Opportunity (rover)

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NASA Mars Rover.jpg
An artist's concept portrays Opportunity on the surface of Mars.
Mission typeMars rover
COSPAR ID2003-032A
SATCAT no.27849Edit this on Wikidata
WebsiteJPL's Mars Exploration Rover
Mission durationPlanned: 90 sols (92.5 days)
Current: 5325 sols (5471 days) since landing
Spacecraft properties
Spacecraft typeRover
Launch massTotal: 1,063 kg
rover: 185 kg
lander: 348 kg
backshell/parachute: 209 kg
heat shield: 78 kg
Cruise Stage: 193 kg
propellant: 50 kg[1]
Start of mission
Launch dateJuly 7, 2003 03:18 UTC (2003-07-07UTC03:18)[2][1]
RocketDelta II 7925H-9.5[1][3][4]
Launch siteCape Canaveral SLC-17B
End of mission
Last contact10 June 2018
Mars rover
Landing dateJanuary 25, 2004,[2] 05:05 UTC SCET
MSD 46236 14:35 AMT
Landing site1°56′46″S 354°28′24″E / 1.9462°S 354.4734°E / -1.9462; 354.4734 (Opportunity rover)[5]
Distance covered45.16 km (28.06 mi)[6] (as of 18 September 2018)
Nasa mer daffy.png
The launch patch for Opportunity, featuring Duck Dodgers (Daffy Duck)

Opportunity, also known as MER-B (Mars Exploration Rover – B) or MER-1, is a robotic rover active on Mars since 2004.[2] Launched on July 7, 2003 as part of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover program, it landed in Meridiani Planum on January 25, 2004, three weeks after its twin Spirit (MER-A) touched down on the other side of the planet.[7] With a planned 90 sol duration of activity (slightly more than 90 earth days), Spirit functioned until getting stuck in 2009 and ceased communications in 2010, while Opportunity was active as of June 10, 2018 when a dust storm forced it to hibernation. It has operated 5325 sols since landing, having exceeded its operating plan by 14 years, 266 days (in Earth time). Opportunity has operated for over 55 times its designed lifespan. As of June 10, 2018 when contact was lost, the rover had traveled a distance of 45.16 kilometers (28.06 miles).[6]

Mission highlights include the initial 90 sol mission, finding extramartian meteorites such as Heat Shield Rock (Meridiani Planum meteorite), and over two years studying Victoria crater. The rover survived dust-storms and in 2011 reached Endeavour crater, which has been described as a "second landing site".[8]

Due to the 2018 dust storms on Mars, Opportunity ceased communications on June 10 and entered hibernation on June 12, 2018. It was hoped it would reboot once the atmosphere cleared[9], but it did not, suggesting either a catastrophic failure or that a layer of dust has covered its solar panels. NASA hopes to reestablish contact with the rover, citing a windy period that could potentially clean off the solar panels of the rover.[10]

Mission overview[edit]

Opportunity's first self-portrait on Mars
(February 14–20, 2018 / sols 4998−5004)
Opportunity's landing site (denoted with a star)

The primary surface mission for Opportunity was planned to last 90 sols (92 Earth days). The mission has received several extensions and has been operating for 5471 days since landing. An archive of weekly updates on the rover's status can be found at the Opportunity Update Archive.[11]

From its initial landing, by chance, into an impact crater amidst an otherwise generally flat plain, Opportunity has successfully investigated soil and rock samples and taken panoramic photos of its landing site. Its sampling allowed NASA scientists to make hypotheses concerning the presence of hematite and past presence of water on the surface of Mars. Following this, it was directed to travel across the surface of Mars to investigate another crater site, Endurance crater, which it investigated from June – December 2004. Subsequently, Opportunity examined the impact site of its own heat shield and discovered an intact meteorite, now known as Heat Shield Rock, on the surface of Mars.

From late April to early June 2005, Opportunity was perilously lodged in a sand dune, with several wheels buried in the sand. Over a six-week period Earth-based physical simulations were performed to decide how best to extract the rover from its position without risking a permanent immobilization of the valuable vehicle. Successful maneuvering a few centimeters at a time eventually freed the rover, which resumed its travels.

Opportunity was directed to proceed in a southerly direction to Erebus crater, a large, shallow, partially buried crater and a stopover on the way south towards Victoria crater, between October 2005 and March 2006. It experienced some mechanical problems with its robotic arm.

In late September 2006, Opportunity reached Victoria crater and explored along the rim in a clockwise direction. In June 2007 it returned to Duck Bay, its original arrival point; in September 2007 it entered the crater to begin a detailed study. In August 2008, Opportunity left Victoria crater for Endeavour crater, which it reached on August 9, 2011.[12]

Here at the rim of the Endeavour crater the rover moved around a geographic feature named Cape York. The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter had detected phyllosilicates there, and the rover analyzed the rocks with its instruments to check this sighting on the ground. This structure was analyzed in depth until summer 2013. At May 2013 the rover was heading south to a hill named Solander Point.

Lifetime progress map with Washington, D.C. overlay for size and distance comparison

Opportunity's total odometry as of June 27, 2016 (sol 4417) was 42.85 km (26.63 mi), while the dust factor is 0.725. [13] Since January 2013, the solar array dust factor (one of the determinants of solar power production) varied from a relatively dusty 0.467 on December 5, 2013 (sol 3507) to a relatively clean 0.964 on May 13, 2014 (sol 3662).[14]

In December 2014, NASA reported that Opportunity was suffering from "amnesia" events in which the rover fails to write data, e.g. telemetry information, to non-volatile memory. The hardware failure is believed to be due to an age-related fault in one of the rover's seven memory banks. As a result, NASA had aimed to force the rover's software to ignore the failed memory bank,[15] however amnesia events continued to occur which eventually resulted in vehicle resets. In light of this, on Sol 4027 (May 23, 2015), the rover was configured to operate in RAM-only mode, completely avoiding the use of non-volatile memory for storage.[16]

As of May 2018 into the early days of June, Opportunity was still functioning on the surface of Mars, and engaged in further scientific exploration.[17]


In early June 2018, a large global-scale dust storm developed and within a few days the rover's solar panels were not generating enough power to maintain communications, with last contact on June 10, 2018. NASA stated they did not expect to resume communication until after the global dust storm subsided,[18] but the rover kept silent even after the storm ended in early-October,[18] suggesting either a catastrophic failure or a layer of dust covered its solar panels.[19] The team remains hopeful that a windy period between November 2018 and January 2019 may clear the dust from its solar panels, as has happened before.[19]As of December 20, 2018, no contact has been heard from Opportunity for over 6 months.[20]

Mars dust stormoptical depth tau – May to September 2018
(Mars Climate Sounder; Mars Reconnaisance Orbiter)
(1:38; animation; 30 October 2018; file description)
Opportunity solar array energy production (2018 dust storm)
Date Watt-hours[18]
Sol 5079 (May 8, 2018)
Sol 5100 (May 29, 2018)
Sol 5105 (June 3, 2018)
Sol 5106 (June 4, 2018)
Sol 5107 (June 6, 2018)
Sol 5111 (June 10, 2018)


HiRise image from MRO, was laid over 3-D topographic map of the terrain, with 5-fold vertical exaggeration; view looking west on to Perseverance Valley on the western rim of Endeavour crater (February 15, 2018)[21]

The scientific objectives of the Mars Exploration Rover mission are to:[22]

  • Search for and characterize a variety of rocks and soils that hold clues to past water activity. In particular, samples sought include those that have minerals deposited by water-related processes such as precipitation, evaporation, sedimentary cementation or hydrothermal activity.
  • Determine the distribution and composition of minerals, rocks, and soils surrounding the landing sites.
  • Determine what geologic processes have shaped the local terrain and influenced the chemistry. Such processes could include water or wind erosion, sedimentation, hydrothermal mechanisms, volcanism, and cratering.
  • Perform calibration and validation of surface observations made by Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter instruments. This will help determine the accuracy and effectiveness of various instruments that survey Martian geology from orbit.
  • Search for iron-containing minerals, identify and quantify relative amounts of specific mineral types that contain water or were formed in water, such as iron-bearing carbonates.
  • Characterize the mineralogy and textures of rocks and soils and determine the processes that created them.
  • Search for geological clues to the environmental conditions that existed when liquid water was present.
  • Assess whether those environments were conducive to life.

During the next two decades, NASA will continue to conduct missions to address whether life ever arose on Mars. The search begins with determining whether the Martian environment was ever suitable for life. Life, as we understand it, requires water, so the history of water on Mars is critical to finding out if the Martian environment was ever conducive to life. Although the Mars Exploration Rovers do not have the ability to detect life directly, they are offering very important information on the habitability of the environment in the planet's history.

Design and construction[edit]

Pancam Mast Assembly (PMA)

Opportunity (along with its twin, Spirit) is a six-wheeled, solar-powered robot standing 1.5 meters (4.9 ft) high, 2.3 meters (7.5 ft) wide, and 1.6 meters (5.2 ft) long and weighing 180 kilograms (400 lb). Six wheels on a rocker-bogie system enable mobility. Each wheel has its own motor, the vehicle is steered at front and rear and is designed to operate safely at tilts of up to 30 degrees. Maximum speed is 5 centimeters per second (2.0 in/s) although average speed is about a fifth of this (0.89 centimeters per second (0.35 in/s)). Both Spirit and Opportunity have pieces of the fallen World Trade Center's metal on them that were "turned into shields to protect cables on the drilling mechanisms".[23][24]

Solar arrays generate about 140 watts for up to fourteen hours per Martian day (sol) while rechargeable lithium ion batteries store energy for use at night. Opportunity's onboard computer uses a 20 MHz RAD6000 CPU with 128 MB of DRAM, 3 MB of EEPROM, and 256 MB of flash memory. The rover's operating temperature ranges from −40 to +40 °C (−40 to 104 °F) and radioisotope heaters provide a base level of heating, assisted by electrical heaters when necessary.[25] A gold film and a layer of silica aerogel provide insulation.

Communications depends on an omnidirectional low-gain antenna communicating at a low data rate and a steerable high-gain antenna, both in direct contact with Earth. A low gain antenna is also used to relay data to spacecraft orbiting Mars.

Fixed science/engineering instruments include:

The rover arm holds the following instruments:

  • Mössbauer spectrometer (MB) MIMOS II – used for close-up investigations of the mineralogy of iron-bearing rocks and soils.
  • Alpha particle X-ray spectrometer (APXS) – close-up analysis of the abundances of elements that make up rocks and soils.
  • Magnets – for collecting magnetic dust particles
  • Microscopic Imager (MI) – obtains close-up, high-resolution images of rocks and soils.
  • Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT) – exposes fresh material for examination by instruments on board.

The cameras produce 1024-pixel by 1024-pixel images, the data is compressed with ICER, stored, and transmitted later.

The rover's name was chosen through a NASA sponsored student essay competition.


MER-B NavCam image Sol 4959[26] Start of January 2018, looking along rim of Endeavour crater

Examples of watt-hours per sol collected by the rover.[27][clarification needed] The rover uses a combination of solar cells and a rechargeable chemical battery.[28] This class of rover has two rechargeable lithium batteries, each composed of 8 cells with 8 amp-hour capacity.[29] At the start of the mission the solar panels could provide up to around 900 watt-hours to recharge the battery and power system in one Sol, but this can vary due to a variety of factors.[28] In Eagle crater the cells were producing about 840 watt-hours, but by Sol 319 in December 2004, it had dropped to 730 watt-hours.[30]

Like Earth, Mars has seasonal variations that reduce sunlight during winter. However, since the Martian year is longer than that of the Earth, the seasons fully rotate roughly once every 2 Earth years.[31] By 2016, MER-B had endured seven Martian winters, during which times power levels drop which can mean the rover avoids doing activities that use a lot of power.[31] During its first winter power levels dropped to under 300 watt-hours per day for two months, but some later winters were not as bad.[31]

Another factor that can reduce received power is dust in the atmosphere, especially dust storms.[32] Dust storms have occurred quite frequently when Mars is closest to the Sun.[32] Global dust storms in 2007 reduced power levels for Opportunity and Spirit so much they could only run for a few minutes each day.[32] Due to the 2018 dust storms on Mars, Opportunity entered hibernation mode on June 12,[33][34] but it remained silent after the storm subsided in early-October.[18]


Solar array energy production throughout mission graphs
Opportunity solar array energy production (2013–2014)
Date Watt-hours
Sol 3376 (July 23, 2013)
Sol 3384 (July 31, 2013)
Sol 3390 (August 6, 2013)
Sol 3430 (September 16, 2013)
Sol 3452 (October 9, 2013)
Sol 3472 (October 30, 2013)
Sol 3478 (November 5, 2013)
Sol 3494 (November 21, 2013)
Sol 3507 (December 5, 2013)
Sol 3534 (January 1, 2014)
Sol 3602 (March 12, 2014)
Sol 3606 (March 16, 2014)
Sol 3621 (April 1, 2014)
Sol 3676 (May 27, 2014)
Sol 3710 (July 1, 2014)
Sol 3744 (August 5, 2014)
Sol 3771 (September 2, 2014)
Sol 3805 (October 7, 2014)
Sol 3834 (November 6, 2014)
Sol 3859 (December 1, 2014)
Opportunity solar array energy production (2015–2016)
Date Watt-hours
Sol 3894 (January 6, 2015)
Sol 3921 (February 3, 2015)
Sol 3948 (March 3, 2015)
Sol 3982 (April 7, 2015)
Sol 4010 (May 5, 2015)
Sol 4055 (June 21, 2015)
Sol 4084 (July 20, 2015)
Sol 4119 (August 25, 2015)
Sol 4153 (September 29, 2015)
Sol 4180 (October 27, 2015)
Sol 4201 (November 18, 2015)
Sol 4221 (December 8, 2015)
Sol 4246 (January 3, 2016)
Sol 4275 (February 2, 2016)
Sol 4303 (March 1, 2016)
Sol 4337 (April 5, 2016)
Sol 4377 (May. 16, 2016)
Sol 4398 (June 7, 2016)
Sol 4425 (July 5, 2016)
Sol 4457 (August 7, 2016)
Sol 4486 (September 5, 2016)
Sol 4514 (October 4, 2016)
Sol 4541 (November 1, 2016)
Sol 4575 (December 6, 2016)
Opportunity solar array energy production (2017-2018)
Date Watt-hours
Sol 4602 (January 3, 2017)
Sol 4636 (February 7, 2017)
Sol 4663 (March 6, 2017)
Sol 4691 (April 4, 2017)
Sol 4718 (May. 2, 2017)
Sol 4752 (June 6, 2017)
Sol 4786 (July 11, 2017)
Sol 4814 (August 8, 2017)
Sol 4841 (Sept. 5, 2017)
Sol 4875 (Oct. 10, 2017)
Sol 4909 (Nov. 14, 2017)
Sol 4934 (Dec. 10, 2017)
Sol 4970 (Jan. 16, 2018)
Sol 4991 (Feb. 8, 2018)
Sol 5025 (Mar. 13, 2018)
Sol 5052 (Apr. 10, 2018)
Sol 5079 (May 8, 2018)
Sol 5100 (May 29, 2018)
Sol 5105 (June 3, 2018)
Sol 5106 (June 4, 2018)
Sol 5107 (June 6, 2018)
Sol 5111 (June 10, 2018)


Delta II Heavy (7925H-9.5) lifting off from pad 17-B carrying MER-B in 2003 with Opportunity rover

Opportunity's launch was managed by NASA's Launch Services Program. This was the first launch of the Delta II Heavy. The launch period went from June 25 to July 15, 2003. The first launch attempt occurred on June 28, 2003, but the spacecraft launched nine days later on July 7, 2003 due to delays for range safety and winds, then later to replace items on the rocket (insulation and a battery). Each day had two instantaneous launch opportunities. On the day of launch, the launch was delayed to the second opportunity (11:18 p.m. EDT) in order to fix a valve.[35]

Animation of Opportunity trajectory from 2003-Jul-09 to 2004-Jan-25
   Sun ·    Earth ·    Mars ·    Opportunity


Annotated elevation map of Opportunity landing site and some surrounding craters including Endeavour and Airy
Mars Global Surveyor orbiter's photograph of landing site showing "hole in one." (See also: simulation of Opportunity's trajectory on arrival at Mars in January 2004).

On January 25, 2004 the airbag-protected landing craft settled onto the surface of Mars in the Eagle crater.

Heat shield impact site[edit]

In late December 2004, Opportunity reached the impact site of its heat shield, and took a panorama around Sol 325.[36]

Area around the heat shield, including the resulting shield impact crater. The heat shield was released before the rover landed and impacted the surface on its own, and the rover later roved to the impact site. Near this location it discovered the first meteorite found on Mars, Heat Shield Rock

Scientific findings[edit]

Heat Shield Rock turned out to be the first meteorite discovered on Mars

Opportunity has provided substantial evidence in support of the mission's primary scientific goals: to search for and characterize a wide range of rocks and soils that hold clues to past water activity on Mars. In addition to investigating the water, Opportunity has also obtained astronomical observations and atmospheric data.


Honoring Opportunity's great contribution to the exploration of Mars, an asteroid was named Opportunity: 39382 Opportunity.[37] The name was proposed by Ingrid van Houten-Groeneveld who, along with Cornelis Johannes van Houten and Tom Gehrels, discovered the asteroid on September 24, 1960. Opportunity's lander is Challenger Memorial Station.[38]

On July 28, 2014, it was announced that Opportunity, having traversed over 40 km (25 mi), had become the rover achieving the longest off-world distance, surpassing the previous record of 39 km (24 mi) on the Moon by Lunokhod 2.[39][40]

On March 24, 2015, NASA celebrated Opportunity having traveled the distance of a marathon race, 42.195 kilometers (26.219 mi), from the start of Opportunity's landing and traveling on Mars.[41]


Steepest slope
In March 2016, while trying to reach target on the slope of Marathon Valley in Cape Tribulation, the Mars rover attained a slope of 32 degrees, the highest angle yet for the rover since its mission began. This was so steep that dust that had accumulated on its top panels began to flow downward.[42]
Highest elevation
Opportunity's view from the top of Cape Tribulation on the rim of Endeavour Crater, January 22, 2015.

On Sol 3894 (Jan. 6, 2015) Opportunity reached the summit of "Cape Tribulation," which is 443 feet (135 meters) above "Botany Bay" level and the highest point yet reached by the rover on western rim of Endeavour Crater according to NASA.[18]

Driving distance
Opportunity rover – Driving Distance "Off-World" Record (NASA; July 28, 2014)[39][40]


The rover can take pictures with its different cameras, but only the PanCam camera has the ability to photograph a scene with different color filters. The panorama views are usually built up from PanCam images. As of February 3, 2018, Opportunity had returned 224,642 pictures.[43][44]



A selection of panoramas from the mission:

Panorama of Fram crater (Sol 88, April 23, 2004).
Panorama of Naturaliste crater, in foreground (March 1, 2005).
Panorama taken on the rim of Erebus crater. The rover's solar panels are seen on the lower half (December 5, 2005).
Panorama of the rim of Endeavour crater from Cape Tribulation (January 22, 2015).
Panorama of Spirit of St. Louis crater, a shallow crater about 34 meters (110 ft) long and 24 meters (80 ft) across. In its center is Lindbergh Mound, about 2 to 3 meters (yards) high. (annotated; false color; May 2015).[46]
Panorama of Orion crater (enhanced color; April 26, 2017).[47]
Opportunity looks north as it departs Cape Tribulation, its southern end shown here (April 2017)[48]
Panorama Above Perseverance Valley (June 19, 2017).

Microscopic images[edit]

From orbit[edit]

Area maps[edit]

This map, color-coded for minerals (CRISM) and annotated, shows the rover's traverse up to about 2010 with some nearby features noted.

Traverse maps[edit]

An example of a rover traverse map featuring a line showing path of the rover, and mission sols, which are Mars days counted from its landing and typical of Mars surface mission time reporting. Topographic lines and various feature names are also common

Opportunity arrives at Endeavour crater
Traverse map up to 4836 (September 12, 2017)[49]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c "Launch Event Details – When did the Rovers Launch?". Retrieved April 25, 2009.
  2. ^ a b c Nelson, Jon. "Mars Exploration Rover – Opportunity". NASA. Retrieved February 2, 2014.
  3. ^ "Mars Exploration Rover project, NASA/JPL document NSS ISDC 2001 27/05/2001" (PDF). p. 5. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 27, 2010. Retrieved April 28, 2009.
  4. ^ McDowell, Jonathan (July 15, 2003). "Jonathan's Space Report No. 504". Jonathan's Space Report. Retrieved April 28, 2009.
  5. ^ Staff. "Mapping the Mars Rovers' Landing Sites". Esri. Retrieved May 4, 2014.
  6. ^ a b "Mars Exploration Rover Mission: All Opportunity Updates". nasa.gov. Retrieved September 18, 2018.
  7. ^ Spirit landed on January 4, 2004.
  8. ^ "Opportunity on verge of new discovery". wustl.edu.
  9. ^ Greicius, Tony (2018-09-24). "Opportunity Emerges in a Dusty Picture". NASA. Retrieved 2018-11-30.
  10. ^ Greicius, Tony (2018-08-30). "Update on Opportunity Rover Recovery Efforts". NASA. Retrieved 2018-11-30.
  11. ^ "Opportunity Update Archive". NASA/JPL. Retrieved May 4, 2009.
  12. ^ "NASA – NASA Mars Rover Arrives at New Site on Martian Surface". Nasa.gov. Retrieved July 15, 2012.
  13. ^ "Mars Exploration Rover Mission: All Opportunity Updates". nasa.gov. Retrieved January 5, 2017.
  14. ^ "Opportunity Updates". Retrieved November 20, 2014.
  15. ^ O'Neill, Ian (December 29, 2014). "Mars Rover Opportunity Suffers Worrying Bouts of 'Amnesia'". Web article. Discovery News. Retrieved December 31, 2014.
  16. ^ "Opportunity Update Archive, sols 4024-4029, May 20, 2015-May 25, 2015".
  17. ^ "Science Team Continues to Improve Opportunity's Use of the Robotic Arm". nasa.gov. May 29, 2018. Retrieved June 7, 2018.
  18. ^ a b c d e "Mars Exploration Rover Mission: All Opportunity Updates". mars.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2018-02-10.
  19. ^ a b Opportunity Rover Still Silent on Mars, 4 Months After Epic Dust Storm Began. Mike Wall, Space.com. 12 October 2018.
  20. ^ "Mars Exploration Rover Mission: All Opportunity Updates". mars.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2019-01-12.
  21. ^ "Martian 'Perseverance Valley' in Perspective (Vertical Exaggeration) – NASA's Mars Exploration Program". Mars.nasa.gov. Retrieved 7 September 2018.
  22. ^ "Mars Exploration Rover Mission: Science". nasa.gov.
  23. ^ Chang, Kenneth (November 7, 2004). "Martian Robots, Taking Orders From a Manhattan Walk-Up". The New York Times. Retrieved April 9, 2009.
  24. ^ Squyres, Steve (2005). Roving Mars: Spirit, Opportunity, and the Exploration of the Red Planet. Hyperion Press. pp. 113–117. ISBN 978-1-4013-0149-1.
  25. ^ "MER – Batteries and Heaters". Jet Propulsion Laboratory. NASA. Retrieved August 13, 2012.
  26. ^ mars.nasa.gov. "Mars Exploration Rover". mars.nasa.gov.
  27. ^ "All Opportunity Status Updates". Retrieved July 1, 2015.
  28. ^ a b "Mars Exploration Rover Mission: Technology". nasa.gov. Retrieved January 5, 2017.
  29. ^ https://mars.nasa.gov/mer/technology/bb_power.html
  30. ^ "Mars Exploration Rover Mission: All Opportunity Updates". nasa.gov. Retrieved January 5, 2017.
  31. ^ a b c mars.nasa.gov. "Mars Rover Opportunity Busy Through Depth of Winter – Mars News". nasa.gov. Retrieved January 5, 2017.
  32. ^ a b c "Europe's ExoMars mission arrives in the middle of dust season". phys.org. Retrieved January 5, 2017.
  33. ^ NASA’s Opportunity rover is in a deep sleep on Mars — but there's hope it will wake up again. Loren Grush, The Verge. 13 June 2018.
  34. ^ Malik,SPACE.com, Tariq. "As Massive Storm Rages on Mars, Opportunity Rover Falls Silent". Scientific American. Retrieved 2018-06-13.
  35. ^ Harwood, William (July 8, 2003). "Opportunity launched to Mars". SPACEFLIGHT NOW. Retrieved December 18, 2015.
  36. ^ "JPL.NASA.GOV: Mars Exploration Rovers". www.jpl.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2018-02-18.
  37. ^ "Mars Exploration Rover Mission; "Like Rover, Like Asteroid"". Retrieved June 9, 2008.
  38. ^ "Space Shuttle Challenger Crew Memorialized on Mars". Retrieved July 24, 2008.
  39. ^ a b Webster, Guy; Brown, Dwayne (July 28, 2014). "NASA Long-Lived Mars Opportunity Rover Sets Off-World Driving Record". NASA. Retrieved July 29, 2014.
  40. ^ a b Knapp, Alex (July 29, 2014). "NASA's Opportunity Rover Sets A Record For Off-World Driving". Forbes. Retrieved July 29, 2014.
  41. ^ "The First Martian Marathon – NASA Science". science.nasa.gov. Retrieved May 15, 2015.
  42. ^ mars.nasa.gov. "Streaks on Opportunity Solar Panel After Uphill Drive – NASA's Mars Exploration Program".
  43. ^ Truong, Brian. "Mars Exploration Rover". nasa.gov.
  44. ^ "Opportunity Rover Celebrates 5,000 Days on Mars".
  45. ^ "Opportunity's View in 'Botany Bay' Toward 'Solander Point'". NASA.
  46. ^ mars.nasa.gov. "Mars Exploration Rover Mission: Press Release Images: Opportunity". nasa.gov. Retrieved January 5, 2017.
  47. ^ Webster, Guy; Cantillo, Laurie; Brown, Dwayne (June 16, 2017). "Martian Crater Provides Reminder of Apollo Moonwalk". NASA. Retrieved June 16, 2017.
  48. ^ "Catalog Page for PIA21497". photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov. Retrieved 7 September 2018.
  49. ^ "Mars Exploration Rover". mars.nasa.gov.

External links[edit]

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MSSS and WUSTL links[edit]

Other links[edit]

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