Opportunity International

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Opportunity International
Type501(c)(3)
54-0907624
Revenue (2015)
$107,800,238[1]

Opportunity International is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization that is working to end global poverty by creating and sustaining jobs. Through a network of 47 program and support partners, Opportunity provides small business loans, savings, insurance and training to more than 14 million people in the developing world. It has clients in more than 20 countries and works with fundraising partners in the United States, Australia, Canada, Germany, Switzerland, Singapore, Hong Kong and the United Kingdom. Opportunity International has 501(c)(3) status as a tax-exempt charitable organization in the United States of America under the US Internal Revenue Code (Employer Identification Number: 54-0907624).[2]

History[edit]

In 1971, Al Whittaker left his job as president of Bristol Myers International Corporation in America to found the Institute for International Development Incorporated (IIDI), a micro-enterprise organization. Barry Harper, IIDI's first Executive Director, and development officer Dan Swanson together oversaw establishment of IDII offices in Colombia, Peru, Honduras, Kenya, the Dominican Republic and Indonesia.

Australian philanthropist David Bussau founded Maranatha Trust and began administering loans in Indonesia in 1977. In 1979, he joined IDII as the director of the Indonesia office and began expanding IDII's work in Asia.[3]

In 1988, the two merged their efforts under the name Opportunity International. Since that time, the organization has continued to grow.

In 1991, a group of women supporting Opportunity International called the Women's Opportunity Network created a group-lending methodology called the Trust Group in which groups would be responsible for their peers and hold them accountable for repayment. Opportunity began testing this group lending and Trust Group method in the Philippines in 1992, and in the same year, they began to focus on serving entrepreneurs at even more extreme levels of poverty.

Realizing that no one group can tackle the issues of poverty alone, Opportunity began developing partners - independent, self-governing organizations with similar motivations - in countries and regions around the world. In 1998, Opportunity formalized these partnerships into the Opportunity International Network - a group of partners that now includes 47 entities in over 20 countries.

In 2000, Opportunity began building a series of permanent and mobile banks to reach more remote areas of countries and attempt to serve those that had previously lacked access to financial services. These formal financial institutions (FFIs) took the form of commercial banks, development banks or credit unions that could accept deposits, borrow money and/or accept investments.

In 2002, Opportunity International developed and founded MicroEnsure, a microinsurance entity providing weather-indexed crop insurance, affordable health insurance, and protection against other risks. MicroEnsure was the world's first microinsurance intermediary and received a generous grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation in 2008. MicroEnsure spun off from Opportunity as its own company, and in 2013 it became a for-profit social enterprise.[4]

On January 24, 2006, David Bussau gave the 10th Australia Day Address with the subject "A Giving Nation." [5] And in January, 2008, David Bussau was named Senior Australian of the Year 2008 for his work in the fight against global poverty.[6]

Al Whittaker passed away in 2006.[7]

Opportunity was founded as and remains a non-denominational Christian organization that serves all its clients regardless of their race, religion, ethnicity or gender.

In 2017, Opportunity International's operation in Malawi was sold to southern African banking group FMB Capital.

Annual report[edit]

Annual Report 2015 By the Numbers
Active Loan Clients 4 Million
Total Loaned $1.4 Billion
Savings Clients 4.9 Million
Insurance Clients 9.9 Million
Loans to Women 95%
Loan Repayment Rate 99%
Clients Who Bank From Cell Phones 380,000
Children Educated 803,000

[8]

How opportunity works[edit]

Trust groups[edit]

Like many microfinance organizations, Opportunity often lends to clients through group lending. At Opportunity, these lending groups are called Trust Groups and consist of 10 to 30 entrepreneurs who pledge to guarantee each other's loans. The groups meet regularly to share personal and business advice, receive financial training and vote on loan-related topics.

Trust Groups are designed to build a safety net by guaranteeing each other's loans - if one member defaults on a weekly payment, everyone else must cover the costs. The idea is that the group guarantee replaces the need for collateral, so that credit becomes available to those previously excluded from formal financial services.

Each week, as Trust Groups gather to repay their loans, Opportunity provides educational sessions to develop business skills and enhance personal growth.[9]

The efficacy of group lending has been debated since it was first introduced by the Grameen Bank in the 1970s. As MFIs have become more advanced and increased their scale, it has become less costly for them to monitor borrowers, allowing them to be less reliant on group lending and peer enforcement. According to JPAL, there is little evidence on the relative impacts of individual lending versus group lending on household consumption, income and enterprise creation.[10]

Local staffing[edit]

Today, Opportunity recruits and develops staff from the countries it serves. Its global team has grown to 23,000 employees, 99% of whom are nationals, with over 10,000 loan officers working directly with microfinance clients.[11]

Technology[edit]

Over the last 10 years, Opportunity has invested more than $20 million in electronic and mobile technology to reduce transaction costs and bring services to the most marginalized and remote people. Satellite branches and mobile banks reach clients in previously unserved areas, like rural farming villages and sprawling urban markets. Biometric technology provides convenient and secure access to finances, even for those who are illiterate or lack formal identification. Convenient ATMs and point-of-sale (POS) devices offer the only safe method for transactions in many markets and allow clients to make transactions near home, thereby reducing transportation costs, improving their productivity and increasing the safety of their savings deposits. Over half of the developing world's population uses cell phones. Opportunity's banking programs enable clients to repay loans or transfer funds in Opportunity savings accounts from their mobile device. Cell phone technology gives clients in remote locations access to their accounts.

Opportunity's investment in mobile technology parallels a larger trend in the industry to utilize technology to improve microfinance and development initiatives. Mobile money, in particular, is transforming microfinance and banking around the world. In 2013, the total value of transactions made by mobile phones in Kenya was $24 billion - more than half the country's GDP.[12]

Challenges of mobile money include security concerns and questions around regulation. As The Guardian notes, cooperation between the technology, policy and NGO communities will be critical moving forward.[13]

Investing in women[edit]

According to UN Women, women make up 60% of the chronically hungry, more than two thirds of the world's illiterate population and receive lower wages for the same work.[14] Opportunity focuses its services, including loans, savings accounts, insurance, training and financial access, on women - providing 95 of their loans to women. Research shows that women are far more likely to reinvest their earnings in their homes and families, extending the benefit of these services to the entire family. Studies suggest that women reinvest 90% of their income back into their families.[15]

Initiatives[edit]

Education finance[edit]

More than 124 million children and adolescents around the world, half of whom live in sub-Saharan Africa, have never started school or have already dropped out.[16]

Opportunity invests in parents and educators to help children go to school and receive a high quality education. Opportunity's EduFinance tools include:

  • School Improvement Loans - loans to school proprietors to help them build classrooms, install running water or bathrooms, or make other structural, resource or staff improvements to their facilities.
  • School Fee Loans - loans to parents to help them pay school fees for their children on time that they can then pay back over the course of the semester.
  • EduSave Insurance - a program that covers children's school fees in the even of a death or illness of a child's guardian.

Alongside financial tools, Opportunity supports educators with other tools and programs including:

  • Education clusters - groups of leaders from up to a dozen schools that facilitate collaboration, group problem-solving and sharing of best practices.
  • School Assessments - helping school proprietors understand their strengths and weaknesses, as well as determining a clearly defined roadmap for improvements.
  • OPENeducator - a web-based resource center offering educators around the world training tools and a global community of support.[17]

Opportunity has reached 1.7 million children and distributed $69M in education loans since 2009.

In October 2016, Opportunity announced that it received a $1 million grant to expand EduFinance from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.[18]

In November 2016, Opportunity International won the Civil Society Achievement Honor at the Children and Youth Finance International Global Inclusion Awards 2016.[19]

Agriculture finance[edit]

One in four Africans - about 260 million people - suffer from hunger.[20] Many of them are farmers operating at just 40 percent of their capacity. Farmers in the developing world face many challenges including: limited access to financial resources, high-quality farm inputs, markets and technical assistance and practicing side-selling to cover seasonal cash flows.

To address these and other challenges, Opportunity International has introduced the following programs, tools and initiatives:

  • Agricultural loans - using high-tech, low-cost banking solutions to deliver financial resources to rural farming communities.
  • Access to better resources - linking farmers to suppliers with high-quality seeds and fertilizers, and negotiating competitive pricing for farmers.
  • Agricultural Training - partnering with agricultural experts to deliver crop-specific training and assistance in good farming practices.
  • Savings accounts - empowering farmers to open savings accounts during harvest season to save profits for financial protection in between harvests, so they have money to meet basic needs.
  • Access to better crop markets - linking farmers to the best crop buyers where they can take advantage of better market prices.[21]

Agricultural lending is unique from traditional microfinance because the needs of famers are unique. Research shows that client-centric, responsive approaches have enabled some MFIs to adapt to the needs of farm households and seasonal agricultures. Branchless banking and mobile money have also aided in advancing agricultural finance in rural communities.[22]

Partnership model[edit]

Opportunity works through local program partners to better understand and meet the needs of families they serve. Local partners must share Opportunity's values and objectives. Their stated requirements for partners are:

  • A primary objective of helping people out of poverty
  • Work in the poorest, largely unserved regions wherever possible
  • Operate within a market that exhibits a relevant gap, with conditions that are favorable for microfinance
  • Sound strategies that show their continued intent to help people out of poverty
  • A demonstrated commitment to meeting people's needs and having an impact

They also look for partners with:

  • Excellent, inspiring leadership
  • Strong risk management and governance
  • A solid operating platform and capable staff
  • Good financial performance and an ability to manage significant growth
  • Comprehensive business plans and projections underpinning a sound future
  • A history of financial self-sufficiency of, for start-ups, a forecast to be so within two years[23]

Where opportunity works[edit]

About the Opportunity Network[edit]

The Opportunity Network is made up of 47 organizations, 39 of which are microfinance institutions (program partners) operating in Africa, Eastern Europe, Central and East Asia and Latin America. These program partners provide loans and other support directly to families in need. Funds to support the work of program partners are raised through support partners operating in various countries including Australia, Canada, Germany, the United Kingdom and the USA. These funds are provided to program partners as either equity, loans or grants. While program and support partners have close relationships, each operates as an independent legal entity. No program or support partner acts as agent for any other program or support partner, nor has authority to bind any other program or support partner. Opportunity International was the first organization to approach microfinance using a microfinance network.

List of partner countries[edit]

Africa[edit]

Opportunity serves clients in the following countries in Africa:

Asia[edit]

Opportunity serves clients in the following countries in Asia:

Eastern Europe[edit]

Opportunity serves clients in the following countries in Eastern Europe:

Latin America[edit]

Opportunity serves clients in the following countries in Latin America:

List of Support Countries[edit]

Opportunity partners raise support in the following countries:

United States[edit]

In 2016, Atul Tandon joined Opportunity International as the US CEO. Global CEO Vicki Escarra joined Opportunity in 2012 and served as US CEO before becoming Global CEO.[24]

Australia[edit]

Opportunity International Australia Limited is a part of the global Opportunity International Network.[25] Opportunity International Australia Limited was registered as a charity under the Australian Charities and Not-for-profits Commission in January 1989.[26]

Opportunity International Australia also provides support services to its loan recipients such as business training, financial literacy training and community development initiatives.[27] It currently works in India, Indonesia and the Philippines by funding and supporting local microfinance institutions.[28] These services include loans, savings, fund transfers and insurance. Opportunity International Australia has a repayment rate of 97%.[29] Opportunity International is a signatory to ACFID.[30]

In 2008, Opportunity International Australia's founder David Bussau was recognized for his long-standing contribution to poverty alleviation by being named Senior Australian of the Year 2008.[31]

Macro For Micro was a campaign in 2010 to raise funds and awareness for microfinance development.[32] It consisted of a team of Canadian cyclists (Geoff Dittrich, Stu McCrory, Vivian Leung and Isabella Borowiec) that travelled over 5,600 km from Sydney, Australia to Perth, Australia along the southern coast.[33] The campaign aimed to raise A$50,000 for Opportunity Australia to fight poverty. The team stopped at universities, high schools and sponsored venues along the way to share the story of microfinance. They departed Sydney on March 8 (International Women's Day), 2010 and arrived in Perth on 29 May 2010.[34]

Canada[edit]

Opportunity International Canada is also part of the global Opportunity International Network.[35] One of the more recent members in the Network, Opportunity International Canada began in 1998, when a dedicated group of entrepreneurial Canadian business people rallied to launch it as a registered charity in Canada. Dale Patterson is the current President and CEO of Opportunity Canada.

In addition to a National Office in Toronto, Opportunity International Canada has staff members in Vancouver, Montréal and London,[36] as well as a significant volunteer base in Alberta.[37]

Starting in 2009, Opportunity International Canada staff and volunteers created programs and initiatives like Faces of Opportunity[38] and MarketDay.[39] Faces of Opportunity is a small coffee table book of microfinance client stories. MarketDay is a program in schools, churches, and clubs which aims to involve and educate young people with the microfinance and entrepreneurship.

Germany[edit]

Opportunity International Germany was founded in 1996 by Karl Schock, a businessman, as an independent foundation.[40] Opportunity International Deutschland raises funds and awareness for microfinance services in Ghana, Malawi, Rwanda, Uganda, Mozambique, Dominican Republic, India, Nicaragua and the Philippines.[41] The current CEO is Mark Ankerstein.

Opportunity International Deutschland logo

United Kingdom[edit]

Opportunity International UK is part of the global Opportunity International Network. Opportunity UK is currently serving more than 1.2 million African's by raising funds to help develop microfinance in Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania and Ghana. They also support projects in Rwanda, Uganda, Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya and South Africa.

Other[edit]

Opportunity also raises support in:

Measuring impact[edit]

Social performance management[edit]

In 2012, The Social Performance Task Force (SPTF) launched the Universal Standards for Social Performance Management. These standards incorporate the Smart Campaign's Client Protection Principles and set standards on: defining and monitoring social goals, governance, treatment of clients, development of products and services, treatment of employees, and balancing financial and social performance.[42]

Opportunity's Social Performance Management (SPM) program is used in India, the Philippines and an expanding number of countries in Africa, Eastern Europe and Latin America.

The Progress Out of Poverty Index (PPI) scorecard is a tool that helps monitor the effects of microfinance on income levels. The scorecard includes simple questions related to the client's income level, such as:

  • What are the outer walls of your house made of?
  • What kind of toilet facility does your family have?
  • What is your main source of drinking water?
  • What is the main source of lighting for your home?

By assessing the answers to questions such as these, it is possible to gauge the relative income level and poverty status of a family and help ensure they are receiving benefits from interventions in various areas of their life.

Opportunity has also piloted the Social Return on Investment (SROI) methodology in both India and the Philippines. SROI is a framework for measuring and accounting for the value added to the lives of families served, looking at social, environmental and economic benefits of microfinance and then quantifying the amount of change that has taken place.

[43]

Challenges of measuring impact[edit]

There is no evidence presented in Opportunity International (OI) publications of summary-level improvements in household income or jobs created by OI's borrowers. This is not surprising, since scientific testing of the impact of microcredit is surprisingly difficult. Dozens of studies have looked at the experience of people who received microloans. The challenge has been to identify a control group for comparison: it is difficult and expensive to find a group of people who are like the loan recipients in all relevant ways except for not having gotten a loan. Two studies looked at standard microcredit clients over a short period (12–18 months) using randomized controlled trials found no evidence of improvements in household income or consumption. For now, it seems an honest summary of the evidence to say that we simply do not know yet whether microcredit or other forms of microfinance are helping to lift millions out of poverty.[44]

Further, one of the least remarked-on problems facing the world's poor living on two dollars a day is that they do not literally get that amount each day. In other words, economic poverty is not just a matter of low incomes, but also of irregular and uncertain incomes. To put food on the table every day and meet other basic consumption needs, poor households have to save and borrow constantly.[45] One research team presented results of year-long financial diaries collected about twice a month from hundreds of rural and urban households in India, Bangladesh, and South Africa. They consistently found the poor use credit and savings to smooth consumption, to deal with emergencies like health problems and to accumulate the larger sums they need to seize opportunities—occasionally business opportunities—and pay for big-ticket expenses like education, weddings and funerals.[46] Over the year, the average diary household used 8 to 10 different types of financial instruments; most types were used multiple times. The notion that microcredit brings loans to people who previously had no access to them is widespread but mistaken, as is the notion that the strong majority of microloans are used for business purposes.[47]

Finally, it seems unlikely that a year of microlending helps poor people as much as a year of girls' primary education, for example. The true advantage of microfinance is not that each "dose" is more powerful, but rather that each dose costs much less than subsidies. Social programs like primary education and health care usually require large continuing subsidies, using up scarce tax dollars year after year. Microfinancing is different: when it is done right, relatively small up-front subsidies lead to permanent institutions that can continue providing services year after year with no further subsidy needed, and can expand those services to reach many millions of low-income clients.[48]

Awards and achievements[edit]

Opportunity earned the acclaimed Civil Society Achievement Honor at the Children and Youth Finance International (CYFI) Global Inclusion Awards of 2016, held November 28, 2016 in Stockholm, Sweden.[49]

Opportunity International received a $1 million grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to expand its Education Finance initiatives in Uganda and Beyond. The grant was announced October 11, 2016.[50]

Opportunity International earned a 4-star rating from Charity Navigator for the second consecutive year on June 2, 2016.[51]

In July 2015, Opportunity announced a partnership with MetLife Foundation to promote access to financial services in rural China.[52]

Opportunity CEO Vicki Escarra was recognized with a Womenetics 2014 POW! Award.[53]

In December 2014, Opportunity announced a partnership with Credit Suisse to help educate more than 530,000 children in Colombia, Tanzania, the Dominican Republic, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, Uganda, India and the Philippines.[54]

In March 2014, Opportunity announced a partnership with MasterCard Foundation to launch a $22.7 million growth and innovations initiative in Africa.[55]

In June 2013, Opportunity announced a partnership with Caterpillar Foundation in the form of a $19.2 million grant to help provide financial products and services to 16.7 million people in Africa, Asia and Latin America.[56]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Opportunity International Form 990 2015". ProPublica. Retrieved 9 September 2017.
  2. ^ "Search for Charities". Irs.gov. 2014-04-10. Archived from the original on 2014-06-07. Retrieved 2014-06-11.
  3. ^ "David Bussau & Our History". Opportunity International Australia. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  4. ^ "History - MicroEnsure". Microensure.com. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  5. ^ "2006 speaker: David Bussau". Australia Day. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  6. ^ "Australian of the Year Awards". Australianoftheyear.org.au. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  7. ^ "Alfred Whittaker's Obituary on Chicago Tribune". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  8. ^ "Annual Report 2016 Opportunity International". Opportunity International. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  9. ^ "Microfinance Support – Trust Groups | Opportunity International". Opportunity.org. Retrieved 2014-06-11.
  10. ^ "Group Lending versus Individual Lending in Mongolia - The Abdul Latif Jameel Poverty Action Lab". Povertyactionlab.org. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  11. ^ [1] Archived September 11, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
  12. ^ "Mobile money in developing countries". Economist.com. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  13. ^ Traynor, Patrick; Butler, Kevin (24 September 2015). "Mobile money in developing countries: study reveals security flaws in apps". Theguardian.com. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  14. ^ "Facts & Figures". Unwomen.org. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  15. ^ "Empowering Girls & Women" (PDF). Un.org. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  16. ^ "UNESCO UIS" (PDF). Uis.unesco.org. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  17. ^ "Education Finance: Educating children living in poverty". Opportunity International. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  18. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2017-02-15. Retrieved 2017-02-14.
  19. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2017-02-15. Retrieved 2017-02-14.
  20. ^ "Zero Hunger". Wfp.org. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  21. ^ "Agriculture Finance: Tools and Microfinance for Farmers". Opportunity International. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  22. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-02-15. Retrieved 2017-02-14.
  23. ^ "Best Practice". Opportunity International. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  24. ^ Vicki Escarra Named CEO of Opportunity International PR News Wire (July 16, 2012)
  25. ^ "Opportunity Australia Who We Are". Opportunity.org.au. Retrieved 2014-06-11.
  26. ^ "Australian Charities and Not-for-profits Commission". Acnc.gov.au. Retrieved 2014-06-11.
  27. ^ "Account Suspended". Developmentgateway.com.au. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  28. ^ "Opportunity Australia Where We Work". Opportunity.org.au. Retrieved 2014-06-11.
  29. ^ "Opportunity Australia FAQ". Opportunity.org.au. Retrieved 2014-06-11.
  30. ^ "ACFID". ACFID. Retrieved 2014-06-11.
  31. ^ "Australian of the Year Awards". Australianoftheyear.org. Archived from the original on 11 March 2010. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  32. ^ "OI Press Release". Opportunity.org.au. Retrieved 2014-06-11.
  33. ^ [2]
  34. ^ "80 Day Ride". Au.ibtimes.com. 2010-03-11. Archived from the original on 2014-07-14. Retrieved 2014-06-11.
  35. ^ Opportunity Canada in Global Network Archived March 4, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
  36. ^ Opportunity Canada Staff Archived May 22, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
  37. ^ Opportunity Canada Governors Council Archived April 9, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
  38. ^ "facesofopportunity.com". facesofopportunity.com. Archived from the original on 2014-05-17. Retrieved 2014-06-11.
  39. ^ [3] Archived April 12, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
  40. ^ "Wie alles begann | Opportunity International Deutschland". Opportunity International Deutschland (in German). Retrieved 2015-10-19.
  41. ^ "Wirkungsberichte - Opportunity International Deutschland". Opportunity International Deutschland (in German). Retrieved 2015-10-19.
  42. ^ "Home". sptf.info. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  43. ^ "Social Performance Management - Opportunity International - Home". Social Performance Management - Opportunity International. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  44. ^ Rosenberg, Richard. (2010) Does Microcredit Really Help Poor People? Consultive Group to Assist the Poor, Focus Note Number 59, 1.
  45. ^ Collins, D., Morduch, J., Rutherford, S., and Ruthven, O. (2009). Portfolios of the Poor: How the World's Poor Live on $2 a Day. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  46. ^ Collins, D., Morduch, J., Rutherford, S., and Ruthven, O. (2009). Portfolios of the Poor: How the World's Poor Live on $2 a Day. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  47. ^ Bourdreaux, K., and Cowen, T. (2008). The Micromagic of Microcredit. Wilson Quarterly, 64.
  48. ^ Rosenberg, R. (2010). Does Microcredit Really Help Poor People? Consultive Group to Assist the Poor, Focus Note Number 59, 1.
  49. ^ "Opportunity Wins Civil Society Achievement Honor 2016". Opportunity International. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  50. ^ "Opportunity receives $1 million for Education Finance". Opportunity International. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  51. ^ "Opportunity International Earns Prestigious 4-Star Rating from Charity Navigator for Second Consecutive Year". Opportunity International. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  52. ^ "MetLife Foundation and Opportunity Partnership for China". Opportunity International. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  53. ^ "Vicki Escarra Announced as Womenetics 2015 Chicago POW! Awards Honoree". Opportunity International. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  54. ^ "Opportunity International Partners with Credit Suisse to Expand Education Finance around the World". Opportunity International. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  55. ^ "The Mastercard Foundation $22.7M Partnership for Africa". Opportunity International. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  56. ^ "Opportunity and Caterpillar Foundation Partner to End Poverty". Opportunity International. Retrieved 14 November 2017.

External links[edit]