Optimism

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For the Radiohead song, see "Optimistic". "Positive thinking" redirects here. For songs of that title, see Positive Thinking
Berlin Wall Monument (West view) – the west side of the Wall is covered with graffiti that reflects the hope and optimism post-1989

Optimism is a mental attitude or world view. A common idiom used to illustrate optimism versus pessimism is a glass with water at the halfway point, where the optimist is said to see the glass as half full and the pessimist sees the glass as half empty.

The term is originally derived from the Latin optimum, meaning "best". Being optimistic, in the typical sense of the word, is defined as expecting the best possible outcome from any given situation. This is usually referred to in psychology as dispositional optimism. It thus reflects a belief that future conditions will unfold as optimal.[1]

Theories of optimism include dispositional models, and models of explanatory style. Methods to measure optimism have been developed within both theoretical systems, such as various forms of the Life Orientation Test, for the original definition of optimism, or the Attributional Style Questionnaire designed to test optimism in terms of explanatory style.

Variation in optimism and pessimism is somewhat heritable[2] and reflects biological trait systems to some degree.[3] It is also influenced by environmental factors, including family environment,[2] with some suggesting it can be learned.[4] It has also been suggested that optimism could appear to be a hereditary trait because it is actually a manifestation of combined traits that are mostly heritable, like intelligence, temperament and alcoholism.[5] Optimism may also be linked to health.[6]

Dispositional Optimism[edit]

Researchers operationalize the term differently depending on their research. As with any trait characteristic, there are several ways to evaluate optimism, such as various forms of the Life Orientation Test (LOT). These scales were designed by Scheier and Carver (1985) [7] and consist of eight content items: Four optimistic items (e.g. "In uncertain times, I usually expect the best") and four pessimistic items (e.g. "If something can go wrong for me, it will").[7]

Origins[edit]

As with all psychological traits, differences in optimism and in pessimism are heritable.[2] It has also been suggested that optimism could appear to be a hereditary trait because it is actually a manifestation of combined traits that are mostly heritable, like intelligence, temperament and alcoholism.[5]

Work utilising brain imaging and biochemistry suggests that optimism and pessimism biases are biological traits rooted in systems specialised for the tasks of processing and incorporating beliefs regarding good and bad information respectively.[3]

Both optimism and pessimism are strongly influenced by environmental factors, including family environment,[2] with some suggesting it can be learned.[4]

Explanatory style[edit]

Main article

Explanatory style is distinct from dispositional theories of optimism. While related to life-orientation measures of optimism, attributional style theory suggests that optimism and pessimism are reflections of the ways in which people explain events, ie. that attributions cause these dispositions[citation needed]. Measures of attributions style distinguish three dimensions among explanations for events: Whether these explanations draw on internal versus external causes; whether the causes are viewed as stable versus unstable; and whether explainations generaalize: whether they are global versus specific. In addition, the measures distinguish attributions for positive and for negative events. Optimistic justifications toward negative experiences are attributed to factors outside the self (external), are not likely to occur consistently (unstable), and are limited specific life domains (specific). Positive experiences would be optimistically labeled as the opposite: internal, stable, global.[8]

There is much debate about the relationship between explanatory style and optimism. Some researchers argue that optimism is simply the lay-term for what researchers know as explanatory style.[9] Others argue that explanatory style is not be interchangeable with optimism.[10][11]

It is generally thought that they should not be used interchangeably as dispositional optimism and explanatory style are only marginally correlated. More research is required to "bridge" or further differentiate these concepts.[8]

Philosophical optimism[edit]

Philosophically, a view in which situations and events are interpreted as being (optimized) or "the best possible", so that in some way that may not be fully comprehended the present moment is in an optimum state is referred to as panglossian-ism. This leads to a state of mind in which everything is viewed as being "as it should be", and that the future will be as well.[citation needed] This view that all of nature - past, present and future - operates by laws of optimization along the lines of Hamilton's principle in the realm of physics is countered by views such as pessimism, idealism and realism.

Philosophers often link the concept of optimism with the name of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, who held that we live in the best of all possible worlds, or that God created a physical universe that applies the laws of physics, which Voltaire famously mocked in his satirical novel Candide. The philosophical pessimism of William Godwin demonstrated perhaps even more optimism than Leibniz. He hoped that society would eventually reach the state where calm reason would replace all violence and force, that mind could eventually make matter subservient to it, and that intelligence could discover the secret of immortality.

Panglossianism[edit]

No Negativity sign outside of Unity Church of Pensacola

The term "panglossianism" describes baseless optimism of the sort exemplified by the beliefs of Pangloss from Voltaire's Candide, which are the opposite of his fellow traveller Martin's pessimism and emphasis on free will. The phrase "panglossian pessimism" has been used to describe the pessimistic position that, since this is the best of all possible worlds, it is impossible for anything to get any better.

The panglossian paradigm is a term coined by Stephen Jay Gould and Richard Lewontin to refer to the notion that everything has specifically adapted to suit specific purposes. Instead, they argue, accidents and exaptation (the use of old features for new purposes) play an important role in the process of evolution. Some other scientists however argue the implication that many (or most) adaptionists are panglossians is a straw man.

Why People Believe Weird Things: Pseudoscience, Superstition, and Other Confusions of Our Time Michael Shermer relates Frank J. Tipler to Voltaire's character Pangloss to show how clever people deceive themselves. Shermer explores the psychology of scholars and business men who give up their careers in their pursuit to broadcast their paranormal beliefs. In his last chapter, added to the revised version, Shermer explains that "smart people" can be more susceptible to believing in weird things.

Optimalism[edit]

Optimalism, as defined by Nicholas Rescher, holds that this universe exists because it is better than the alternatives.[12] While this philosophy does not exclude the possibility of a deity, it also doesn't require one, and is compatible with atheism.[13] The positive psychologist Tal Ben-Shahar uses optimalism to mean willingness to accept failure while remaining confident that success will follow, a positive attitude he contrasts with negative perfectionism.[14] Perfectionism can be defined as a persistent compulsive drive toward unattainable goals and valuation based solely in terms of accomplishment.[15] Perfectionists reject the realities and constraints of human ability. They cannot accept failures, delaying any ambitious and productive behavior in fear of failure again.[16] This neuroticism can even lead to clinical depression and low productivity.[17] As an alternative to negative perfectionism, Ben-Shahar suggests the adoption of optimalism. Optimalism allows for failure in pursuit of a goal, and expects that while the trend of activity will tend towards the positive it is not necessary to always succeed while striving to attain goals. This basis in reality prevents the optimalist from being overwhelmed in the face of failure.[14]

Optimalists accept failures and also learn from them, which encourages further pursuit of achievement.[16] Dr. Tal Ben-Shahar believes that Optimalists and Perfectionists show distinct different motives. Optimalists tend to have more intrinsic, inward desires, with a motivation to learn, while perfectionists are highly motivated by a need to consistently prove themselves worthy.[14]

Assessment[edit]

Life Orientation Test[edit]

The Life Orientation Test (LOT) was designed by Scheier and Carver (1985), and is one of the more popular tests of optimism and pessimism. There are eight items and four filler items. Four are positive (e.g. "In uncertain times, I usually expect the best") and four pessimism items e.g. "If something can go wrong for me, it will" items.[7] The LOT has been revised twice—once by the original creators (LOT-R) and also by Chang, Maydeu-Olivares, and D'Zurilla as the Extended Life Orientation Test (ELOT). All three are most commonly used because they are based on dispositional optimism, which simply means expecting positive outcomes.[8]

Attributional Style Questionnaire[edit]

This Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ) created by Peterson et al. (1982) is based on the explanatory style definition of optimism. It lists six positive and negative events ("you have been looking for a job unsuccessfully for some time"), and asks the respondents to record a possible cause for the event and rate the internality, stability, and globality of the event.[18] An optimistic person is one who perceives good things happening to them as internal, stable, and global. There are several modified versions of the ASQ including the Expanded Attributional Style Questionnaire (EASQ), the Content Analysis of Verbatim Explanations (CAVE), and the ASQ designed for testing the optimism of children.[8]

Health[edit]

Optimism and health are correlated moderately.[19] Optimism has been shown to explain between 5–10% of the variation in the likelihood of developing some health conditions (correlation coefficients between .20 and .30),[20] notably including cardiovascular disease,[21][22][23] stroke,[24] and depression.[25][26]

The relationship between optimism and health has also been studied with regards to physical symptoms, coping strategies and negative affect for those suffering from rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, and fibromyalgia.

It has been found that among individuals with these diseases, optimists are not more likely than pessimists to report pain alleviation due to coping strategies, despite differences in psychological well-being between the two groups.[27] A meta-analysis has confirmed the assumption that optimism is related to psychological well-being: “Put simply, optimists emerge from difficult circumstances with less distress than do pessimists.”[28] Furthermore, the correlation appears to be attributable to coping style: “That is, optimists seem intent on facing problems head-on, taking active and constructive steps to solve their problems; pessimists are more likely to abandon their effort to attain their goals.”[28]

Optimists may respond better to stress: pessimists have shown higher levels of cortisol (the “stress hormone”) and trouble regulating cortisol in response to stressors.[29] Another study by Scheier examined the recovery process for a number of patients that had undergone surgery.[30] The study showed that optimism was a strong predictor of the rate of recovery. Optimists achieved faster results in “behavioral milestones” such as sitting in bed, walking around, etc. They also were rated by staff as having a more favorable physical recovery. In a 6-month later follow-up, it was found that optimists were quicker to resume normal activities.

Optimism and Well-being[edit]

A number of studies have been done on optimism and psychological well-being. One study conducted by Aspinwall and Taylor (1990) assessed incoming freshmen on a range of personality factors such as optimism, self-esteem, locus of self-control, etc.[30] It was found that freshmen who scored high on optimism before entering college were reported to have lower levels of psychological distress than their more pessimistic peers, while controlling for the other personality factors. Over time, the more optimistic students were less stressed, less lonely, and less depressed than their pessimistic counterparts. Thus, this study suggests a strong link between optimism and psychological well-being.

A recent meta-analysis of optimism supported past findings that optimism is positively correlated with life satisfaction, happiness, psychological and physical well-being and negatively correlated with depression and anxiety.[31]

Seeking explanations of the correlation, researchers find that optimists choose lifestyles which may be healthier, and may influence disease. For example, optimists smoke less, are more physically active, consume more fruit, vegetables and whole-grain bread, are more moderate in their consumption of alcohol.[32]

Translating Association into modifiability[edit]

It should be noted that research to date has demonstrated that optimists are less likely to have certain diseases or develop certain diseases over time. By comparison, research has not yet been able to demonstrate the ability to change an individual's level of optimism through psychological intervention, and thereby alter the course of disease or likelihood for development of disease. Though in that same vein, an article by Mayo Clinic argues steps to change self-talk from negative to positive may shift individuals from a negative to a more positive/optimistic outlook.[33] Strategies claimed to be of value include surrounding oneself with positive people, identifying areas of change, practicing positive self-talk, being open to humor, and following a healthy lifestyle.[33]

See also[edit]

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References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/optimism
  2. ^ a b c d Bates, Timothy C. (25 February 2015). "The glass is half full and half empty: A population-representative twin study testing if optimism and pessimism are distinct systems". The Journal of Positive Psychology. doi:10.1080/17439760.2015.1015155. 
  3. ^ a b Sharot, Tali (December 2011). "The optimism bias". Current Biology 21 (23): R941–R945. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2011.10.030. 
  4. ^ a b Vaughan, Susan C. (2000). Half Empty, Half Full: Understanding the Psychological Roots of Optimism. New York: Courtyard. 
  5. ^ a b Schulman, P.; Keith, D.; Seligman, M. (1993). "Is Optimism Heritable? A Study of Twins". Behavior Research and Therapy 31 (6): 569–574. doi:10.1016/0005-7967(93)90108-7. 
  6. ^ Ron Gutman: The hidden power of smiling on YouTube
  7. ^ a b c Scheier, Michael F.; Carver, Charles S. (1985). "Optimism, coping, and health: Assessment and implications of generalized outcome expectancies.". Health Psychology 4 (3): 219–247. doi:10.1037/0278-6133.4.3.219. PMID 4029106. 
  8. ^ a b c d Gillham, Jane E.; Shatté, Andrew J.; Reivich, Karen J.; Seligman, Martin E. P. (2001). "Optimism, Pessimism, and Explanatory Style". In Chang, Edward C. Optimism and Pessimism: Implications for Theory, Research, and Practice. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. pp. 53–75. ISBN 978-1-55798-691-7. 
  9. ^ Peterson, C. (2000). "The Future of Optimism". American Psychologist 55 (1): 44–55. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.44. 
  10. ^ Abramson, L.; Dykman, B.; Needles, D. (1991). "Attributional Style and Theory: Let No One Tear Them Asunder". Psychological Inquiry 2 (1): 11–13. doi:10.1207/s15327965pli0201_2. 
  11. ^ Zullow, H. (1991). "Explanations and Expectations: Understanding the ‘Doing’ Side of Optimism". Psychological Inquiry 2 (1): 45–49. doi:10.1207/s15327965pli0201_13. 
  12. ^ Rescher, Nicholas (June 2000). "Optimalism and axiological metaphysics". The Review of Metaphysics 53 (4): 807–35. ISSN 0034-6632. 
  13. ^ Steinhart, Eric. "Platonic Atheism" (PDF). Retrieved 26 July 2011. 
  14. ^ a b c Tal Ben-Shahar (11 March 2009). The Pursuit of Perfect: How to Stop Chasing Perfection and Start Living a Richer, Happier Life. McGraw-Hill Professional. pp. 7–. ISBN 978-0-07-160882-4. Retrieved 26 July 2011. 
  15. ^ Parker, W. D.; Adkins, K. K. (1994), "Perfectionism and the gifted", Roeper Review 17 (3): 173–176, doi:10.1080/02783199509553653 
  16. ^ a b Horne, Amanda. "Positive Psychology News Daily". Retrieved July 24, 2011. 
  17. ^ Staff (May 1995), "Perfectionism: Impossible Dream", Psychology Today 
  18. ^ Peterson, Christopher; Semmel, Amy; von Baeyer, Carl; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Metalsky, Gerald I.; Seligman, Martin E. P. (September 1982). "The Attributional Style Questionnaire". Cognitive Therapy and Research 6 (3): 287–299. doi:10.1007/BF01173577. 
  19. ^ Peterson, Christopher; Park, Nansook; Kim, Eric S. (February 2012). "Can optimism decrease the risk of illness and disease among the elderly?". Aging Health 8 (1): 5–8. doi:10.2217/ahe.11.81. 
  20. ^ Peterson, Christopher; Bossio, Lisa M. (2001). "Optimism and Physical Well-Being". In Chang, Edward C. Optimism and Pessimism: Implications for Theory, Research, and Practice. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. pp. 127–145. ISBN 978-1-55798-691-7. 
  21. ^ Scheier, Michael F.; Matthews, Karen A.; Owens, Jane F. et al. (1989). "Dispositional optimism and recovery from coronary artery bypass surgery: The beneficial effects on physical and psychological well-being". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 57 (6): 1024–1040. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.57.6.1024. PMID 2614656. 
  22. ^ Kubzansky, Laura D.; Sparrow, David; Vokonas, Pantel; Kawachi, Ichiro (November 2001). "Is the Glass Half Empty or Half Full? A Prospective Study of Optimism and Coronary Heart Disease in the Normative Aging Study". Psychosomatic Medicine 63 (6): 910–916. doi:10.1097/00006842-200111000-00009. PMID 11719629. 
  23. ^ Giltay, Erik J.; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Zitman, Frans G.; Hoekstra, Tiny; Schouten, Evert G. (November 2004). "Dispositional Optimism and All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality ina Prospective Cohort of Elderly Dutch Men and Women". Archives of General Psychiatry 61 (11): 1126. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.61.11.1126. PMID 15520360. 
  24. ^ Kim, Eric S.; Park, Nansook; Peterson, Christopher (October 2011). "Dispositional Optimism Protects Older Adults From Stroke: The Health And Retirement Study". Stroke 42 (10): 2855–2859. doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.111.613448. PMID 21778446. 
  25. ^ Giltay, Erik J.; Zitman, Frans G.; Kromhout, Daan (March 2006). "Dispositional optimism and the risk of depressive symptoms during 15 years of follow-up: The Zutphen Elderly Study". Journal of Affective Disorders 91 (1): 45–52. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2005.12.027. PMID 16443281. 
  26. ^ Patton, George C.; Tollit, Michelle M.; Romaniuk, Helena; Spence, Susan H.; Sheffield, Jeannie; Sawyer, Michael G. (February 2011). "A Prospective Study of the Effects of Optimism on Adolescent Health Risks". Pediatrics 127 (2): 308–16. doi:10.1542/peds.2010-0748. PMID 21220404. 
  27. ^ Affleck, Glenn; Tennen, Howard; Apter, Andrea (2001). "Optimism, Pessimism, and Daily Life With Chronic Illness". In Chang, E. Optimism & Pessimism: Implications for Theory, Research, and Practice. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. pp. 147–168. ISBN 9781557986917. 
  28. ^ a b Scheier, Michael F.; Carver, Charles S.; Bridges, Michael W. (2001). "Optimism, Pessimism, and Psychological Well-Being". In Chang, E. Optimism & Pessimism: Implications for Theory, Research, and Practice. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. pp. 189–216. ISBN 1-55798-691-6. 
  29. ^ Bergland, Christopher. "Optimism Stabilizes Cortisol Levels and Lowers Stress."Psychology Today: Health, Help, Happiness + Find a Therapist. N.p., n.d. Web. . http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/the-athletes-way/201307/optimism-stabilizes-cortisol-levels-and-lowers-stress.
  30. ^ a b Scheier, Michael F.; Carver, Charles S. (April 1992). "Effects of optimism on psychological and physical well-being: Theoretical overview and empirical update". Cognitive Therapy and Research 16 (2): 201–228. doi:10.1007/BF01173489. 
  31. ^ Alarcon, Gene M.; Bowling, Nathan A.; Khazon, Steven (May 2013). "Great expectations: A meta-analytic examination of optimism and hope". Personality and Individual Differences 54 (7): 821–827. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2012.12.004. 
  32. ^ Giltay, Erik J.; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Zitman, Frans G.; Buijsse, Brian; Kromhout, Daan (November 2007). "Lifestyle and dietary correlates of dispositional optimism in men: The Zutphen Elderly Study". Journal of Psychosomatic Research 63 (5): 483–490. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2007.07.014. PMID 17980220. 
  33. ^ a b "Positive thinking: Stop negative self-talk to reduce stress". Mayo Clinic. March 4, 2014. Retrieved September 18, 2014. 

Mayo Clinic Staff. "Positive thinking: Stop negative self-talk to reduce stress" Mayoclinic.org. Mayo Clinic, 4 March 2014. Web. 31 March 2014.

Further reading[edit]

  • Chang, E. (2001). Optimism & Pessimism: Implications for Theory, Research, and Practice, Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. ISBN 1-55798-691-6.
  • Seligman, M.E.P., (2006). Learned Optimism: How to Change Your Mind and Your Life, Vintage, ISBN 1400078393.
  • Sharot, Tali (2012). The Optimism Bias: A Tour of the Irrationally Positive Brain, Vintage, ISBN 9780307473516.

External links[edit]