brad Little[306] (R-Idaho)
  10. Henry McMaster[307] (R-South Carolina)
  11. Matt Michels[308] (R-South Dakota)
  12. Dan Patrick[309] (R-Texas)
  13. Ron Ramsey[310] (R-Tennessee)
  14. Tate Reeves[311] (R-Mississippi)
  15. Kim Reynolds[312] (R-Iowa)
  16. Evelyn Sanguinetti[313] (R-Illinois)
  17. Mary Taylor[314] (R-Ohio)

Former Lieutenant Governors[edit]

  1. Duke Aiona[315] (R-Hawaii)
  2. Kathleen Blanco[244] (D-Louisiana)
  3. John Bohlinger[316] (R-Montana)
  4. Bill Bolling[317] (R-Virginia)
  5. Terry Branstad[212] (R-Iowa)
  6. Phil Bryant[214] (R-Mississippi)
  7. Mark Darr (R-Arkansas)
  8. Dennis Daugaard[218] (R-South Dakota)
  9. David Dewhurst[318] (R-Texas)
  10. Wendell Ford[88] (D-Kentucky)
  11. Mills E. Godwin, Jr.[260] (D-Virginia)
  12. Dave Heineman[263] (R-Nebraska)
  13. Gary Herbert[225] (R-Utah)
  14. Robert Jubelirer[319] (R-Pennsylvania)
  15. Joe E. Kernan[272] (D-Indiana)
  16. Yancey McGill[320] (D-South Carolina)
  17. Zell Miller[103] (D-Georgia)
  18. Frank O'Bannon[278] (D-Indiana)
  19. Butch Otter[203] (R-Idaho)
  20. Sean Parnell[281] (R-Alaska)
  21. Rick Perry[285] (R-Texas)
  22. Marc Racicot[286] (R-Montana)
  23. Jim Risch[76] (R-Idaho)
  24. Brian Sandoval[234] (R-Nevada)
  25. Joseph B. Scarnati[321] (R-Pennsylvania)
  26. Mead Treadwell[322] (R-Alaska)
  27. Olene S. Walker[298] (R-Utah)

Attorneys General[edit]

U.S. Attorneys General who publicly oppose same-sex marriage by party affiliation.
  State or territory's Republican Attorney General opposes SSM
  1. Buddy Caldwell[323] (R–Louisiana)
  2. Mike DeWine[324] (R–Ohio)
  3. Timothy C. Fox[325] (R–Montana)
  4. John Jay Hoffman[326] (R–New Jersey)
  5. Marty Jackley[325] (R–South Dakota)
  6. Adam Laxalt[327] (R-Nevada)
  7. Patrick Morrisey[325] (R–West Virginia)
  8. Sam Olens[325] (R–Georgia)
  9. Ken Paxton[328] (R-Texas)
  10. Scott Pruitt[325] (R–Oklahoma)
  11. Sean Reyes[329] (R–Utah)
  12. Leslie Rutledge[330] (R-Arkansas)
  13. Derek Schmidt[325] (R–Kansas)
  14. Bill Schuette[331] (R–Michigan)
  15. Wayne Stenehjem[325] (R–North Dakota)
  16. Luther Strange[325] (R–Alabama)
  17. Lawrence Wasden[325] (R–Idaho)
  18. Alan Wilson[325] (R–South Carolina)
  19. Greg Zoeller[325] (R–Indiana)
  20. Brad Schimel[325] (R–Wisconsin)

Former Attorneys General[edit]

  1. Greg Abbott[210] (R–Texas)
  2. John Ashcroft[88] (R-Missouri)
  3. Kelly Ayotte[49] (R-New Hampshire)
  4. Mike Beebe[242] (D-Arkansas)
  5. Jon Bruning[325] (R–Nebraska)
  6. Richard Bryan[88] (D-Nevada)
  7. Roland Burris[93] (D-Illinois)
  8. Tom Corbett[251] (R-Pennsylvania)
  9. John Cornyn[46][48] (R-Texas)
  10. Ken Cuccinelli[325] (R–Virginia)
  11. Wendell Ford[88] (D-Kentucky)
  12. Michael Geraghty[325] (R–Alaska)
  13. Jim Gilmore[259] (R-Virginia)
  14. Slade Gorton[88] (R-Washington)
  15. J. B. Van Hollen[325] (R–Wisconsin)
  16. Tom Horne[325] (R–Arizona)
  17. Joe Lieberman[109] (D-Connecticut)
  18. Daniel Lungren[64][65] (R-California)
  19. Bob McDonnell[277] (R-Virginia)
  20. Rob McKenna (R-Washington)
  21. Henry McMaster[307] (R-South Carolina)
  22. Mark Pryor[111] (D-Arkansas)
  23. Jeff Sessions[46][81] (R-Alabama)
  24. John Suthers[325] (R–Colorado)
  25. John Swallow[325] (R–Utah)

Organizations[edit]

  1. African Methodist Episcopal Church[332]
  2. Agudath Israel of America[333]
  3. Alliance Defense Fund[334]
  4. Alliance for Marriage[335]
  5. Alianza Islámica[citation needed]
  6. American College of Pediatricians[citation needed]
  7. American Family Association[336]
  8. Anglican Church in North America[337]
  9. Arlington Group[338]
  10. Assemblies of God[339]
  11. Brethren in Christ[340]
  12. Black Hebrew Israelites
  13. Catholic Answers
  14. Chabad-Lubavitch[citation needed]
  15. Christian Coalition of America[341]
  16. Christian and Missionary Alliance[340]
  17. Church of God in Christ[342]
  18. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints[340][343]
  19. Coloradans For Marriage[344]
  20. Concerned Women for America[345]
  21. Conservative Congregational Christian Conference[340]
  22. Conservative Mennonite Conference[346]
  23. Convocation of Anglicans in North America[citation needed]
  24. Council of Islamic Organizations of Greater Chicago[347]
  25. Eagle Forum[348]
  26. Evangelical Free Church of America[340]
  27. Evangelical Methodist Church[349]
  28. Evangelical Presbyterian Church[340]
  29. Family Institute of Connecticut
  30. Family Research Council[350]
  31. Focus on the Family[351]
  32. The Heritage Foundation
  33. Hindu nationalism[citation needed]
  34. International Church of the Foursquare Gospel[340]
  35. International Pentecostal Holiness Church[340]
  36. Jehovah's Witnesses[352]
  37. JONAH[citation needed]
  38. Karaite Judaism[citation needed]
  39. Knights of Columbus[353][354][355]
  40. Latino American Dawah Organization[citation needed]
  41. Liberty Counsel[356]
  42. Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod[357]
  43. MassResistance[358]
  44. Missionary Church[340]
  45. National Association of Evangelicals[340][359]
  46. National Organization for Marriage[360]
  47. Nation of Islam[361]
  48. Open Bible Churches[340]
  49. Oregon Defense of Marriage Coalition
  50. Protect Marriage Arizona[344][362]
  51. ProtectMarriage.com
  52. Rabbinical Council of America[333]
  53. Rastafari movement[citation needed]
  54. Seventh-day Adventist Church[363]
  55. Southern Baptist Convention[364]
  56. Stand For Marriage Maine[365]
  57. Texans For Marriage[366]
  58. Thomas More Law Center[367]
  59. Traditional Values Coalition[368]
  60. Union for Traditional Judaism[citation needed]
  61. Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations of America[333][340]
  62. United Brethren in Christ Church[340]
  63. United Methodist Church[369]
  64. United States Conference of Catholic Bishops[340]
  65. Vision America[370]
  66. VoteOnMarriage.org
  67. Westboro Baptist Church[371]
  68. Wesleyan Church[340]
  69. Witherspoon Institute[372]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "President Clinton's statement on DOMA". Cs.cmu.edu. Retrieved February 10, 2013. 
  2. ^ "Interactive: Gay marriage chronology". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 20, 2010. 
  3. ^ McKinley, Jesse; Goodstein, Laurie (November 6, 2008). "Bans in 3 States on Gay Marriage". The New York Times. Retrieved May 20, 2010. 
  4. ^ a b "2012 Republican Platform: Preserving and Protecting Traditional Marriage". United States Republican Party. Retrieved April 10, 2013. We recognize and honor the courageous efforts of those who bear the many burdens of parenting alone, even as we believe that marriage, the union of one man and one woman must be upheld as the national standard, a goal to stand for, encourage, and promote through laws governing marriage. 
  5. ^ "Platform of the America First Party". America First Party. October 16, 2006. Retrieved December 19, 2013. The America First Party strongly supports the traditional family as ordained by God and built upon the marital union of one man and one woman. 
  6. ^ "America's Party Constitution". America's Party. Retrieved December 19, 2013. We seek the passage of a Federal Marriage Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, and oppose all attempts everywhere to redefine marriage as being anything but what it has always been: the union of one man and one woman. 
  7. ^ "Platform". Christian Liberty Party. Retrieved December 19, 2013. We oppose state-sanctioned homosexual marriage, child adoption and special minority status. 
  8. ^ "Consititon Party Platform". Constitution Party. Archived from the original on 2013-09-21. Retrieved December 19, 2013. The law of our Creator defines marriage as the union between one man and one woman. 
  9. ^ "IAP on Homosexuality and the Protection of Marriage". Independent American Party. Retrieved December 19, 2013. We oppose abortion, homosexuality, same-sex marriages, sexual exploitation of children, fornication, incest, bestiality, sodomy, adultery, and pornography. 
  10. ^ "2012 Party Platform". Prohibition Party. Retrieved December 19, 2013. We support the traditional marriage of one adult male to one adult female. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "Anti-Gay Stance Still Enshrined In Majority Of State GOP Platforms". Huffingtonpost.com. Retrieved 2014-06-29. 
  12. ^ "2010 State Platform". Alaska Republican Party. Retrieved April 12, 2013. 
  13. ^ "2010-2011 State Platform". Arizona Republican Party. Retrieved April 12, 2013. 
  14. ^ "2013-2014 State Platform". Republican Party of Arkansas. Retrieved April 12, 2013. 
  15. ^ "2012-2016 State Platform". California Republican Party. Retrieved April 12, 2013. 
  16. ^ "2012 State Platform". Idaho Republican Party. Retrieved April 12, 2013. 
  17. ^ "2012 State Platform". Illinois Republican Party. Retrieved April 12, 2013. 
  18. ^ "Platform language opposing gay marriage survives challenge at Indiana Republican convention". Retrieved 2014-06-29. [dead link]
  19. ^ "State Platform". Republican Party of Iowa. Retrieved April 12, 2013. 
  20. ^ "2012 State Platform". Kansas Republican Party. Retrieved April 12, 2013. 
  21. ^ "2008 State Platform". Republican Party of Louisiana. Retrieved April 12, 2013. 
  22. ^ "2012 State Platform". Maine Republican Party. Retrieved April 12, 2013. 
  23. ^ Shira Schoenberg (2014-02-28). "Conservative Republicans in Massachusetts drive anti-abortion, anti-gay marriage state platform change". Masslive.com. Retrieved 2014-06-29. 
  24. ^ "2012 State Platform". Republican Party of Minnesota. Retrieved April 12, 2013. 
  25. ^ "2012 State Platform". Mississippi Republican Party. Retrieved April 12, 2013. 
  26. ^ "2012 State Platform". Missouri Republican Party. Retrieved April 12, 2013. 
  27. ^ "2012 State Platform". Montana Republican Party. Retrieved April 12, 2013. 
  28. ^ "State Platform". Nebraska Republican Party. Retrieved April 12, 2013. 
  29. ^ "State Platform". New Hampshire Republican State Committee. Retrieved April 12, 2013. 
  30. ^ "2010 State Platform". Republican Party of New Mexico. Retrieved April 12, 2013. 
  31. ^ "2012 State Platform". Oklahoma Republican Party. Retrieved April 12, 2013. 
  32. ^ "2011 State Platform". Oregon Republican Party. Retrieved April 12, 2013. 
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    2. Susan Brooks (R–Indiana)
    3. Corrine Brown (D–Florida)
    4. Buddy Carter (R–Georgia)
    5. Curt Clawson (R–Florida)
    6. Mario Diaz-Balart (R-Florida)
    7. Gene Green (D–Texas)
    8. Will Hurd (R–Texas)
    9. John Katko (R–New York)
    10. Collin Peterson (D–Minnesota)
    11. Cedric Richmond (D–Louisiana)
    12. Steve Russell (R–Oklahoma)
    13. Elise Stefanik (R–New York)
    14. Bennie Thompson (D–Mississippi)
    15. David Valadao (R–California)
    16. Mark Walker (R–North Carolina)
    17. Todd Young (R–Indiana)
    18. Ryan Zinke (R–Montana)
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    2. Stacey Plaskett (D–United States Virgin Islands)
    3. Amata Coleman Radewagen (R–American Samoa)
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    2. Gary Palmer (R–Alabama)
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  214. ^ a b "Phil Bryant says it's 'unfortunate' church blocked black wedding (updated)". gulf live. August 2, 2012. Retrieved August 5, 2013. I wouldn't say gay couples, no, I'd say a man and a woman. Let me make sure, let's get that right. When I say couples, I automatically assume it's a man and a woman. 
  215. ^ Calvo opposes gay marriage
  216. ^ DeMarco, Megan (May 10, 2012). "Obama's declaration doesn't change Gov. Chris Christie's opposition to gay marriage". nj. Retrieved August 5, 2013. I just do not believe that marriage should be between anyone but a man and a woman. 
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  220. ^ You Decide 2014 - Arizona Governor candidates: 10 questions for Doug Ducey
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  222. ^ "Puerto Rico Gubernatorial Candidate Opposes Same-Sex Marriage". Latin American Herald Tribute. June 26, 2013. Retrieved August 5, 2013. “I believe that marriage is between a man and a woman. Having said that, it can’t be used as an excuse to discriminate against people who think differently, 
  223. ^ "Nikki Haley". 10wistv. Jul 15, 2009. Retrieved August 5, 2013. No. Marriage is between one man and one woman. 
  224. ^ Woods, Jeff (July 10, 2011). "Bill Haslam: 'Gay rights is a broad topic'". The City Papers. Retrieved August 5, 2013. I’m not in favor of gay marriage. 
  225. ^ a b VERGAKIS, BROCK (2009-07-28). "Herbert mum on gay rights issues". ABC 4 Utah. Retrieved August 5, 2013. support Amendment 3, and I'm going to let that be my statement on the issue. 
  226. ^ "GOP hopefuls on immigration, gay marriage". Yahoo News. July 2, 2013. Retrieved August 5, 2013. In Louisiana, we will opt for traditional marriage. 
  227. ^ Robillard, Kevin (March 22, 2013). "In Ohio, John Kasich backs civil unions, briefly". Politico. Retrieved August 5, 2013. “If people want to have civil unions and have some way to transfer their resources, I’m for that. I don’t support gay marriage.” 
  228. ^ "Paul LePage on Civil Rights". On The Issues. Retrieved August 5, 2013. 
  229. ^ "Governor Susana Martinez Unmoved On Same-Sex Marriage Despite Hairstylist Protest". The Huffington Post. 2012-02-27. Retrieved August 5, 2013. no. 
  230. ^ Reilly, Mollie (2012-04-16). "Pat McCrory, Likely GOP Nominee For North Carolina Governor, Quietly Favors Gay Marriage Ban". The Huffington Post. Retrieved August 5, 2013. 
  231. ^ JEREMY PELZER - Star-Tribune capital bureau (October 13, 2010). "Wyoming gubernatorial candidates spar on gay marriage, health care". Star-Tribune. Retrieved February 10, 2013. I believe that marriage is between a man and a woman, but we want to be the Equality State, and we want to know that people in Wyoming are going to be treated fairly. 
  232. ^ "Gov. Pence seeking vote on Ind. gay marriage ban". wlfi18. 26 June 2013. Retrieved August 5, 2013. 
  233. ^ 2 candidates, 2 gay siblings, 2 reactions
  234. ^ a b "EXCLUSIVE: Interview with him Governor Brian Sandoval II". univision las vegas. 2013-04-09. Retrieved August 5, 2013. First of all, you mentioned "The Domestic Partnership" I am a supporter of that, I'm Catholic, so I believe that marriage is between a man and a woman. 
  235. ^ Bousquet, Steve (June 26, 2013). "Scott says he'll uphold state law that bans same-sex marriage". Tampa Bay Times. Retrieved August 5, 2013. In 2008, Florida voters amended our constitution and said that we are a traditional marriage state, that marriage is between a man and a woman. As the governor of this state, I'll uphold the law of the land, and that's the law of our state. 
  236. ^ In race for Alaska governor, gay marriage becomes political football
  237. ^ Scott Walker outlines abortion, gay marriage positions
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  241. ^ Beasley hits stump, rejects gay marriage[dead link]
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